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Balık yemlerinde alternatif hammadde kaynağı: Kurutulmuş damıtma kalıntıları ve çözünür maddeleri (DDGS)

Yıl 2016, Cilt 1, Sayı 3, 87 - 91, 24.12.2016
https://doi.org/10.35229/jaes.280746

Öz

Kurutulmuş damıtma kalıntıları ve çözünür maddeleri (DDGS), başta mısır olmak üzere buğday, arpa ve sorgum gibi tahıllarda veya

karışımlarında bulunan şekerin enzim ve mayalarla fermantasyonundan sonra karbondioksitin ve etanolün ayrılması neticesinde geriye kalan kısmın kurutulması

ile elde edilen bir yem hammaddesidir. Yüksek enerji ve orta düzey protein içeriği, nispeten düşük fosfor oranı ve düşük maliyetiylesu ürünleri yem sektöründe

kullanılabilecek önemli bir alternatif yem hammadde kaynağıdır.DDGS, birçok bitkisel protein kaynağında olan anti besinsel madde içermemesi nedeniyle de

dikkat çekmektedir.Mısırdan elde edilen DDGS genel olarak, %22-37 arasında ham protein, %3-15 arasında ham yağ, %2-5 ham kül, %5-11 ham selüloz ve

düşük oranda nişasta (%4-9) içeriğine sahiptir. Yüksek miktarda doymamış yağ asidi (%86,7), linoleik asit %59, linolenik asit %7,8, DHA %0,14 ve düşük

miktarda doymuş yağ asidi (%13,6) içermektedir. Ayrıca %3,9 oranında maya, %7,6 oranında β-glukan içermesi sayesinde balıkların bağışıklık sistemine olumlu

katkı sağladığı ve patojen organizmalara karşı direnci artırdığı bildirilmektedir.

Kaynakça

  • Abo-State HA., Tahoun AM. and Hamouda YA., (2009). Effect of replacement of soybean by DDGS combined with commercial phytase on Nile tilapia. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Science, 5 (4), 473-479.
  • Anonim, (2011). Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu Dış Ticaret İstatistikleri Veritabanı, http://www.tuik.gov.tr.
  • Anonim, (2015). Türkiye Yem Sanayicileri Birliği İstatistikleri. http://www.yem.org.tr/İstatistikler.
  • Anonim, (2016). Market data. https://www.grains.org/market-data/feed-grain-exports-in-all-forms#jsoncontent (2 Mayıs 2016).
  • Aydın B., (2010). Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) yavru yeminde tavuk kesim atıkları ununun balık unu yerine kullanım olanakları. Akdeniz Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Antalya, 72s.
  • Aydın BE., (2013). Replacement of fishmeal by poultry by-product meal, supplemented with lysine, methionine, and threonine, in diets for fry of Nile tilapia (O. niloticus). Israeli Journal of Aquaculture-Bamidgeh, 65, 1-7.
  • Batal A. and Dale N., (2003). Mineral composition of distillers dried grains with solubles. The Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 12, 400-403.
  • Batal AB. and Dale NM., 2006. True metabolizable energy and amino acid digestibility of distillers dried grains with solubles. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 15 (1), 89-93.
  • Belyea RL., Rausch KD., Tumbleson ME., (2004). Composition of corn and distillers dried grains with solubles from dry grind ethanol processing. Bioresource Technology, 94 (3), 293-298.
  • Belyea, R.L., Rausch, K.D., Clevenger, T.E., Singh, V., Johnston, D.B. and Tumbleson, M.E. (2010). Sources of variation in composition of DDGS. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 159, 122-130.
  • Cheng ZJ. and Hardy RW., (2004a). Effects of microbial phytase supplementation in corn distiller’s dried grain with solubles on nutrient digestibility and growth performance of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Journal of Applied Aquaculture, 15, 83-100.
  • Cheng ZJ. and Hardy RW., (2004b). Nutritional value of diets containing distiller’s dried grain with solubles for rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus myskiss. Journal of Applied Aquaculture, 15, 101-113.
  • Chevanan N., Rosentrater KA. and Mutjukumarappan K., (2005). Utilization of distillers dried grains for fish feed by extrusion technology-a review. ASAE Annual International Meeting, Paper Number 056025, Tampa, Florida.
  • Choi J., Rahman M. and Lee S., (2014). Rice distillers dried grain is a promising ingredient as a partial replacement of plant origin sources in the diet for juvenile red seabream (Pagrus major). Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 27, 1736-1743.
  • Fastinger ND., Latshaw JD. and Mahan DC., (2006). Amino acid availability and true metabolizable energy content of corn distillers dried grains with solubles in adult cecectomized roosters. Poultry Science, 85, 1212-1216.
  • Fontaine J., Zimmer U., Moughan PJ. and Rutherfurd SM., (2007). Effect of heat damage in an autoclave on the reactive lysine contents of soy products and corn distillers dried grains with solubles. Use of the results to check on lysine damage in common qualities of these ingredients. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 55, 10737-10743.
  • Han J. and Liu K., (2010). Changes in composition and amino acid profile during dry grind ethanol processing from corn and estimation of yeast contribution toward DDGS proteins. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 58, 3430-3437.
  • Hardy RW., (2010). Utilization of plant proteins in fish diets: effects of global demand and supplies of fishmeal. Aquaculture Research, 41, 770-776.
  • Hertrampf JW. and Piedad-Pascual F., (2000). Handbook on Ingredients for Aquaculture Feeds. Kluwer Academic, Norwell, Massachusetts.
  • Kingsly ARP., Ileleji KE., Clementson CL., Garcia A., Maier DE., Stroshine RL. and Radcliff S., (2010). The effect of process variables during drying on the physical and chemical characteristics of corn dried distiller’s grains with solubles-Plant scale experiments. Bioresource Technology, 101, 193-199.
  • Krogdahl Å., Bakke-Mckellep AM. and Baeverfjord G., (2003). Effects of graded levels of standard soybean meal on intestinal structure, mucosal enzyme activities, and pancreatic response in Atlantic salmon (Salmo solar L.). Aquaculture Nutrition, 9, 361-371.
  • Li E., Lim C., Cai C. and Klesius PH., (2011a). Growth response and resistance to Streptococcus iniae of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, fed diets containing different levels of wheat distiller’s dried grains with solubles with or without lysine supplementation. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 170, 246-255.
  • Li MH., Oberle DF. and Lucas PM., (2011b). Evaluation of corn distillers dried grains with solubles and brewers yeast in diets for channel catfish Ictaluruspunctatus (Rafinesque). Aquaculture Research, 42, 1424-1430.
  • Li E., Lim C., Kelsius P. and Cai C., (2012). Enhancement effects of dietary wheat distiller’s dried grains with solubles on growth, immunity, and resistance to Edwardsiella ictaluri challenge of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 43, 814-827.
  • Lim C. and Yıldırım-Aksoy M., (2008). Distillers dried grains with solubles as an alternative protein source in fish feeds. Pages 67-82 in Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture, October 12-14, Egypt.
  • Lim C., Li E. and Klesius PH., (2011). Distiller’s dried grains with solubles as an alternative protein source in diets of tilapia. Reviews in Aquaculture, 3, 172-178.
  • Liu K. and Rosentrater KA., (2012). Distillers Grains: Production, Properties, and Utilization. CRC Press, 540 pp, Abingdon, England.
  • Magalhães R., Coutinho F., Pousão-Ferreira P., Aires T., Oliva-Teles A. and Peres H., (2015). Corn distiller's dried grains with solubles: apparent digestibility and digestive enzymes activities in European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and meagre (Argyrosomusregius). Aquaculture, 443, 90-97.
  • Martinez-Amezcua C., Parsons CM., Singh V., Srinivasan R. and Murthy GS., (2007). Nutritional characteristics of corn distillers dried grains with solubles as affected by the amounts of grains versus solubles and different processing techniques. Poultry Science, 86, 2624-2630.
  • Meriç Ş., (2010). Mısırdan eldeedilmiş DDGS’lerin bazı kalite ve risk kriterleri yönünden incelenmesi. Namık Kemal Üniversitesi, Tekirdağ, 42s.
  • NRC., (1993). Nutritional Requirements of Fish. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, USA.
  • NRC., (1994). Nutrient Requirements of Poultry. 9th Review Edition, The National Academies Press, Washington, DC, USA.
  • Øverland M., Krogdahl Å., Shurson G., Skrede A. and Denstadli V., (2013). Evaluation of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and high protein distiller’s dried grains (HPDDG) in diets for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture, 416-417, 201-208.
  • RFA., (2005). Homegrown for the Homeland: Ethanol Industry Outlook. Renewable Fuels Association. http://www.ethanolrfa.org/ objects/pdf/outlo ok/outlook_2005.pdf.
  • RFA., (2011). Ethanol Industry Outlook. Renewable Fuels Association.Washington DC. http://www.ethanolrfa.org/pages/ annual-industry-outlook.
  • RFA., (2013). U.S. Fuel Ethanol Industry Biorefieneries and Production Capacity. Renewable Fuels Association. Washington DC. http://www.ethanolrfa.org/industry/locations/
  • Robinson EH. and Li MH., (2008). Replacement of soybean meal in channel catfish, Ictaluruspunctatus, diets with cottonseed meal and distiller’s dried grains with solubles. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 39, 521-527.
  • Rosentrater KA. and Muthukumarappan K., (2006). Corn ethanol co-products: generation, properties, and future prospects. International Sugar Journal, 108, 648-657.
  • Salim HM., Kruk ZA. and Lee BD., (2010). Nutritive value of corn distillers dried grains with solubles as an ingredient of poultry diets: A review. World's Poultry Science Journal, 66, 411-432.
  • Schaeffer TW., Brown ML. and Rosentrater KL., (2011). Effects of dietary distillers dried grains with solubles and soybean meal on extruded pellet characteristics and growth responses of juvenile yellow perch. North American Journal of Aquaculture, 73, 270-278.
  • Shelby RA., Lim C., Yıldırım-Aksoy M. and Klesius PH., (2008). Effect of distillers dried grains with solubles incorporated diets on growth, immune function and disease resistance in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.). Aquaculture Research, 39, 1351-1353.
  • Spiehs MJ., Whitney MH. and Shurson GC., (2002). Nutrient database for distiller’s dried grains with solubles produced from new ethanol plants in Minnesota and South Dakota. Journal of Animal Science, 80 (10), 2639-2645.
  • Thiessen DL., Campbell GL. and Tyler RT., (2003). Utilization of thin distillers solubles as a palatability enhancer in rainbow trout diets containing canola meal or air-classified pea protein. Aquaculture Nutrition, 9, 1-10.
  • Tusche K., Wuertz S., Susenbeth A. and Schultz C., (2011). Feeding fish according to organic aquaculture guidelines EC 710/2009: Influence of potato protein concentrates containing various glycoalkaloid levels on health status and growth performance of rainbow trout. Aquaculture, 319, 122-131.

Alternative feed ingredients in fish diets: Distiller's dried grains with solubles

Yıl 2016, Cilt 1, Sayı 3, 87 - 91, 24.12.2016
https://doi.org/10.35229/jaes.280746

Öz

Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is the result of the separation of carbon dioxide and ethanol after fermentation of the sugars

found in the grains. DDGS is an important alternative feed raw material that can be used in the aquaculture feed due to its high energy and medium protein

content, relatively low phosphorus ratio and low cost. DDGS is also attracting attention due to the lack of anti-nutritional substances in many plant protein sources.

Corn DDGS generally has between 22-37% crude protein, 3-15% crude fat, 2-5% crude ash, 5-11% crude cellulose and low starch (4-9%) content. DDGS contains

high amount of unsaturated fatty acids (86.7%), linoleic acid 59%, linolenic acid 7.8%, DHA 0.14% and low amount of saturated fatty acids (13.6%). It is also

reported that fish contain 3.9% of yeast and 7.6% of β-glucan contribute positively to the immune system of the fish and increase resistance to pathogenic

organisms.

Kaynakça

  • Abo-State HA., Tahoun AM. and Hamouda YA., (2009). Effect of replacement of soybean by DDGS combined with commercial phytase on Nile tilapia. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Science, 5 (4), 473-479.
  • Anonim, (2011). Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu Dış Ticaret İstatistikleri Veritabanı, http://www.tuik.gov.tr.
  • Anonim, (2015). Türkiye Yem Sanayicileri Birliği İstatistikleri. http://www.yem.org.tr/İstatistikler.
  • Anonim, (2016). Market data. https://www.grains.org/market-data/feed-grain-exports-in-all-forms#jsoncontent (2 Mayıs 2016).
  • Aydın B., (2010). Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) yavru yeminde tavuk kesim atıkları ununun balık unu yerine kullanım olanakları. Akdeniz Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Antalya, 72s.
  • Aydın BE., (2013). Replacement of fishmeal by poultry by-product meal, supplemented with lysine, methionine, and threonine, in diets for fry of Nile tilapia (O. niloticus). Israeli Journal of Aquaculture-Bamidgeh, 65, 1-7.
  • Batal A. and Dale N., (2003). Mineral composition of distillers dried grains with solubles. The Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 12, 400-403.
  • Batal AB. and Dale NM., 2006. True metabolizable energy and amino acid digestibility of distillers dried grains with solubles. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 15 (1), 89-93.
  • Belyea RL., Rausch KD., Tumbleson ME., (2004). Composition of corn and distillers dried grains with solubles from dry grind ethanol processing. Bioresource Technology, 94 (3), 293-298.
  • Belyea, R.L., Rausch, K.D., Clevenger, T.E., Singh, V., Johnston, D.B. and Tumbleson, M.E. (2010). Sources of variation in composition of DDGS. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 159, 122-130.
  • Cheng ZJ. and Hardy RW., (2004a). Effects of microbial phytase supplementation in corn distiller’s dried grain with solubles on nutrient digestibility and growth performance of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Journal of Applied Aquaculture, 15, 83-100.
  • Cheng ZJ. and Hardy RW., (2004b). Nutritional value of diets containing distiller’s dried grain with solubles for rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus myskiss. Journal of Applied Aquaculture, 15, 101-113.
  • Chevanan N., Rosentrater KA. and Mutjukumarappan K., (2005). Utilization of distillers dried grains for fish feed by extrusion technology-a review. ASAE Annual International Meeting, Paper Number 056025, Tampa, Florida.
  • Choi J., Rahman M. and Lee S., (2014). Rice distillers dried grain is a promising ingredient as a partial replacement of plant origin sources in the diet for juvenile red seabream (Pagrus major). Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 27, 1736-1743.
  • Fastinger ND., Latshaw JD. and Mahan DC., (2006). Amino acid availability and true metabolizable energy content of corn distillers dried grains with solubles in adult cecectomized roosters. Poultry Science, 85, 1212-1216.
  • Fontaine J., Zimmer U., Moughan PJ. and Rutherfurd SM., (2007). Effect of heat damage in an autoclave on the reactive lysine contents of soy products and corn distillers dried grains with solubles. Use of the results to check on lysine damage in common qualities of these ingredients. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 55, 10737-10743.
  • Han J. and Liu K., (2010). Changes in composition and amino acid profile during dry grind ethanol processing from corn and estimation of yeast contribution toward DDGS proteins. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 58, 3430-3437.
  • Hardy RW., (2010). Utilization of plant proteins in fish diets: effects of global demand and supplies of fishmeal. Aquaculture Research, 41, 770-776.
  • Hertrampf JW. and Piedad-Pascual F., (2000). Handbook on Ingredients for Aquaculture Feeds. Kluwer Academic, Norwell, Massachusetts.
  • Kingsly ARP., Ileleji KE., Clementson CL., Garcia A., Maier DE., Stroshine RL. and Radcliff S., (2010). The effect of process variables during drying on the physical and chemical characteristics of corn dried distiller’s grains with solubles-Plant scale experiments. Bioresource Technology, 101, 193-199.
  • Krogdahl Å., Bakke-Mckellep AM. and Baeverfjord G., (2003). Effects of graded levels of standard soybean meal on intestinal structure, mucosal enzyme activities, and pancreatic response in Atlantic salmon (Salmo solar L.). Aquaculture Nutrition, 9, 361-371.
  • Li E., Lim C., Cai C. and Klesius PH., (2011a). Growth response and resistance to Streptococcus iniae of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, fed diets containing different levels of wheat distiller’s dried grains with solubles with or without lysine supplementation. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 170, 246-255.
  • Li MH., Oberle DF. and Lucas PM., (2011b). Evaluation of corn distillers dried grains with solubles and brewers yeast in diets for channel catfish Ictaluruspunctatus (Rafinesque). Aquaculture Research, 42, 1424-1430.
  • Li E., Lim C., Kelsius P. and Cai C., (2012). Enhancement effects of dietary wheat distiller’s dried grains with solubles on growth, immunity, and resistance to Edwardsiella ictaluri challenge of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 43, 814-827.
  • Lim C. and Yıldırım-Aksoy M., (2008). Distillers dried grains with solubles as an alternative protein source in fish feeds. Pages 67-82 in Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture, October 12-14, Egypt.
  • Lim C., Li E. and Klesius PH., (2011). Distiller’s dried grains with solubles as an alternative protein source in diets of tilapia. Reviews in Aquaculture, 3, 172-178.
  • Liu K. and Rosentrater KA., (2012). Distillers Grains: Production, Properties, and Utilization. CRC Press, 540 pp, Abingdon, England.
  • Magalhães R., Coutinho F., Pousão-Ferreira P., Aires T., Oliva-Teles A. and Peres H., (2015). Corn distiller's dried grains with solubles: apparent digestibility and digestive enzymes activities in European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and meagre (Argyrosomusregius). Aquaculture, 443, 90-97.
  • Martinez-Amezcua C., Parsons CM., Singh V., Srinivasan R. and Murthy GS., (2007). Nutritional characteristics of corn distillers dried grains with solubles as affected by the amounts of grains versus solubles and different processing techniques. Poultry Science, 86, 2624-2630.
  • Meriç Ş., (2010). Mısırdan eldeedilmiş DDGS’lerin bazı kalite ve risk kriterleri yönünden incelenmesi. Namık Kemal Üniversitesi, Tekirdağ, 42s.
  • NRC., (1993). Nutritional Requirements of Fish. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, USA.
  • NRC., (1994). Nutrient Requirements of Poultry. 9th Review Edition, The National Academies Press, Washington, DC, USA.
  • Øverland M., Krogdahl Å., Shurson G., Skrede A. and Denstadli V., (2013). Evaluation of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and high protein distiller’s dried grains (HPDDG) in diets for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture, 416-417, 201-208.
  • RFA., (2005). Homegrown for the Homeland: Ethanol Industry Outlook. Renewable Fuels Association. http://www.ethanolrfa.org/ objects/pdf/outlo ok/outlook_2005.pdf.
  • RFA., (2011). Ethanol Industry Outlook. Renewable Fuels Association.Washington DC. http://www.ethanolrfa.org/pages/ annual-industry-outlook.
  • RFA., (2013). U.S. Fuel Ethanol Industry Biorefieneries and Production Capacity. Renewable Fuels Association. Washington DC. http://www.ethanolrfa.org/industry/locations/
  • Robinson EH. and Li MH., (2008). Replacement of soybean meal in channel catfish, Ictaluruspunctatus, diets with cottonseed meal and distiller’s dried grains with solubles. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 39, 521-527.
  • Rosentrater KA. and Muthukumarappan K., (2006). Corn ethanol co-products: generation, properties, and future prospects. International Sugar Journal, 108, 648-657.
  • Salim HM., Kruk ZA. and Lee BD., (2010). Nutritive value of corn distillers dried grains with solubles as an ingredient of poultry diets: A review. World's Poultry Science Journal, 66, 411-432.
  • Schaeffer TW., Brown ML. and Rosentrater KL., (2011). Effects of dietary distillers dried grains with solubles and soybean meal on extruded pellet characteristics and growth responses of juvenile yellow perch. North American Journal of Aquaculture, 73, 270-278.
  • Shelby RA., Lim C., Yıldırım-Aksoy M. and Klesius PH., (2008). Effect of distillers dried grains with solubles incorporated diets on growth, immune function and disease resistance in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.). Aquaculture Research, 39, 1351-1353.
  • Spiehs MJ., Whitney MH. and Shurson GC., (2002). Nutrient database for distiller’s dried grains with solubles produced from new ethanol plants in Minnesota and South Dakota. Journal of Animal Science, 80 (10), 2639-2645.
  • Thiessen DL., Campbell GL. and Tyler RT., (2003). Utilization of thin distillers solubles as a palatability enhancer in rainbow trout diets containing canola meal or air-classified pea protein. Aquaculture Nutrition, 9, 1-10.
  • Tusche K., Wuertz S., Susenbeth A. and Schultz C., (2011). Feeding fish according to organic aquaculture guidelines EC 710/2009: Influence of potato protein concentrates containing various glycoalkaloid levels on health status and growth performance of rainbow trout. Aquaculture, 319, 122-131.

Ayrıntılar

Konular Fen
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Baki AYDIN>

0000-0003-4010-1060


Erkan GÜMÜŞ>

0000-0002-2679-8642

Yayımlanma Tarihi 24 Aralık 2016
Gönderilme Tarihi 24 Aralık 2016
Kabul Tarihi
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2016, Cilt 1, Sayı 3

Kaynak Göster

APA Aydın, B. & Gümüş, E. (2016). Alternative feed ingredients in fish diets: Distiller's dried grains with solubles . Journal of Anatolian Environmental and Animal Sciences , 1 (3) , 87-91 . DOI: 10.35229/jaes.280746


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