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Systems Thinking Approach in Science Education

Yıl 2021, Cilt 6, Sayı 1, 107 - 132, 31.03.2021
https://doi.org/10.37995/jotcsc.889340

Öz

Currently, humans are faced with severe ecological and social problems. The complex nature of these problems (climate change, water crisis, social and economic injustices etc.) creates an issue regarding how to approach these problems. Obviously, these problems are challenging to solve with a single discipline, but a holistic perspective is necessary. It is a serious situation with which skills individuals should be raised in order to solve these problems. Different educational approaches have come to the fore and are aimed to achieve these skills. Within this study's scope, the systems thinking approach's potential to be one of the innovative approaches suitable for these problems is emphasized. In this context, based on the existing literature, the definition of the systems thinking approach, its short historical development, the skills that can be evaluated within this scope and how these skills can be developed are explained. The relationship between the STEM education approach and context-based learning approach, and systems thinking approach was briefly discussed in the conclusion part. Authors think it will be valuable and explanatory for researchers who wonder what the systems thinking approach is and what skills it is associated with.

Kaynakça

  • Akarsu, M., Okur Akçay, N. & Elmas, R. (2020). STEM eğitimi yaklaşımının özellikleri ve değerlendirilmesi. Boğaziçi Üniversitesi Eğitim Dergisi, 37, 155-175.
  • Aranda, M. L., Lie, R. ve Guzey, S. S. (2020). Productive thinking in middle school science students’ design conversations in a design-based engineering challenge. International Journal of Technology and Design Education, 30(1), 67-81.
  • Aranda, M. L., Lie, R., Guzey, S. S., Akarsu, M., Johnston, A. ve Moore, T. J. (2020). Examining teacher talk in an engineering design-based science curricular unit. Research in Science Education, 50(2), 469-487.
  • Arnold, R. D., & Wade, J. P. (2015). A definition of systems thinking: A systems approach. Procedia Computer Science, 44, 669–678. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2015.03.050
  • Ben-Zvi Assaraf, O. & Orion, N. (2005). Development of system thinking skills in the context of earth system education. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 42(5), 518-560. https://doi.org/10.1002/tea.20061
  • Ben‐Zvi Assaraf, O. & Orion, N. (2010). Four case studies, six years later: Developing system thinking skills in junior high school and sustaining them over time. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 47(10), 1253-1280.
  • Boardman, J., & Sauser, B. (2008). Systems thinking. CRC Press. https://doi.org/10.1201/9781420054927
  • Çiğdemoğlu, C., & Geban, Ö. (2015). Improving students‟ chemical literacy levels on thermochemical and thermodynamics concepts through a context-based approach. Chemistry Education Research and Practice, 16(2), 302-317.
  • Elmas, R. & Eryılmaz, A. (2015). Bağlam temelli fen soru yazımı: Kriterler ve efsaneler. Kuramsal Eğitimbilim Dergisi, 8(4), 564-580.
  • Elmas, R. & Gül, M. (2020). STEM Eğitim yaklaşımının 2018 fen bilimleri öğretim programı kapsamında uygulanabilirliğinin incelenmesi. Türkiye Kimya Derneği Dergisi Kısım C: Kimya Eğitimi, 5(2), 224-247.
  • Elmas, R. (2020). Bağlamın anlamı ve nitelikleri ve öğrencilerin fen eğitiminde bağlam tercihleri. Türkiye Kimya Derneği Dergisi Kısım C: Kimya Eğitimi, 5(1), 53-70.
  • Elmas, R., & Geban, Ö. (2016). The effect of context based chemistry ınstruction on 9th grade students' understanding of cleaning agents topic and their attitude toward environment. Eğitim ve Bilim, 41(185), 33-50.
  • Elmas, R., Öztürk, N., Irmak, M., & Cobern, W. W. (2014). An investigation of teacher response to national science curriculum reforms in Turkey. International Journal of Physics & Chemistry Education, 6(1), 2-33.
  • Evagorou, M., Korfiatis, K., Nicolaou, C., & Constantinou, C. (2009). An investigation of the potential of interactive simulations for developing system thinking skills in elementary school: a case study with fifth‐graders and sixth‐graders. International Journal of Science Education, 31(5), 655-674.
  • Forrester, J. W. (1968). Principles of systems. Wright-Allen Press.
  • Karaaslan-Semiz, G., & Teksöz, G. (2019). Sistemsel düşünme becerilerinin tanımlanması, ölçülmesi ve değerlendirilmesi üzerine bir çalışma: Kavram haritaları. Başkent University Journal of Education, 6(1), 111-126.
  • Kelley, T. R., & Knowles, J. G. (2016). A conceptual framework for integrated STEM education. International Journal of STEM Education, 3(1), 1-11.
  • Liu, L., & Hmelo‐Silver, C. E. (2009). Promoting complex systems learning through the use of conceptual representations in hypermedia. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 46(9), 1023-1040.
  • Maani, K. E., & Maharaj, V. (2004). Links between systems thinking and complex decision making. System Dynamics Review, 20(1), 21–48. https://doi.org/10.1002/sdr.281
  • Mahaffy, P. G., Krief, A., Hopf, H., Mehta, G., & Matlin, S. A. (2018). Reorienting chemistry education through systems thinking. Nature Reviews Chemistry, 2(4), 1-3.
  • Mahaffy, P. G., Matlin, S. A., Holme, T. A., & MacKellar, J. (2019). Systems thinking for education about the molecular basis of sustainability. Nature Sustainability, 2(5), 362-370.
  • Mandinach, E. B. (1989). Model-building and the use of computer simulation of dynamic systems. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 5(2), 221–243. https://doi.org/10.2190/7w4f-xy0h-l6fh-39r8
  • Moore, T. J., Miller, R. L., Lesh, R. A., Stohlmann, M. S. ve Kim, Y. R. (2013). Modeling in engineering: The role of representational fluency in students’ conceptual understanding. Journal of Engineering Education, 102(1), 141- 178.
  • Orgill, M. K., York, S., & MacKellar, J. (2019). Introduction to Systems Thinking for the Chemistry Education Community. Journal of Chemical Education, 96(12), 2720–2729. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jchemed.9b00169
  • Pazicni, S., & Flynn, A. B. (2019). Systems Thinking in Chemistry Education: Theoretical Challenges and Opportunities. Journal of Chemical Education, 96(12), 2752-2763.
  • Penner, D. E. (2000). Explaining systems: Investigating middle school students’ understanding of emergent phenomena. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 37(8), 784–806. https://doi.org/10.1002/1098-2736(200010)37:8<784::AID-TEA3>3.0.CO;2-E
  • Peşman, H., & Özdemir, Ö. F. (2012). Approach–method interaction: The role of teaching method on the effect of context-based approach in physics instruction. International Journal of Science Education, 34(14), 2127-2145.
  • Richmond, B. (1993). Systems thinking: Critical thinking skills for the 1990s and beyond. System Dynamics Review, 9(2), 113–133. https://doi.org/10.1002/sdr.4260090203
  • Richmond, B. (1997). The “Thinking” in systems thinking: How can we make it easier to master? Systems Thinker, 8(2), 1−5.
  • Ritchie, T. A. (2017). Developing and Measuring Systems Thinking Skills in Students and Teachers [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. University of Florida.
  • Schuler, S., Fanta, D., Rosenkraenzer, F., & Riess, W. (2018). Systems thinking within the scope of education for sustainable development (ESD)–a heuristic competence model as a basis for (science) teacher education. Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 42(2), 192-204.
  • Senge, P. M. (1990). The fifth discipline: The art & practice of the learning organization. Currency Doubleday. https://doi.org/10.1201/9780429196607-10
  • Senge, P. M. (2006). The fifth discipline: The art and practice of the learning organization. Random House, London, UK
  • Stave, K. A., & Hopper, M. (2007, July 29 – August 2). What Constitutes Systems Thinking? A Proposed Taxonomy [Conference presentation]. 25th International Conference of the System Dynamics Society, Boston, MA, United States. https://systemdynamics.org/wp-content/uploads/assets/proceedings/2007/2007proceed.html
  • Sweeney, L. B., & Sterman, J. D. (2000). Bathtub dynamics: initial results of a systems thinking inventory. System Dynamics Review, 16(4), 249–286. https://doi.org/10.1002/sdr.198
  • Şenaras, A. E., & Sezen, H. K. (2017). Sistem düşüncesi. Journal of Life Economics, 4(1), 39-58.
  • Tecim, V. (2004). Sistem yaklaşımı ve soft sistem düşüncesi. Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi İktisadi İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, 19(2), 75-100.
  • The nine planetary boundaries (n.d.). 20 Kasım tarihinde adresinden alınmıştır. https://www.stockholmresilience.org/research/planetary-boundaries/planetary-boundaries/about-the-research/the-nine-planetary-boundaries.html
  • UNDP Türkiye. (n.d.). 19 Kasim 2020 tarihinde adresinden alınmıştır. https://www.tr.undp.org/content/turkey/tr/home.html
  • Verhoeff, R. P., Knippels, M. P. J., Gilissen, M. G. R., & Boersma, K. T. (2018). The theoretical nature of systems thinking. Perspectives on systems thinking in biology education. Frontiers in Education, 3(40). https://doi.org/103389/feduc.2018.00040

Fen Eğitiminde Yeni Bir Yaklaşım Olarak Sistemsel Düşünme

Yıl 2021, Cilt 6, Sayı 1, 107 - 132, 31.03.2021
https://doi.org/10.37995/jotcsc.889340

Öz

Günümüzde ekolojik ve toplumsal alan ile ilgili ciddi sorunlar ile karşı karşıya kalmış durumdayız. İklim değişikliği, su krizi, sosyal ve ekonomik adaletsizlikler gibi sorunların karmaşık yapısı bu sorunlara nasıl yaklaşılması gerektiği ile ilgili belirsizliklere neden olmaktadır. Çünkü söz konusu sorunların tek bir disiplin bağlamında çözümü zordur; bu sorunların çözümü için bütüncül bir bakış açısının gerekli olduğu aşikârdır. Sorunların çözülebilmesi için bireylerin hangi beceriler kapsamında yetiştirilmesi gerektiği önemli bir husustur. Bireylere bu becerileri kazandırabilmek için farklı eğitim yaklaşımları gündeme gelmiştir ve kullanılmaktadır. Bu çalışma kapsamında, sistemsel düşünme yaklaşımının ekolojik ve toplumsal konularda karşılaşılan sorunların çözümü için yenilikçi yaklaşımlardan biri olma potansiyeli üzerinde durulmuştur. Bu kapsamda, var olan alanyazına dayanılarak sistemsel düşünme yaklaşımının tanımı, kısa tarihsel gelişimi, bu kapsam da değerlendirilebilecek olan beceriler ve bu becerilerin nasıl geliştirilebileceği açıklanmıştır. Ayrıca, STEM eğitimi yaklaşımı ve bağlam temelli öğrenme yaklaşımı ile sistemsel düşünme yaklaşımının ilişkisi de çalışma kapsamında kısaca ele alınmıştır. Çalışmanın; sistemsel düşünme yaklaşımının ne olduğunu ve hangi beceriler ile ilişkilendirildiğini merak eden araştırmacılar için faydalı ve yol gösterici olacağı, alanyazın birikimine katkı sağlayacağı düşünülmektedir.

Kaynakça

  • Akarsu, M., Okur Akçay, N. & Elmas, R. (2020). STEM eğitimi yaklaşımının özellikleri ve değerlendirilmesi. Boğaziçi Üniversitesi Eğitim Dergisi, 37, 155-175.
  • Aranda, M. L., Lie, R. ve Guzey, S. S. (2020). Productive thinking in middle school science students’ design conversations in a design-based engineering challenge. International Journal of Technology and Design Education, 30(1), 67-81.
  • Aranda, M. L., Lie, R., Guzey, S. S., Akarsu, M., Johnston, A. ve Moore, T. J. (2020). Examining teacher talk in an engineering design-based science curricular unit. Research in Science Education, 50(2), 469-487.
  • Arnold, R. D., & Wade, J. P. (2015). A definition of systems thinking: A systems approach. Procedia Computer Science, 44, 669–678. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2015.03.050
  • Ben-Zvi Assaraf, O. & Orion, N. (2005). Development of system thinking skills in the context of earth system education. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 42(5), 518-560. https://doi.org/10.1002/tea.20061
  • Ben‐Zvi Assaraf, O. & Orion, N. (2010). Four case studies, six years later: Developing system thinking skills in junior high school and sustaining them over time. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 47(10), 1253-1280.
  • Boardman, J., & Sauser, B. (2008). Systems thinking. CRC Press. https://doi.org/10.1201/9781420054927
  • Çiğdemoğlu, C., & Geban, Ö. (2015). Improving students‟ chemical literacy levels on thermochemical and thermodynamics concepts through a context-based approach. Chemistry Education Research and Practice, 16(2), 302-317.
  • Elmas, R. & Eryılmaz, A. (2015). Bağlam temelli fen soru yazımı: Kriterler ve efsaneler. Kuramsal Eğitimbilim Dergisi, 8(4), 564-580.
  • Elmas, R. & Gül, M. (2020). STEM Eğitim yaklaşımının 2018 fen bilimleri öğretim programı kapsamında uygulanabilirliğinin incelenmesi. Türkiye Kimya Derneği Dergisi Kısım C: Kimya Eğitimi, 5(2), 224-247.
  • Elmas, R. (2020). Bağlamın anlamı ve nitelikleri ve öğrencilerin fen eğitiminde bağlam tercihleri. Türkiye Kimya Derneği Dergisi Kısım C: Kimya Eğitimi, 5(1), 53-70.
  • Elmas, R., & Geban, Ö. (2016). The effect of context based chemistry ınstruction on 9th grade students' understanding of cleaning agents topic and their attitude toward environment. Eğitim ve Bilim, 41(185), 33-50.
  • Elmas, R., Öztürk, N., Irmak, M., & Cobern, W. W. (2014). An investigation of teacher response to national science curriculum reforms in Turkey. International Journal of Physics & Chemistry Education, 6(1), 2-33.
  • Evagorou, M., Korfiatis, K., Nicolaou, C., & Constantinou, C. (2009). An investigation of the potential of interactive simulations for developing system thinking skills in elementary school: a case study with fifth‐graders and sixth‐graders. International Journal of Science Education, 31(5), 655-674.
  • Forrester, J. W. (1968). Principles of systems. Wright-Allen Press.
  • Karaaslan-Semiz, G., & Teksöz, G. (2019). Sistemsel düşünme becerilerinin tanımlanması, ölçülmesi ve değerlendirilmesi üzerine bir çalışma: Kavram haritaları. Başkent University Journal of Education, 6(1), 111-126.
  • Kelley, T. R., & Knowles, J. G. (2016). A conceptual framework for integrated STEM education. International Journal of STEM Education, 3(1), 1-11.
  • Liu, L., & Hmelo‐Silver, C. E. (2009). Promoting complex systems learning through the use of conceptual representations in hypermedia. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 46(9), 1023-1040.
  • Maani, K. E., & Maharaj, V. (2004). Links between systems thinking and complex decision making. System Dynamics Review, 20(1), 21–48. https://doi.org/10.1002/sdr.281
  • Mahaffy, P. G., Krief, A., Hopf, H., Mehta, G., & Matlin, S. A. (2018). Reorienting chemistry education through systems thinking. Nature Reviews Chemistry, 2(4), 1-3.
  • Mahaffy, P. G., Matlin, S. A., Holme, T. A., & MacKellar, J. (2019). Systems thinking for education about the molecular basis of sustainability. Nature Sustainability, 2(5), 362-370.
  • Mandinach, E. B. (1989). Model-building and the use of computer simulation of dynamic systems. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 5(2), 221–243. https://doi.org/10.2190/7w4f-xy0h-l6fh-39r8
  • Moore, T. J., Miller, R. L., Lesh, R. A., Stohlmann, M. S. ve Kim, Y. R. (2013). Modeling in engineering: The role of representational fluency in students’ conceptual understanding. Journal of Engineering Education, 102(1), 141- 178.
  • Orgill, M. K., York, S., & MacKellar, J. (2019). Introduction to Systems Thinking for the Chemistry Education Community. Journal of Chemical Education, 96(12), 2720–2729. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jchemed.9b00169
  • Pazicni, S., & Flynn, A. B. (2019). Systems Thinking in Chemistry Education: Theoretical Challenges and Opportunities. Journal of Chemical Education, 96(12), 2752-2763.
  • Penner, D. E. (2000). Explaining systems: Investigating middle school students’ understanding of emergent phenomena. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 37(8), 784–806. https://doi.org/10.1002/1098-2736(200010)37:8<784::AID-TEA3>3.0.CO;2-E
  • Peşman, H., & Özdemir, Ö. F. (2012). Approach–method interaction: The role of teaching method on the effect of context-based approach in physics instruction. International Journal of Science Education, 34(14), 2127-2145.
  • Richmond, B. (1993). Systems thinking: Critical thinking skills for the 1990s and beyond. System Dynamics Review, 9(2), 113–133. https://doi.org/10.1002/sdr.4260090203
  • Richmond, B. (1997). The “Thinking” in systems thinking: How can we make it easier to master? Systems Thinker, 8(2), 1−5.
  • Ritchie, T. A. (2017). Developing and Measuring Systems Thinking Skills in Students and Teachers [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. University of Florida.
  • Schuler, S., Fanta, D., Rosenkraenzer, F., & Riess, W. (2018). Systems thinking within the scope of education for sustainable development (ESD)–a heuristic competence model as a basis for (science) teacher education. Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 42(2), 192-204.
  • Senge, P. M. (1990). The fifth discipline: The art & practice of the learning organization. Currency Doubleday. https://doi.org/10.1201/9780429196607-10
  • Senge, P. M. (2006). The fifth discipline: The art and practice of the learning organization. Random House, London, UK
  • Stave, K. A., & Hopper, M. (2007, July 29 – August 2). What Constitutes Systems Thinking? A Proposed Taxonomy [Conference presentation]. 25th International Conference of the System Dynamics Society, Boston, MA, United States. https://systemdynamics.org/wp-content/uploads/assets/proceedings/2007/2007proceed.html
  • Sweeney, L. B., & Sterman, J. D. (2000). Bathtub dynamics: initial results of a systems thinking inventory. System Dynamics Review, 16(4), 249–286. https://doi.org/10.1002/sdr.198
  • Şenaras, A. E., & Sezen, H. K. (2017). Sistem düşüncesi. Journal of Life Economics, 4(1), 39-58.
  • Tecim, V. (2004). Sistem yaklaşımı ve soft sistem düşüncesi. Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi İktisadi İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, 19(2), 75-100.
  • The nine planetary boundaries (n.d.). 20 Kasım tarihinde adresinden alınmıştır. https://www.stockholmresilience.org/research/planetary-boundaries/planetary-boundaries/about-the-research/the-nine-planetary-boundaries.html
  • UNDP Türkiye. (n.d.). 19 Kasim 2020 tarihinde adresinden alınmıştır. https://www.tr.undp.org/content/turkey/tr/home.html
  • Verhoeff, R. P., Knippels, M. P. J., Gilissen, M. G. R., & Boersma, K. T. (2018). The theoretical nature of systems thinking. Perspectives on systems thinking in biology education. Frontiers in Education, 3(40). https://doi.org/103389/feduc.2018.00040

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Eğitim, Eğitim Araştırmaları
Bölüm Araştırma makaleleri
Yazarlar

Rıdvan ELMAS
AFYON KOCATEPE ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0001-7769-2525
Türkiye


Harika Özge ARSLAN
DÜZCE ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0003-1620-6559
Türkiye


Savaş PAMUK (Sorumlu Yazar)
AKDENİZ ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0001-8661-4262
Türkiye


Haki PESMAN
FIRAT ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0003-4778-2735
Türkiye


Mustafa SÖZBİLİR
ATATÜRK ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0001-6334-9080
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 31 Mart 2021
Başvuru Tarihi 1 Mart 2021
Kabul Tarihi 23 Mart 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 6, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

APA Elmas, R. , Arslan, H. Ö. , Pamuk, S. , Pesman, H. & Sözbilir, M. (2021). Fen Eğitiminde Yeni Bir Yaklaşım Olarak Sistemsel Düşünme . Turkiye Kimya Dernegi Dergisi Kısım C: Kimya Egitimi , 6 (1) , 107-132 . DOI: 10.37995/jotcsc.889340