Araştırma Makalesi
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Eye Injuries in Cats with Head Trauma

Yıl 2021, Cilt 14, Sayı 4, 482 - 491, 31.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.30607/kvj.1008772

Öz

Head trauma may lead to damage of soft tissue and bones of skull by an external force. The modified Glasgow coma scale (mGCS) is used to evaluate the prognosis and classify the neurological status of cats and dogs with head trauma. The aim of this study is determine the ophtalmic pathologies and the incidence of these pathologies as a result of head trauma in cats. In addition, any possible correlation between intraocular pressure (IOP) and mGCS will be investigated in traumatized cats. The animal material of the study consisted of 18 cats with acute head trauma. The animals were properly restricted so that mGCS scores were recorded. Systematic eye examination was performed as far as the clinical condition of the patient allowed during the clinical examination and treatment of the traumatized cats. Proptosis was observed in 4 cats (22.22%) as unilaterally in 3 cats and bilaterally in 1 cat. Subconjunctival hemorrhage was observed in 7 cats (38.88%) as bilaterally in 2 cats and unilaterally in 5 cats. Unilateral hyphema was observed in 2 cats (11.11%). Three cats had anisocoria (16.66%), 2 cats had unilateral nystagmus (11.11%), and 1 cat had unilateral Horner's syndrome (5.55%). In cats with glaucoma the median mGCS was 8 (score 4-15), while non-glaucoma the median mGCS was 9 (score 6-14). However, no statistical correlation was found between mGCS and glaucoma (p>0.05). The results of this study indicate that glaucoma, subconjunctival hemorrhage and proptosis are the most common pathologies in cats with head trauma and these pathologies should not be ignored during the intervention of the head trauma patients. In addition, it is thought that irreversible loss of vision can be prevented by frequently repeated IOP measurements, regardless of the mGCS score, in cases with head trauma.

Kaynakça

  • Adamantos S, Garosi L. Head trauma in the cat: 1. Assessment and management of craniofacial injury. J Feline Med Surg. 2011; 13(11):806–814.
  • Barnes Heller H, Bentley E. Neurologic causes of canine anisocoria. Today’s Vet Pract. 2016; 77–83.
  • Bonner SE, Reiter AM, Lewis JR. Orofacial manifestations of high-rise syndrome in cats: A retrospective study of 84 cases. J Vet Dent. 2012; 29(1):10–18.
  • Dewey C, Fletcher D. Head-trauma management. In: Practical Guide to Canine and Feline Neurology, Ed; Dewey C, da Costa RC, 3rd Ed., Wiley Blackwell, 2015; pp. 237–248.
  • DiFazio J, Fletcher DJ. Updates in the management of the small animal patient with neurologic trauma. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2013; 43(4):915–940.
  • Garosi L, Adamantos S. Head trauma in the cat: 2. Assessment and management of traumatic brain injury. J Feline Med Surg. 2011; 13(11):815–823.
  • Kaur S, Kaushik S, Singh Pandav S. Traumatic glaucoma in children. J Curr Glaucoma Pract. 2014; 8(2):58–62.
  • Knight R, Meeson RL. Feline head trauma: a CT analysis of skull fractures and their management in 75 cats. J Feline Med Surg. 2019; 21(12):1120–1126.
  • Kolata RJ. Trauma in dogs and cats: An overview. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 1980; 10(3):515–522.
  • Kuo KW, Bacek LM, Taylor AR. Head trauma. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2018; 48(1):111–128.
  • Laffey JG, Kavanagh BP. Hypocapnia. N Engl J Med. 2002; 347(1):43–53.
  • Mandell DC, Holt E. Ophthalmic emergencies. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2005; 35(2):455–480.
  • Opperman E. Head trauma in the feline patient – an update. Vet Nurs J. 2014; 29(6):194–197.
  • Platt S. Treatment options for head trauma patients. 33rd World Small Anim Vet Congr. Dublin: WSAVG; 2008.
  • Platt S, Olby N. Neurological emergencies. In: BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Neurology, Ed; Platt S, Olby N, 4th Ed., BSAVA. 2004; pp. 320–336.
  • Platt S, Radaelli S, McDonnell J. The prognostic value of the modified Glasgow coma scale in head trauma in dogs. J Vet Intern Med. 2001; 15(6):581.
  • Saastamoinen J, Rutter CR, Jeffery U. Subconjunctival haemorrhage in 147 dogs. J Small Anim Pract. 2019; 60(12):755–760.
  • Sande A, West C. Traumatic brain injury: a review of pathophysiology and management. J Vet Emerg Crit Care. 2010; 20(2):177–190.
  • Stocchetti N, Maas AIR, Chieregato A, van der Plas AA. Hyperventilation in head injury. Chest. 2005; 127(5):1812–1827.
  • Tundo I, Southerden P, Perry A, Haydock RM. Location and distribution of craniomaxillofacial fractures in 45 cats presented for the treatment of head trauma. J Feline Med Surg. 2019; 21(4):322–328.
  • Wheler CL, Grahn BH, Pocknell AM. Unilateral proptosis and orbital cellulitis in eight African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2001; 32(2):236–241.

Kafa Travmalı Kedilerde Göz Yaralanmaları

Yıl 2021, Cilt 14, Sayı 4, 482 - 491, 31.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.30607/kvj.1008772

Öz

Kafa travması, harici bir kuvvetle yumuşak doku ve kafatası kemiklerinin hasar görmesine neden olabilir. Modifiye Glasgow koma skalası (mGCS), kafa travmalı kedi ve köpeklerin prognozunu değerlendirmek ve nörolojik durumlarını sınıflandırmak için kullanılır. Bu çalışmanın amacı, kedilerde kafa travması sonucu oluşan oftalmik patolojileri ve bu patolojilerin görülme sıklığını belirlemektir. Ayrıca travma geçirmiş kedilerde göz içi basıncı (GİB) ile mGCS arasındaki olası ilişki araştırılacaktır. Araştırmanın hayvan materyalini akut kafa travmalı 18 kedi oluşturmuştur. Hayvanlar uygun şekilde kontrol altına alınıp, mGCS skorları kaydedildi. Travma geçiren kedilerin klinik muayenesi ve tedavisi sırasında hastanın klinik durumunun izin verdiği ölçüde sistematik göz muayenesi yapıldı. Proptozis 4 kedide (%22.22); 3 kedide unilateral, 1 kedide bilateral olarak gözlendi. Subkonjonktival kanama 7 kedide (%38.88); 2 kedide bilateral, 5 kedide tek taraflı olarak gözlendi. 2 kedide (%11.11) tek taraflı hifema görüldü. Üç kedide anizokori (%16.66), 2 kedide unilateral nistagmus (%11.11) ve 1 kedide tek taraflı Horner sendromu (%5.55) görüldü. Glokomlu kedilerde medyan mGCS 8 (skor 4-15), glokom olmayan kedilerde medyan mGCS 9 (skor 6-14) olarak kaydedildi. Ancak mGCS ile glokom arasında istatistiksel bir ilişki bulunamadı (p>0.05). Kafa travmalı kedilerde glokom, subkonjonktival kanama ve proptozis patolojilerinin en sık görülen patolojiler olduğu ve kafa travmalı hastaların müdahalesinde bu patolojilerin göz ardı edilmemesi gerektiği sonucuna varıldı. Ayrıca kafa travmalı olgularda mGCS skoru ne olursa olsun göz içi basınç ölçümlerinin sık sık tekrarlanmasıyla geri dönüşü olmayan görme kaybının önlenebileceği düşünülmektedir.

Kaynakça

  • Adamantos S, Garosi L. Head trauma in the cat: 1. Assessment and management of craniofacial injury. J Feline Med Surg. 2011; 13(11):806–814.
  • Barnes Heller H, Bentley E. Neurologic causes of canine anisocoria. Today’s Vet Pract. 2016; 77–83.
  • Bonner SE, Reiter AM, Lewis JR. Orofacial manifestations of high-rise syndrome in cats: A retrospective study of 84 cases. J Vet Dent. 2012; 29(1):10–18.
  • Dewey C, Fletcher D. Head-trauma management. In: Practical Guide to Canine and Feline Neurology, Ed; Dewey C, da Costa RC, 3rd Ed., Wiley Blackwell, 2015; pp. 237–248.
  • DiFazio J, Fletcher DJ. Updates in the management of the small animal patient with neurologic trauma. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2013; 43(4):915–940.
  • Garosi L, Adamantos S. Head trauma in the cat: 2. Assessment and management of traumatic brain injury. J Feline Med Surg. 2011; 13(11):815–823.
  • Kaur S, Kaushik S, Singh Pandav S. Traumatic glaucoma in children. J Curr Glaucoma Pract. 2014; 8(2):58–62.
  • Knight R, Meeson RL. Feline head trauma: a CT analysis of skull fractures and their management in 75 cats. J Feline Med Surg. 2019; 21(12):1120–1126.
  • Kolata RJ. Trauma in dogs and cats: An overview. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 1980; 10(3):515–522.
  • Kuo KW, Bacek LM, Taylor AR. Head trauma. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2018; 48(1):111–128.
  • Laffey JG, Kavanagh BP. Hypocapnia. N Engl J Med. 2002; 347(1):43–53.
  • Mandell DC, Holt E. Ophthalmic emergencies. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2005; 35(2):455–480.
  • Opperman E. Head trauma in the feline patient – an update. Vet Nurs J. 2014; 29(6):194–197.
  • Platt S. Treatment options for head trauma patients. 33rd World Small Anim Vet Congr. Dublin: WSAVG; 2008.
  • Platt S, Olby N. Neurological emergencies. In: BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Neurology, Ed; Platt S, Olby N, 4th Ed., BSAVA. 2004; pp. 320–336.
  • Platt S, Radaelli S, McDonnell J. The prognostic value of the modified Glasgow coma scale in head trauma in dogs. J Vet Intern Med. 2001; 15(6):581.
  • Saastamoinen J, Rutter CR, Jeffery U. Subconjunctival haemorrhage in 147 dogs. J Small Anim Pract. 2019; 60(12):755–760.
  • Sande A, West C. Traumatic brain injury: a review of pathophysiology and management. J Vet Emerg Crit Care. 2010; 20(2):177–190.
  • Stocchetti N, Maas AIR, Chieregato A, van der Plas AA. Hyperventilation in head injury. Chest. 2005; 127(5):1812–1827.
  • Tundo I, Southerden P, Perry A, Haydock RM. Location and distribution of craniomaxillofacial fractures in 45 cats presented for the treatment of head trauma. J Feline Med Surg. 2019; 21(4):322–328.
  • Wheler CL, Grahn BH, Pocknell AM. Unilateral proptosis and orbital cellulitis in eight African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2001; 32(2):236–241.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Veteriner Hekimlik
Bölüm ARAŞTIRMA MAKALESİ
Yazarlar

Kurtuluş PARLAK (Sorumlu Yazar)
Selçuk Üniversitesi
0000-0002-8656-037X
Türkiye


Eyüp Tolga AKYOL
Balıkesir Üniversitesi
0000-0002-9775-7557
Türkiye


Nuriza ZAMİRBEKOVA
Selçuk Üniversitesi
0000-0003-4465-5511
Türkiye


Songül ARAS
Selçuk Üniversitesi
0000-0001-7683-3314
Türkiye


Saniye KAYACIK
Selçuk Üniversitesi
0000-0001-5231-4798
Türkiye


Ümmügülsüm Fatma BORAN ÇAYIRLI
Selçuk Üniversitesi
0000-0001-9131-0917
Türkiye


Yasemin TANIRLI
Selçuk Üniversitesi
0000-0001-6653-9891
Türkiye


Kadir SULU
Selçuk Üniversitesi
0000-0002-7246-8185
Türkiye


Fahrettin ALKAN
Selçuk Üniversitesi
0000-0001-9637-1903
Türkiye

Destekleyen Kurum Selçuk Üniversitesi Bilimsel Araştırma Projeleri Koordinatörlüğü (BAP)
Proje Numarası 19401153
Yayımlanma Tarihi 31 Aralık 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 14, Sayı 4

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { kvj1008772, journal = {Kocatepe Veterinary Journal}, issn = {1308-1594}, eissn = {2147-6853}, address = {}, publisher = {Afyon Kocatepe Üniversitesi}, year = {2021}, volume = {14}, pages = {482 - 491}, doi = {10.30607/kvj.1008772}, title = {Eye Injuries in Cats with Head Trauma}, key = {cite}, author = {Parlak, Kurtuluş and Akyol, Eyüp Tolga and Zamirbekova, Nuriza and Aras, Songül and Kayacık, Saniye and Boran Çayırlı, Ümmügülsüm Fatma and Tanırlı, Yasemin and Sulu, Kadir and Alkan, Fahrettin} }
APA Parlak, K. , Akyol, E. T. , Zamirbekova, N. , Aras, S. , Kayacık, S. , Boran Çayırlı, Ü. F. , Tanırlı, Y. , Sulu, K. & Alkan, F. (2021). Eye Injuries in Cats with Head Trauma . Kocatepe Veterinary Journal , 14 (4) , 482-491 . DOI: 10.30607/kvj.1008772
MLA Parlak, K. , Akyol, E. T. , Zamirbekova, N. , Aras, S. , Kayacık, S. , Boran Çayırlı, Ü. F. , Tanırlı, Y. , Sulu, K. , Alkan, F. "Eye Injuries in Cats with Head Trauma" . Kocatepe Veterinary Journal 14 (2021 ): 482-491 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/kvj/issue/64946/1008772>
Chicago Parlak, K. , Akyol, E. T. , Zamirbekova, N. , Aras, S. , Kayacık, S. , Boran Çayırlı, Ü. F. , Tanırlı, Y. , Sulu, K. , Alkan, F. "Eye Injuries in Cats with Head Trauma". Kocatepe Veterinary Journal 14 (2021 ): 482-491
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Eye Injuries in Cats with Head Trauma AU - Kurtuluş Parlak , Eyüp Tolga Akyol , Nuriza Zamirbekova , Songül Aras , Saniye Kayacık , Ümmügülsüm Fatma Boran Çayırlı , Yasemin Tanırlı , Kadir Sulu , Fahrettin Alkan Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - doi: 10.30607/kvj.1008772 DO - 10.30607/kvj.1008772 T2 - Kocatepe Veterinary Journal JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 482 EP - 491 VL - 14 IS - 4 SN - 1308-1594-2147-6853 M3 - doi: 10.30607/kvj.1008772 UR - https://doi.org/10.30607/kvj.1008772 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Kocatepe Veteriner Dergisi Eye Injuries in Cats with Head Trauma %A Kurtuluş Parlak , Eyüp Tolga Akyol , Nuriza Zamirbekova , Songül Aras , Saniye Kayacık , Ümmügülsüm Fatma Boran Çayırlı , Yasemin Tanırlı , Kadir Sulu , Fahrettin Alkan %T Eye Injuries in Cats with Head Trauma %D 2021 %J Kocatepe Veterinary Journal %P 1308-1594-2147-6853 %V 14 %N 4 %R doi: 10.30607/kvj.1008772 %U 10.30607/kvj.1008772
ISNAD Parlak, Kurtuluş , Akyol, Eyüp Tolga , Zamirbekova, Nuriza , Aras, Songül , Kayacık, Saniye , Boran Çayırlı, Ümmügülsüm Fatma , Tanırlı, Yasemin , Sulu, Kadir , Alkan, Fahrettin . "Eye Injuries in Cats with Head Trauma". Kocatepe Veterinary Journal 14 / 4 (Aralık 2021): 482-491 . https://doi.org/10.30607/kvj.1008772
AMA Parlak K. , Akyol E. T. , Zamirbekova N. , Aras S. , Kayacık S. , Boran Çayırlı Ü. F. , Tanırlı Y. , Sulu K. , Alkan F. Eye Injuries in Cats with Head Trauma. Kocatepe Veterinary Journal. 2021; 14(4): 482-491.
Vancouver Parlak K. , Akyol E. T. , Zamirbekova N. , Aras S. , Kayacık S. , Boran Çayırlı Ü. F. , Tanırlı Y. , Sulu K. , Alkan F. Eye Injuries in Cats with Head Trauma. Kocatepe Veterinary Journal. 2021; 14(4): 482-491.
IEEE K. Parlak , E. T. Akyol , N. Zamirbekova , S. Aras , S. Kayacık , Ü. F. Boran Çayırlı , Y. Tanırlı , K. Sulu ve F. Alkan , "Eye Injuries in Cats with Head Trauma", Kocatepe Veterinary Journal, c. 14, sayı. 4, ss. 482-491, Ara. 2021, doi:10.30607/kvj.1008772

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