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Klinik Olarak Sağlıklı Görünen Saanen Keçilerden Alınan Sütlerin Somatik Hücre Sayısı ve Bakteriyolojik Yönden İncelenmesi

Yıl 2021, Cilt 14, Sayı 4, 451 - 457, 31.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.30607/kvj.978222

Öz

Bu çalışmada keçi sütü örneklerinin somatik hücre sayısı yönünden analizi, aerobik bakterin izolasyonu, izole edilen S. aureus suşlarının çeşitli antibiyotiklere in vitro duyarlılıklarının saptanması ve metisilin dirençli S. aureus suşlarının ortaya konulması amaçlandı. Toplam 313 süt örneğinin ortalama somatik hücre sayısı 3,25x103, subklinik mastitisli 214 (%68,3) süt örneğinin 1,9x106, S. aureus izole edilen 32 (%27,6) süt örneğinin ise 1x106 hücre/ml olarak belirlendi. Kültür yöntemiyle sütlerin 116 (%54,2) adetinden bakteri izole edildi. Örneklerin 46’sından (%39,6) koagulaz negatif stafilokoklar, 32’sinden S. aureus (%27,6) izole edildi. Toplam 7 farklı antibiyotiğin test edildiği bu çalışmada, 32 adet S. aureus suşundan 27’si (%84,3) penisilin G’ye, 17’si (%53,1) amoksisilin/klavulonik asit ve sefaprezone, 15’i (%46,8) marbofloksasine, 13’ü (%40,6) enrofloksasine, 9’u (%28,1) seftiofura ve 8’i (%25) ise gentamisine dirençli bulundu. S. aureus suşlarından 8’inin (%25,0) metisilin dirençli S. aureus ve 5’i (%62,5), çoklu antibiyotik dirence sahipti. Sonuç olarak, i) ortalama somatik hücre sayısının düşük olduğu ii) S. aureus suşlarının penisilin G, amoksisilin/klavulonik asit ve sefaperozone yüksek düzeyde dirençli olduğu, iii) metisilin dirençli S. aureus oranının %25 olduğu görüldü.

Kaynakça

  • Abebe R, Hatıya H, Abera M, Megersa B, Asmare K. Bovine mastitis: Prevalence, risk factors and isolation of Staphylococcus aureus in dairy herds at Hawassa milk shed, South Ethiopia. BMC Vet. Res. 2016; 12, 270.
  • Altaf M, Ijaz M, Iqbal MK, Rehman A, Avais M, Ghaffar A, Ayyub RA. Molecular characterization of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and associated risk factors with the occurrence of goat mastitis. Pak Vet J. 2020; 40(1): 1-6.
  • Aras Z, Aydin I, Kav K. Isolation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from caprine mastitis cases. Small Rum Res. 2012; 102(1): 68-73.
  • Arda M. Genel Bakteriyoloji. Ankara Üniversitesi Basımevi, Veteriner Fakültesi Yayınları: 402. 3. Baskı, Ankara, 1985; p. 423-447.
  • Atherton HV. Using somatic cell and antibiotic tests for determining the quality of goat milk. In: Gipson TA. et al. (Editors), Proceedings, National Symposium on Dairy Goat Production and Marketing. Langston, OK: Langston University,1992; 128-135.
  • Bahramınıa F, Emadı SR, Emaneını M, Farzaneh N, Rad M, Khoramıan B. A high prevalence of tylosin resistance among Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from bovine mastitis. Vet Res Forum. 2017; 8, 2, 121-125.
  • Barrett D. High somatic cell counts: a persistent problem. Ir Vet J. 2002; 55,4, 73-78.
  • Bauer AW, Kirby WMM, Sherris JC, Turck M. Antibiotic susceptibilty testing by a standardized single disk method. Am J Clin Pathol. 1966; 45 (4): 493-496.
  • Burnett YJ, Echevarrıa K, Traugott KA. Ceftaroline as salvage monotherapy for persistent MRSA bacteremia. Ann Pharmacother. 2016; 50,12, 1051-1059. DOI: 10.1177/1060028016664361
  • Cantekin Z, Özmen GÖ, Demir M, Yılmazer Z, Solmaz H, Ergün Y. Detection of causative agents in goat mastitis and their antibiotic resistance in Hatay Region. Van Vet J. 2016; 27(2): 79-83.
  • Cervinkova D, Vlkova H, Borodacova I, Makovcova J, Babak V, Lorencova A, Vrtkova I, Marosevic D, Jaglic Z. Prevalence of mastitis pathogens in milk from clinically healthy cows. Vet Med. 2013; 58,11, 567-575.
  • Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. 18th Informational Supplement. Document M100-S18. Wayne, 2008; PA, USA.
  • Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing, 20th Informational Supplement. Document M100-S19. Wayne, 2010a; PA, USA.
  • Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Document M100-S19. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing, 20th Informational Supplement. Wayne, 2010b; PA, USA.
  • Cortimiglia C, Bianchini V, Franco A, Caprioli A, Battisti A, Colombo L, Stradiotto K, Vezzoli F, Luini M. Short communication: Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus in bulk tank milk from dairy goat farms in Northern Italy. J Dairy Sci. 2015; 98(4): 2307-2311.
  • Çiftçi MK, Berkin Ş, Erer H, Erganiş O, KIram MN, Hatipoğlu M, Sağlam MS. Keçi mastitisleri üzerine patolojik ve bakteriyolojik çalışmalar. Vet Bil Derg. 1996; 12(2): 104-114.
  • Geary, UN, Lopez-Vıllalobos N, Begley F, Mccoy B, O’brıen L, Grady L, Shallo L. Estimating the effect of mastitis on the profitability of Irish dairy farms. J Dairy Sci. 2012; 95(7), 3662-3673.
  • Givens, D I. Milk Symposium review: The importance of milk and dairy foods in the diets of infants, adolescents, pregnant women, adults, and the elderly. J Dairy Sci. 2020; 103(11), 9681-9699.
  • Grema HA, Geidam YA, Gadzama GB, Gadzama GB, suleiman A. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA): A review. Adv Anim Vet Sci. 2015; 3(2): 79-98.
  • Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Includes provisions from the Grade “A” Condensed and Dry Milk Products and Condensed and Dry Whey--Supplement I to the Grade “A” PMO 2017; p;29-30.
  • Franzoı M, Manuelıan Cl, Penasa M, De Marchı M. Effects of somatic cell score on milk yield and mid-infrared predicted composition and technological traits of Brown Swiss, Holstein Friesian, and Simmental cattle breeds. J Dairy Sci. 2020; 103,1, 791-804.
  • Haftay A, Habtuma TM, Abebe MS. Bacterial identification and antimicrobial susceptibility of subclinical mastitis causing bacteria from goats in Aba’lla district, Afar, North-Eastern Ethiopia. Revue Méd Vét. 2016; 167 (7-8): 170-175.
  • Harmon RJ. Symposium-mastitis and genetic evaluation for somatic cell count- physiology of mastitis and factors affecting somatic cell counts. J Dairy Sci. 1994; 77, 2103-112.
  • Ismail MAH, Kamarudin N, Samat MNA, Rahman RMFRA, Saimun S, Tan TL, Neoh H. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clonal replacement in a Malaysian teaching hospital: Findings from an eight-year interval molecular surveillance. Antibiotics. 2021; 10, 220. Antibiotics doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10030320.
  • İlhan Z. Mastitiste teşhis ve immünoprofilaksi. Turk Klin Vet Sci-Obstetr Gynecol-Spec Top. 2018; 4(2): 1-6.
  • İlhan Z, Taşal İ, Sağcan S, Solmaz H. Subklinik mastitisli keçi sütlerinden aerobik bakterilerin izolasyonu. YYU Vet Fak Derg. 2011; 22(2): 89-91.
  • İşnel NB, Kırkan Ş. Isolation of microorganisms from goats with subclinical mastitis and detection of antibiotics susceptibility. Animal Health Prod Hyg. 2012;1(2): 106 – 112.
  • Jimenez-Granado R, Sanchez-Rodriguez M, Arce C, Rodriguez-Estevez V. Factors affecting somatic cell count in dairy goats: a review. Span J Agric Res. 2014; 12(1): 133-150.
  • Juozaitiene V, Juozaitis A, Micikeviciene R. Relationship between somatic cell count and milk production or morphological traits of udder in Black-and-White Cows. Turk J Vet Anim Sci. 2006; 30,1, 47-51.
  • Kaygisiz A. Gaziantep ilinde keçi işletmelerinden toplanan çiğ süt örneklerinde somatik hücre sayısının AB kriterleri bakımından değerlendirilmesi. Harran Tarım Gıda Bilim Derg. 2020; 24(4), 484-489.
  • Mahlungu P, Maina N, Kagira J. Prevalence, risk factors, and antibiogram of bacteria isolated from milk of goats with subclinical mastitis in Thika East Subcounty, Kenya. J Vet Med. 2018; doi.org/10.1155/2018/3801479.
  • Marcinkoniene L, Ciprovica I. The influence of milk quality and composition on goat milk suitability for cheese production. Agron Res. 2020; 18 (3), 1796-1703.
  • Öztürk D, Türütoğlu H, Pehlivan F, Şahan Yapıcıer Ö. Identification of bacteria isolated from dairy goats with subclinical mastitis and investigation of methicillin and vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains. Ankara Univ Vet Fak Derg. 2019; 66, 191-196.
  • Park YW, Humphrey RO. Bacterial cell counts in goat milk and their correlations with somatic cell counts, percent fat, and protein. J Dairy Sci. 1986; 69, 32-37.
  • Rovai M, Rusek N, Caja G, Saldo J, Leitner G. Effect of subclinical intramammary infection on milk quality in dairy sheep: I. Fresh-soft cheese produced from milk of uninfected and infected glands and from their blends. Small Rum Res. 2015; 125: 127-136.
  • Quinn PJ, Markey BK, Leonard FC, Fitzpatrick ES, Fanning S, Hartigan PJ. Veterinary Microbiology And Microbial Disease. 2011. 2nd ed. Wiley-Blackwell, West Sussex, UK.
  • Rzewuska M, Kwiecien E, Chrobak-Chmiel D, Kizerwetter-Swida M, Stefanska I, Gierynska M. Pathogenicity and virulence of Trueperella pyogenes:a review. Int J Mol Sci. 2019. doi:10.3390/ijms20112737www.mdpi.com/journal/ijms.
  • Stuhr T, Aulrich K. Intramammary infections in dairy goats: recent knowledge and indicators for detection of subclinical mastitis. Landbauforschung-vTI Agric Forestry Res, 2010; 4(60):267-280.
  • Sah K, Karki P, Shrestha RD, Sigdel A, Adesogan AT, Dahl GE. Milk symposium review: Improving control of mastitis in dairy animals in Nepal. J Dairy Sci. 2020.103(11), 9740-9747.
  • Santos MV, Ma Y, Barbano DM. Effect of somatic cell count on proteolysis and lipolysis in pasteurized fluid milk during shelf-life storage. J Dairy Sci. 2003; 86(8), 2491-2503.
  • Sayın Z, Sakmanoğlu A, Uçan US, Pınarkara Y, Uslu A, Aras Z, Erganiş O. Türkiye’de mastitisli inek sütlerinde mecC geni taşıyan metisilin dirençli Staphylococcus aureus varlığının belirlenmesi. Eurasian J Vet Sci. 2016; 32 (3): 182-187.
  • The Council of The European Communities (EC). Aying down the health rules for the production and placing on the market of raw milk, heat-treated milk and milk-based products. 1992; L0046 - EN - 01.05.2004- 008.001
  • Troendle JA, Tauer LW, Gröhn YT. Optimally achieving milk bulk tank somatic cell count thresholds. J Dairy Sci. 2016; (100): 731-738. doi:10.3168/jds.2016-11578.
  • Türkyılmaz S, Yıldız Ö, Oryaşin E, Kaynarca S, Bozdoğan B. Molecular identification of bacteria isolated from dairy herds with mastitis. Kafkas Üniv Vet Fak Derg. 2010; 16 (6): 1025-1032.

Somatic Cell Count and Bacteriological Evaluation of Milk Obtained from Clinically Healthy Goat

Yıl 2021, Cilt 14, Sayı 4, 451 - 457, 31.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.30607/kvj.978222

Öz

In this study, it was aimed to analyze goat milk samples in terms of somatic cell number, isolation of aerobic bacteria, to determine the in vitro susceptibility of isolated S. aureus strains to various antibiotics and to reveal methicillin resistant S. aureus strains. The mean number of somatic cells of 313 milk samples examined was 3.25x103, 1.9x106 for 214 (68.3%) milk samples with subclinical mastitis, and 1x106 cells/mL for 32 (27.6%) milk samples with S. aureus isolated. Bacteria were isolated from 116 (54.2%) milk samples by culture method. Coagulase negative staphylococci from 46 (39.6%) and S. aureus from 32 (27.6%) isolated. Of the 32 S. aureus strains tested, 27 (84.3%) were resistant to penicillin G, 17 (53.1%) to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and cefaprezone, 15 (46.9%) to marbofloxacin, 13 (34.3%) to enrofloxacin, 9 (28.1%) to ceftiofur and 8 (25.0%) to gentamicin. Eight of the S. aureus strains (25.0%) had methicillin-resistant S. aureus and 5 (62.5%) had multi-antibiotic resistance. As a result, it was determined that i) the mean somatic cell count was low, ii) S. aureus strains were highly resistant to penicillin G, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and cefaperozone, iii) methicillin-resistant S. aureus was found to be 25% of the rate.

Kaynakça

  • Abebe R, Hatıya H, Abera M, Megersa B, Asmare K. Bovine mastitis: Prevalence, risk factors and isolation of Staphylococcus aureus in dairy herds at Hawassa milk shed, South Ethiopia. BMC Vet. Res. 2016; 12, 270.
  • Altaf M, Ijaz M, Iqbal MK, Rehman A, Avais M, Ghaffar A, Ayyub RA. Molecular characterization of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and associated risk factors with the occurrence of goat mastitis. Pak Vet J. 2020; 40(1): 1-6.
  • Aras Z, Aydin I, Kav K. Isolation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from caprine mastitis cases. Small Rum Res. 2012; 102(1): 68-73.
  • Arda M. Genel Bakteriyoloji. Ankara Üniversitesi Basımevi, Veteriner Fakültesi Yayınları: 402. 3. Baskı, Ankara, 1985; p. 423-447.
  • Atherton HV. Using somatic cell and antibiotic tests for determining the quality of goat milk. In: Gipson TA. et al. (Editors), Proceedings, National Symposium on Dairy Goat Production and Marketing. Langston, OK: Langston University,1992; 128-135.
  • Bahramınıa F, Emadı SR, Emaneını M, Farzaneh N, Rad M, Khoramıan B. A high prevalence of tylosin resistance among Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from bovine mastitis. Vet Res Forum. 2017; 8, 2, 121-125.
  • Barrett D. High somatic cell counts: a persistent problem. Ir Vet J. 2002; 55,4, 73-78.
  • Bauer AW, Kirby WMM, Sherris JC, Turck M. Antibiotic susceptibilty testing by a standardized single disk method. Am J Clin Pathol. 1966; 45 (4): 493-496.
  • Burnett YJ, Echevarrıa K, Traugott KA. Ceftaroline as salvage monotherapy for persistent MRSA bacteremia. Ann Pharmacother. 2016; 50,12, 1051-1059. DOI: 10.1177/1060028016664361
  • Cantekin Z, Özmen GÖ, Demir M, Yılmazer Z, Solmaz H, Ergün Y. Detection of causative agents in goat mastitis and their antibiotic resistance in Hatay Region. Van Vet J. 2016; 27(2): 79-83.
  • Cervinkova D, Vlkova H, Borodacova I, Makovcova J, Babak V, Lorencova A, Vrtkova I, Marosevic D, Jaglic Z. Prevalence of mastitis pathogens in milk from clinically healthy cows. Vet Med. 2013; 58,11, 567-575.
  • Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. 18th Informational Supplement. Document M100-S18. Wayne, 2008; PA, USA.
  • Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing, 20th Informational Supplement. Document M100-S19. Wayne, 2010a; PA, USA.
  • Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Document M100-S19. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing, 20th Informational Supplement. Wayne, 2010b; PA, USA.
  • Cortimiglia C, Bianchini V, Franco A, Caprioli A, Battisti A, Colombo L, Stradiotto K, Vezzoli F, Luini M. Short communication: Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus in bulk tank milk from dairy goat farms in Northern Italy. J Dairy Sci. 2015; 98(4): 2307-2311.
  • Çiftçi MK, Berkin Ş, Erer H, Erganiş O, KIram MN, Hatipoğlu M, Sağlam MS. Keçi mastitisleri üzerine patolojik ve bakteriyolojik çalışmalar. Vet Bil Derg. 1996; 12(2): 104-114.
  • Geary, UN, Lopez-Vıllalobos N, Begley F, Mccoy B, O’brıen L, Grady L, Shallo L. Estimating the effect of mastitis on the profitability of Irish dairy farms. J Dairy Sci. 2012; 95(7), 3662-3673.
  • Givens, D I. Milk Symposium review: The importance of milk and dairy foods in the diets of infants, adolescents, pregnant women, adults, and the elderly. J Dairy Sci. 2020; 103(11), 9681-9699.
  • Grema HA, Geidam YA, Gadzama GB, Gadzama GB, suleiman A. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA): A review. Adv Anim Vet Sci. 2015; 3(2): 79-98.
  • Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Includes provisions from the Grade “A” Condensed and Dry Milk Products and Condensed and Dry Whey--Supplement I to the Grade “A” PMO 2017; p;29-30.
  • Franzoı M, Manuelıan Cl, Penasa M, De Marchı M. Effects of somatic cell score on milk yield and mid-infrared predicted composition and technological traits of Brown Swiss, Holstein Friesian, and Simmental cattle breeds. J Dairy Sci. 2020; 103,1, 791-804.
  • Haftay A, Habtuma TM, Abebe MS. Bacterial identification and antimicrobial susceptibility of subclinical mastitis causing bacteria from goats in Aba’lla district, Afar, North-Eastern Ethiopia. Revue Méd Vét. 2016; 167 (7-8): 170-175.
  • Harmon RJ. Symposium-mastitis and genetic evaluation for somatic cell count- physiology of mastitis and factors affecting somatic cell counts. J Dairy Sci. 1994; 77, 2103-112.
  • Ismail MAH, Kamarudin N, Samat MNA, Rahman RMFRA, Saimun S, Tan TL, Neoh H. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clonal replacement in a Malaysian teaching hospital: Findings from an eight-year interval molecular surveillance. Antibiotics. 2021; 10, 220. Antibiotics doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10030320.
  • İlhan Z. Mastitiste teşhis ve immünoprofilaksi. Turk Klin Vet Sci-Obstetr Gynecol-Spec Top. 2018; 4(2): 1-6.
  • İlhan Z, Taşal İ, Sağcan S, Solmaz H. Subklinik mastitisli keçi sütlerinden aerobik bakterilerin izolasyonu. YYU Vet Fak Derg. 2011; 22(2): 89-91.
  • İşnel NB, Kırkan Ş. Isolation of microorganisms from goats with subclinical mastitis and detection of antibiotics susceptibility. Animal Health Prod Hyg. 2012;1(2): 106 – 112.
  • Jimenez-Granado R, Sanchez-Rodriguez M, Arce C, Rodriguez-Estevez V. Factors affecting somatic cell count in dairy goats: a review. Span J Agric Res. 2014; 12(1): 133-150.
  • Juozaitiene V, Juozaitis A, Micikeviciene R. Relationship between somatic cell count and milk production or morphological traits of udder in Black-and-White Cows. Turk J Vet Anim Sci. 2006; 30,1, 47-51.
  • Kaygisiz A. Gaziantep ilinde keçi işletmelerinden toplanan çiğ süt örneklerinde somatik hücre sayısının AB kriterleri bakımından değerlendirilmesi. Harran Tarım Gıda Bilim Derg. 2020; 24(4), 484-489.
  • Mahlungu P, Maina N, Kagira J. Prevalence, risk factors, and antibiogram of bacteria isolated from milk of goats with subclinical mastitis in Thika East Subcounty, Kenya. J Vet Med. 2018; doi.org/10.1155/2018/3801479.
  • Marcinkoniene L, Ciprovica I. The influence of milk quality and composition on goat milk suitability for cheese production. Agron Res. 2020; 18 (3), 1796-1703.
  • Öztürk D, Türütoğlu H, Pehlivan F, Şahan Yapıcıer Ö. Identification of bacteria isolated from dairy goats with subclinical mastitis and investigation of methicillin and vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains. Ankara Univ Vet Fak Derg. 2019; 66, 191-196.
  • Park YW, Humphrey RO. Bacterial cell counts in goat milk and their correlations with somatic cell counts, percent fat, and protein. J Dairy Sci. 1986; 69, 32-37.
  • Rovai M, Rusek N, Caja G, Saldo J, Leitner G. Effect of subclinical intramammary infection on milk quality in dairy sheep: I. Fresh-soft cheese produced from milk of uninfected and infected glands and from their blends. Small Rum Res. 2015; 125: 127-136.
  • Quinn PJ, Markey BK, Leonard FC, Fitzpatrick ES, Fanning S, Hartigan PJ. Veterinary Microbiology And Microbial Disease. 2011. 2nd ed. Wiley-Blackwell, West Sussex, UK.
  • Rzewuska M, Kwiecien E, Chrobak-Chmiel D, Kizerwetter-Swida M, Stefanska I, Gierynska M. Pathogenicity and virulence of Trueperella pyogenes:a review. Int J Mol Sci. 2019. doi:10.3390/ijms20112737www.mdpi.com/journal/ijms.
  • Stuhr T, Aulrich K. Intramammary infections in dairy goats: recent knowledge and indicators for detection of subclinical mastitis. Landbauforschung-vTI Agric Forestry Res, 2010; 4(60):267-280.
  • Sah K, Karki P, Shrestha RD, Sigdel A, Adesogan AT, Dahl GE. Milk symposium review: Improving control of mastitis in dairy animals in Nepal. J Dairy Sci. 2020.103(11), 9740-9747.
  • Santos MV, Ma Y, Barbano DM. Effect of somatic cell count on proteolysis and lipolysis in pasteurized fluid milk during shelf-life storage. J Dairy Sci. 2003; 86(8), 2491-2503.
  • Sayın Z, Sakmanoğlu A, Uçan US, Pınarkara Y, Uslu A, Aras Z, Erganiş O. Türkiye’de mastitisli inek sütlerinde mecC geni taşıyan metisilin dirençli Staphylococcus aureus varlığının belirlenmesi. Eurasian J Vet Sci. 2016; 32 (3): 182-187.
  • The Council of The European Communities (EC). Aying down the health rules for the production and placing on the market of raw milk, heat-treated milk and milk-based products. 1992; L0046 - EN - 01.05.2004- 008.001
  • Troendle JA, Tauer LW, Gröhn YT. Optimally achieving milk bulk tank somatic cell count thresholds. J Dairy Sci. 2016; (100): 731-738. doi:10.3168/jds.2016-11578.
  • Türkyılmaz S, Yıldız Ö, Oryaşin E, Kaynarca S, Bozdoğan B. Molecular identification of bacteria isolated from dairy herds with mastitis. Kafkas Üniv Vet Fak Derg. 2010; 16 (6): 1025-1032.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Veteriner Hekimlik
Bölüm ARAŞTIRMA MAKALESİ
Yazarlar

Nevzat SAAT
BALIKESİR ÜNİVERSİTESİ, VETERİNER FAKÜLTESİ, VETERİNER PR.
0000-0002-8135-6142
Türkiye


Hakan TAVŞANLI (Sorumlu Yazar)
BALIKESİR ÜNİVERSİTESİ, VETERİNER FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0002-5124-3702
Türkiye


Ziya İLHAN
BALIKESİR ÜNİVERSİTESİ, VETERİNER FAKÜLTESİ, VETERİNER PR.
0000-0003-3638-9196
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 31 Aralık 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 14, Sayı 4

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { kvj978222, journal = {Kocatepe Veterinary Journal}, issn = {1308-1594}, eissn = {2147-6853}, address = {}, publisher = {Afyon Kocatepe Üniversitesi}, year = {2021}, volume = {14}, number = {4}, pages = {451 - 457}, doi = {10.30607/kvj.978222}, title = {Klinik Olarak Sağlıklı Görünen Saanen Keçilerden Alınan Sütlerin Somatik Hücre Sayısı ve Bakteriyolojik Yönden İncelenmesi}, key = {cite}, author = {Saat, Nevzat and Tavşanlı, Hakan and İlhan, Ziya} }
APA Saat, N. , Tavşanlı, H. & İlhan, Z. (2021). Klinik Olarak Sağlıklı Görünen Saanen Keçilerden Alınan Sütlerin Somatik Hücre Sayısı ve Bakteriyolojik Yönden İncelenmesi . Kocatepe Veterinary Journal , 14 (4) , 451-457 . DOI: 10.30607/kvj.978222
MLA Saat, N. , Tavşanlı, H. , İlhan, Z. "Klinik Olarak Sağlıklı Görünen Saanen Keçilerden Alınan Sütlerin Somatik Hücre Sayısı ve Bakteriyolojik Yönden İncelenmesi" . Kocatepe Veterinary Journal 14 (2021 ): 451-457 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/kvj/issue/64946/978222>
Chicago Saat, N. , Tavşanlı, H. , İlhan, Z. "Klinik Olarak Sağlıklı Görünen Saanen Keçilerden Alınan Sütlerin Somatik Hücre Sayısı ve Bakteriyolojik Yönden İncelenmesi". Kocatepe Veterinary Journal 14 (2021 ): 451-457
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Klinik Olarak Sağlıklı Görünen Saanen Keçilerden Alınan Sütlerin Somatik Hücre Sayısı ve Bakteriyolojik Yönden İncelenmesi AU - Nevzat Saat , Hakan Tavşanlı , Ziya İlhan Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - doi: 10.30607/kvj.978222 DO - 10.30607/kvj.978222 T2 - Kocatepe Veterinary Journal JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 451 EP - 457 VL - 14 IS - 4 SN - 1308-1594-2147-6853 M3 - doi: 10.30607/kvj.978222 UR - https://doi.org/10.30607/kvj.978222 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Kocatepe Veteriner Dergisi Klinik Olarak Sağlıklı Görünen Saanen Keçilerden Alınan Sütlerin Somatik Hücre Sayısı ve Bakteriyolojik Yönden İncelenmesi %A Nevzat Saat , Hakan Tavşanlı , Ziya İlhan %T Klinik Olarak Sağlıklı Görünen Saanen Keçilerden Alınan Sütlerin Somatik Hücre Sayısı ve Bakteriyolojik Yönden İncelenmesi %D 2021 %J Kocatepe Veterinary Journal %P 1308-1594-2147-6853 %V 14 %N 4 %R doi: 10.30607/kvj.978222 %U 10.30607/kvj.978222
ISNAD Saat, Nevzat , Tavşanlı, Hakan , İlhan, Ziya . "Klinik Olarak Sağlıklı Görünen Saanen Keçilerden Alınan Sütlerin Somatik Hücre Sayısı ve Bakteriyolojik Yönden İncelenmesi". Kocatepe Veterinary Journal 14 / 4 (Aralık 2021): 451-457 . https://doi.org/10.30607/kvj.978222
AMA Saat N. , Tavşanlı H. , İlhan Z. Klinik Olarak Sağlıklı Görünen Saanen Keçilerden Alınan Sütlerin Somatik Hücre Sayısı ve Bakteriyolojik Yönden İncelenmesi. Kocatepe Veterinary Journal. 2021; 14(4): 451-457.
Vancouver Saat N. , Tavşanlı H. , İlhan Z. Klinik Olarak Sağlıklı Görünen Saanen Keçilerden Alınan Sütlerin Somatik Hücre Sayısı ve Bakteriyolojik Yönden İncelenmesi. Kocatepe Veterinary Journal. 2021; 14(4): 451-457.
IEEE N. Saat , H. Tavşanlı ve Z. İlhan , "Klinik Olarak Sağlıklı Görünen Saanen Keçilerden Alınan Sütlerin Somatik Hücre Sayısı ve Bakteriyolojik Yönden İncelenmesi", Kocatepe Veterinary Journal, c. 14, sayı. 4, ss. 451-457, Ara. 2021, doi:10.30607/kvj.978222

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