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IF WALTER BENJAMIN EXPERIENCED NFT: REVIEWING CRYPTO ART THROUGH HIS EYES

Yıl 2022, Cilt 9, Sayı 1, 35 - 51, 27.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.17572/mj2022.1.3551

Öz

This study aims to examine crypto art in the context of aura (halo), uniqueness, testimony, and, authenticity by evaluating digital NFT technology from the perspective of Benjamin, who has only experienced image technologies such as photography and cinema. The research argues that the aura did not vanish with crypto-art in fact, an aura similar to the one described by Benjamin (1935) has never emerged. In this context, the study argues that the uniqueness that Benjamin said was separated from the work of art by technological reproduction is returned to the work of art with more advanced technology named blockchain. The study seeks an answer to the question: "Is aura possible for an NFT?". The study argues that the cult value in traditional art has replaced by the value of ownership with NFTs, the notion of uniqueness has turned into digital scarcity, the state of being tied to the ceremony has been replaced by freedom, and the new form of the aura is that art is freedom from the maternal archetype. 

Kaynakça

  • Alan, Ü. ve Öz, C. (Hosts). (2021, 19 Kasım), Yeni Medya 451 #19 (Socrates Podcasts) https://share.transistor.fm/s/e27c5eb4
  • Arapoğlu, F. (2021). Sanatta Aktüel Gündem: Kripto Sanat (NFT). Aurum Journal of Social Sciences, 6(1), 91-93.
  • Atanasova, N. (2021, June). Non-Fungıble Tokens Or: The Creatıon Of A Social Contract In The Digital Agora. 13. Internatıonal Scienific Conference, Sofia, 93-100.
  • Aydoğan, B.E. (2008). Walter Benjamin ve Sanat Yapıtının Aura’sı, Akdeniz-Sanat Dergisi, 27-33.
  • Bailey, J. (19 Ocak 2018). What Is CryptoArt? Erişim: 15.12.2021 https://www.artnome.com/news/2018/1/14/what-is-cryptoart
  • Bakker, T. (2018). Objects in the Age of Virtual Reproduction: Aura and the Elusive Third Axis (Doktora tezi, OCAD University).
  • BBC, NFT nedir: İnternetten kolayca indirilebilen ve milyonlarca dolara alıcı bulabilen kripto sanat eserleri. Erişim: 23.11.2021 https://www.bbc.com/turkce/haberler-dunya-56385962
  • Beck, R., J. Stenum Czepluch, N. Lollike ve S. Malone. (2016). Blockchain – The Gateway to Trust-Free Cryptographic Transactions. In: Twenty-Fourth European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), İstanbul,Turkey, pp. 1–14 Springer Publishing Company
  • Bell, D. (1974). Coming of post-industrial society-venture in social forecasting-reply. Contemporary Sociology-A Journal of Reviews, 3(2), 107-109.
  • Benjamin W. (1935) The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction In: Illuminations, edited by Hannah Arendt, translated by Harry Zohn, from the 1935 essay New York: Schocken Books, 1969
  • Benjamin, W. (2018). Fotoğrafın Kısa Tarihi- Teknik Araçlarla Yeniden Üretim (Çoğaltma) Çağında Sanat Eseri, 4. Basım, (Akınhay, O. Çev.) İstanbul: Agora Kitaplığı
  • Brekke, J. K. & Fischer, A. (2021). Digital scarcity. Internet Policy Review, 10(2). 1-9. https://doi.org/10.14763/2021.2.1548 Bürger, P. (2004). Avangard Kuramı, (Özbek, E. Çev.) İstanbul: İletişim Yayınları
  • Cao, J. (2019). Benjamin’s Chinese Painter: Copying, Adapting, and the Aura of Reproduction. The Germanic Review: Literature, Culture, Theory, 94(1), 39-56.
  • Castells, M. (2004). The network society A cross-cultural perspective. Edward Elgar.
  • Chaudhry, V., & Shipp, T. (2005). Rethinking the digital divide in relation to visual disability in india and the united states: Towards a paradigm of ‘Information Inequity’. Disability Studies Quarterly, 25(2). https://doi.org/10.18061/dsq.v25i2.553 Chohan, U. W. (2021). Non-Fungible Tokens: Blockchains, Scarcity, and Value. Critical Blockchain Research Initiative (CBRI) Working Papers.
  • Clohessy, T., Treiblmaier, H., Acton, T., ve Rogers, N. (2020). Antecedents of blockchain adoption: an integrative framework. Strategic Change, 29(5), 501–515.
  • Drucker, P. F. (1993). The rise of the knowledge society. The Wilson Quarterly, 17(2), 52-72.
  • Dursun, Ö. Ü. N. (2021). NFT/kripto sanat ve hareketli grafik ilişkisi. Sciences, 7(40), 1037-1055.
  • Emison, P. A. (2021). Art, Aura, and Admiration in the Age of Digital Reproduction. Art History & Criticism, 17(1), 5-16.
  • Evrim Ağacı (2013). Evrim ve İdeoloji: Sosyal Darwinizm Nedir? Öjeni Nedir?, Erişim: 28.11.2021, https://evrimagaci.org/evrim-ve-ideoloji-sosyal-darwinizm-nedir-ojeni-nedir-5520
  • Fickers, A. (2014). Neither good, nor bad; nor neutral’: The historical dispositif of communication technologies. Journalism and Technological Change: Historical Perspectives, Contemporary Trends. Frankfurt, 30-52.
  • Franceschet, M., Colavizza, G., Smith, T. A., Finucane, B., Ostachowski, M. L., Scalet, S. ve Hernandez, S. (2021). Crypto art: A decentralized view. Leonardo, 54(4), 402-405.
  • Friedman, J. ve Hawkes, D. (2021). NFTs: The Afterlife Of The Aura, Atheneum Review, Erişim: 24.11.2021. https://athenaeumreview.org/essay/nfts-the-afterlife-of-the-aura/
  • Frye, B. L. (2021). After Copyright: Pwning NFTs in a Clout Economy. SSRN, http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3971240 Gompertz, W. (13 Mart 2021). Everydays: The First 5000 Days - Will Gompertz reviews Beeple's digital work Erişim: 16.11.2021, https://www.bbc.com/news/entertainment-arts-56368868
  • Gururaj, H. L., Manoj Athreya A., Ashwin A. K., Abhishek, M. H., Nagarajath, S. M., Ravi Kumar, N. (2020). Blockchain: A new era of technology. In: G. Shrivastava, D.-N. Le, ve K. Sharma (Ed.), Cryptocurrencies and blockchain technology applications, 1- 24 . John Wiley & Sons.
  • Hammersley, B. (2003, July 10). Radio active revolution. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.co m/technology/2003/jul/10/onlinesupplement2
  • Jeong-eun, K. (2021). Image Power in New Media and Dance Art - Focusing on Block Chain and NFT Technology, Kore Dans Araştırması, 3 (9), 1-19
  • Joselit, D. (2021). NFTs, or The Readymade Reversed. October, (175), 3-4.
  • Kakavand, H., Kost De Sevres, N., ve Chilton, B. (2017). The blockchain revolution: An analysis of regulation and technology related to distributed ledger technologies.
  • Kastrenakes, J. (11 Mart 2021). Beeple sold an NFT for $69 million. The Verge, Erişim: 16.11.2021 https://www.theverge.com/2021/3/11/22325054/beeple-christies-nft-sale-cost-everydays-69-million Kaur, A., Nayyar, A., Singh, P. (2020). Blockchain: A path to the future (2020). In: G. Shrivastava, D.-N. Le, ve K. Sharma (Ed.), Cryptocurrencies and blockchain technology applications, 24-42. John Wiley & Sons.
  • LA Times, The NFT Digital Art craze, explained. Erişim: 16.11.2021 https://www.latimes.com/business/00000179-6184-da08-a1ff-6bc4ebf10000-123
  • Liptak, A. (7 Ekim 2018). One of Banksy’s paintings self-destructed just after it was auctioned. The Verge. Erişim: 24.11.2021, https://www.theverge.com/2018/10/7/17947744/banksy-ballon-girl-artwork-self-destructed-sothbys
  • Neofetou, D. (2021). Boris Groys: Logic of the Collection. Art Monthly, (451), 35-35.
  • O’Dair, M. (2019). Distributed creativity: how blockchain technology will transform the creative economy (Ser. Palgrave pivot). Palgrave Macmillan.
  • O’Dwyer, R. (2017). Does Digital Culture Want to Be Free? How Blockchains Are Transforming the Economy of Cultural Goods. Artists Re: Thinking the Blockchain, 302-316
  • O’Dwyer, R. (2018). Limited edition: Producing artificial scarcity for digital art on the blockchain and its implications for the cultural industries. Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies, 1-21, 135485651879509. doi:10.1177/1354856518795097
  • Okonkwo, I., E. (2021) NFT, Copyright; and Intellectual Property Commercialisation Erişim:08.12.2021, https://ssrn.com/abstract=3856154, http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3856154
  • Portion (Temmuz, 2021) History of NFTs & How They Got Started Erişim: 15.12.2021 https://blog.portion.io/the-history-of-nfts-how-they-got-started/
  • Rae, M. (2021). Analyzing the NFT Mania: Is a JPG Worth Millions?. SAGE Publications: SAGE Business Cases Originals.
  • Regner, F., Urbach, N., ve Schweizer, A. (2019). NFTs in practice–non-fungible tokens as core component of a blockchain-based event ticketing application. 40th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS 2019), Munich
  • S. Haber, S. ve Stornetta W. S (1991). How to time-stamp a digital document. Journal of Cryptology, 3(2), 99–111. Taylor, J., ve Sloane, K. Art. (2021). Markets without Art, Art without Objects, The Garage Journal, 152-175. https://doi.org/10.35074/GJ.2021.97.81.008
  • The Guardian, (Aralık 16, 2021) Erişim: 17.12.2021, https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2021/dec/16/nfts-market-hits-22bn-as-craze-turns-digital-images-into-assets
  • Toffler, A. (1980). The third wave (Vol. 484). New York: Bantam books.
  • Tokenist.com (Kasım 11, 2021). How OpenSea Captured 97% Of The NFT Market. Erişim: 8.01.2022, https://tokenist.com/how-opensea-captured-97-of-the-nft-market/
  • Triece, E. (2020). Digitizing the Aura: A System Update For the Contamporary Art World, University of Denver. van den Akker, C. (2016). Benjamin, the Image and the End of History. Journal of Aesthetics and Phenomenology, 3(1), 43-54.
  • Wang, Q., Li, R., Wang, Q., ve Chen, S. (2021). Non-fungible token (NFT): Overview, evaluation, opportunities and challenges. arXiv preprint arXiv:2105.07447.
  • Webtekno (5 Ocak 2022). Dünyanın İlk SMS'i O Kadar da Etkileyici Olmayan Bir Fiyata NFT Olarak Satıldı, Erişim:07.01.2022 https://www.webtekno.com/dunya-ilk-sms-nft-olarak-satildi-h118799.html
  • Yee, N., ve Bailenson, J. (2007). The Proteus effect: The effect of transformed self-representation on behavior. Human

WALTER BENJAMIN NFT'LERE TANIKLIK ETSEYDİ: KRİPTO SANATA ONUN GÖZÜNDEN BAKMAK

Yıl 2022, Cilt 9, Sayı 1, 35 - 51, 27.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.17572/mj2022.1.3551

Öz

Bu çalışmanın amacı yalnızca fotoğraf ve sinema gibi görüntü teknolojilerine yetişmiş olan Benjamin’in tekniğe olan bakış açısıyla dijital NFT teknolojisini değerlendirerek, kripto sanatı aura (hale), biriciklik ve tanıklık, hakikilik bağlamında irdelemektir. Çalışma, kripto sanat ile auranın ortadan kalkmadığını, esasen en başta Benjamin’in (1935) tasvir ettiği türde bir auranın hiç ortaya çıkmadığını savunmaktadır. Bu bağlamda, çalışma, Benjamin’in teknik araçlarla yeniden üretim ile sanat eserinden koparıldığını söylediği biricikliğin daha ileri bir teknoloji olan blockchain ile sanat eserine iade edildiğini savunarak “NFT’lerin aurasından bahsedilebilir mi?” sorusuna yanıt aramaktadır. Çalışma, geleneksel sanattaki kült değerinin yerini NFT’ler ile sahiplik değerine bıraktığını, biriciklik nosyonunun dijital kıtlığa dönüştüğünü, törene bağlı olma durumunun özgürlükle yer değiştirdiğini ve aura nosyonunun yerini maddesel arketipten özgürleşme şeklinde karşımıza çıktığını savunmaktadır.

Kaynakça

  • Alan, Ü. ve Öz, C. (Hosts). (2021, 19 Kasım), Yeni Medya 451 #19 (Socrates Podcasts) https://share.transistor.fm/s/e27c5eb4
  • Arapoğlu, F. (2021). Sanatta Aktüel Gündem: Kripto Sanat (NFT). Aurum Journal of Social Sciences, 6(1), 91-93.
  • Atanasova, N. (2021, June). Non-Fungıble Tokens Or: The Creatıon Of A Social Contract In The Digital Agora. 13. Internatıonal Scienific Conference, Sofia, 93-100.
  • Aydoğan, B.E. (2008). Walter Benjamin ve Sanat Yapıtının Aura’sı, Akdeniz-Sanat Dergisi, 27-33.
  • Bailey, J. (19 Ocak 2018). What Is CryptoArt? Erişim: 15.12.2021 https://www.artnome.com/news/2018/1/14/what-is-cryptoart
  • Bakker, T. (2018). Objects in the Age of Virtual Reproduction: Aura and the Elusive Third Axis (Doktora tezi, OCAD University).
  • BBC, NFT nedir: İnternetten kolayca indirilebilen ve milyonlarca dolara alıcı bulabilen kripto sanat eserleri. Erişim: 23.11.2021 https://www.bbc.com/turkce/haberler-dunya-56385962
  • Beck, R., J. Stenum Czepluch, N. Lollike ve S. Malone. (2016). Blockchain – The Gateway to Trust-Free Cryptographic Transactions. In: Twenty-Fourth European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), İstanbul,Turkey, pp. 1–14 Springer Publishing Company
  • Bell, D. (1974). Coming of post-industrial society-venture in social forecasting-reply. Contemporary Sociology-A Journal of Reviews, 3(2), 107-109.
  • Benjamin W. (1935) The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction In: Illuminations, edited by Hannah Arendt, translated by Harry Zohn, from the 1935 essay New York: Schocken Books, 1969
  • Benjamin, W. (2018). Fotoğrafın Kısa Tarihi- Teknik Araçlarla Yeniden Üretim (Çoğaltma) Çağında Sanat Eseri, 4. Basım, (Akınhay, O. Çev.) İstanbul: Agora Kitaplığı
  • Brekke, J. K. & Fischer, A. (2021). Digital scarcity. Internet Policy Review, 10(2). 1-9. https://doi.org/10.14763/2021.2.1548 Bürger, P. (2004). Avangard Kuramı, (Özbek, E. Çev.) İstanbul: İletişim Yayınları
  • Cao, J. (2019). Benjamin’s Chinese Painter: Copying, Adapting, and the Aura of Reproduction. The Germanic Review: Literature, Culture, Theory, 94(1), 39-56.
  • Castells, M. (2004). The network society A cross-cultural perspective. Edward Elgar.
  • Chaudhry, V., & Shipp, T. (2005). Rethinking the digital divide in relation to visual disability in india and the united states: Towards a paradigm of ‘Information Inequity’. Disability Studies Quarterly, 25(2). https://doi.org/10.18061/dsq.v25i2.553 Chohan, U. W. (2021). Non-Fungible Tokens: Blockchains, Scarcity, and Value. Critical Blockchain Research Initiative (CBRI) Working Papers.
  • Clohessy, T., Treiblmaier, H., Acton, T., ve Rogers, N. (2020). Antecedents of blockchain adoption: an integrative framework. Strategic Change, 29(5), 501–515.
  • Drucker, P. F. (1993). The rise of the knowledge society. The Wilson Quarterly, 17(2), 52-72.
  • Dursun, Ö. Ü. N. (2021). NFT/kripto sanat ve hareketli grafik ilişkisi. Sciences, 7(40), 1037-1055.
  • Emison, P. A. (2021). Art, Aura, and Admiration in the Age of Digital Reproduction. Art History & Criticism, 17(1), 5-16.
  • Evrim Ağacı (2013). Evrim ve İdeoloji: Sosyal Darwinizm Nedir? Öjeni Nedir?, Erişim: 28.11.2021, https://evrimagaci.org/evrim-ve-ideoloji-sosyal-darwinizm-nedir-ojeni-nedir-5520
  • Fickers, A. (2014). Neither good, nor bad; nor neutral’: The historical dispositif of communication technologies. Journalism and Technological Change: Historical Perspectives, Contemporary Trends. Frankfurt, 30-52.
  • Franceschet, M., Colavizza, G., Smith, T. A., Finucane, B., Ostachowski, M. L., Scalet, S. ve Hernandez, S. (2021). Crypto art: A decentralized view. Leonardo, 54(4), 402-405.
  • Friedman, J. ve Hawkes, D. (2021). NFTs: The Afterlife Of The Aura, Atheneum Review, Erişim: 24.11.2021. https://athenaeumreview.org/essay/nfts-the-afterlife-of-the-aura/
  • Frye, B. L. (2021). After Copyright: Pwning NFTs in a Clout Economy. SSRN, http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3971240 Gompertz, W. (13 Mart 2021). Everydays: The First 5000 Days - Will Gompertz reviews Beeple's digital work Erişim: 16.11.2021, https://www.bbc.com/news/entertainment-arts-56368868
  • Gururaj, H. L., Manoj Athreya A., Ashwin A. K., Abhishek, M. H., Nagarajath, S. M., Ravi Kumar, N. (2020). Blockchain: A new era of technology. In: G. Shrivastava, D.-N. Le, ve K. Sharma (Ed.), Cryptocurrencies and blockchain technology applications, 1- 24 . John Wiley & Sons.
  • Hammersley, B. (2003, July 10). Radio active revolution. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.co m/technology/2003/jul/10/onlinesupplement2
  • Jeong-eun, K. (2021). Image Power in New Media and Dance Art - Focusing on Block Chain and NFT Technology, Kore Dans Araştırması, 3 (9), 1-19
  • Joselit, D. (2021). NFTs, or The Readymade Reversed. October, (175), 3-4.
  • Kakavand, H., Kost De Sevres, N., ve Chilton, B. (2017). The blockchain revolution: An analysis of regulation and technology related to distributed ledger technologies.
  • Kastrenakes, J. (11 Mart 2021). Beeple sold an NFT for $69 million. The Verge, Erişim: 16.11.2021 https://www.theverge.com/2021/3/11/22325054/beeple-christies-nft-sale-cost-everydays-69-million Kaur, A., Nayyar, A., Singh, P. (2020). Blockchain: A path to the future (2020). In: G. Shrivastava, D.-N. Le, ve K. Sharma (Ed.), Cryptocurrencies and blockchain technology applications, 24-42. John Wiley & Sons.
  • LA Times, The NFT Digital Art craze, explained. Erişim: 16.11.2021 https://www.latimes.com/business/00000179-6184-da08-a1ff-6bc4ebf10000-123
  • Liptak, A. (7 Ekim 2018). One of Banksy’s paintings self-destructed just after it was auctioned. The Verge. Erişim: 24.11.2021, https://www.theverge.com/2018/10/7/17947744/banksy-ballon-girl-artwork-self-destructed-sothbys
  • Neofetou, D. (2021). Boris Groys: Logic of the Collection. Art Monthly, (451), 35-35.
  • O’Dair, M. (2019). Distributed creativity: how blockchain technology will transform the creative economy (Ser. Palgrave pivot). Palgrave Macmillan.
  • O’Dwyer, R. (2017). Does Digital Culture Want to Be Free? How Blockchains Are Transforming the Economy of Cultural Goods. Artists Re: Thinking the Blockchain, 302-316
  • O’Dwyer, R. (2018). Limited edition: Producing artificial scarcity for digital art on the blockchain and its implications for the cultural industries. Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies, 1-21, 135485651879509. doi:10.1177/1354856518795097
  • Okonkwo, I., E. (2021) NFT, Copyright; and Intellectual Property Commercialisation Erişim:08.12.2021, https://ssrn.com/abstract=3856154, http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3856154
  • Portion (Temmuz, 2021) History of NFTs & How They Got Started Erişim: 15.12.2021 https://blog.portion.io/the-history-of-nfts-how-they-got-started/
  • Rae, M. (2021). Analyzing the NFT Mania: Is a JPG Worth Millions?. SAGE Publications: SAGE Business Cases Originals.
  • Regner, F., Urbach, N., ve Schweizer, A. (2019). NFTs in practice–non-fungible tokens as core component of a blockchain-based event ticketing application. 40th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS 2019), Munich
  • S. Haber, S. ve Stornetta W. S (1991). How to time-stamp a digital document. Journal of Cryptology, 3(2), 99–111. Taylor, J., ve Sloane, K. Art. (2021). Markets without Art, Art without Objects, The Garage Journal, 152-175. https://doi.org/10.35074/GJ.2021.97.81.008
  • The Guardian, (Aralık 16, 2021) Erişim: 17.12.2021, https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2021/dec/16/nfts-market-hits-22bn-as-craze-turns-digital-images-into-assets
  • Toffler, A. (1980). The third wave (Vol. 484). New York: Bantam books.
  • Tokenist.com (Kasım 11, 2021). How OpenSea Captured 97% Of The NFT Market. Erişim: 8.01.2022, https://tokenist.com/how-opensea-captured-97-of-the-nft-market/
  • Triece, E. (2020). Digitizing the Aura: A System Update For the Contamporary Art World, University of Denver. van den Akker, C. (2016). Benjamin, the Image and the End of History. Journal of Aesthetics and Phenomenology, 3(1), 43-54.
  • Wang, Q., Li, R., Wang, Q., ve Chen, S. (2021). Non-fungible token (NFT): Overview, evaluation, opportunities and challenges. arXiv preprint arXiv:2105.07447.
  • Webtekno (5 Ocak 2022). Dünyanın İlk SMS'i O Kadar da Etkileyici Olmayan Bir Fiyata NFT Olarak Satıldı, Erişim:07.01.2022 https://www.webtekno.com/dunya-ilk-sms-nft-olarak-satildi-h118799.html
  • Yee, N., ve Bailenson, J. (2007). The Proteus effect: The effect of transformed self-representation on behavior. Human

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular İletişim
Bölüm Makaleler (Tema)
Yazarlar

Esra BOZKANAT> (Sorumlu Yazar)
KIRKLARELİ ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-6050-2550
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 27 Haziran 2022
Başvuru Tarihi 10 Ocak 2022
Kabul Tarihi 16 Mart 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 9, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

APA Bozkanat, E. (2022). WALTER BENJAMIN NFT'LERE TANIKLIK ETSEYDİ: KRİPTO SANATA ONUN GÖZÜNDEN BAKMAK . Moment Dergi , Görsel Kültür , 35-51 . DOI: 10.17572/mj2022.1.3551