Araştırma Makalesi
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Duygusal Sermaye Ölçeğinin Geçerlik ve Güvenirlik Çalışması

Yıl 2022, Cilt 17, Sayı 1, 71 - 91, 01.04.2022
https://doi.org/10.17153/oguiibf.959993

Öz

Duygusal sermaye kavramı literatürde sınırlı olarak çalışılmış bir konudur. Çalışmanın amacı, Newman vd. (2015) tarafından geliştirilen duygusal sermaye ölçeğini Türk kültürüne uyarlamaktır. Duygusal sermaye ölçeğinin özellikleri iç tutarlılık katsayısı, test tekrar test, pilot uygulama, keşfedici ve doğrulayıcı faktör analizi ve ölçüt bağıntılı geçerlik yöntemleriyle incelenmiştir. Ölçüt bağıntılı geçerlik için duygusal sermaye ve duygusal emek ölçekleri kullanılmıştır. Elde edilen sonuçlar, Türkiye’de uyarlaması yapılan duygusal sermaye ölçeğinin geçerli ve güvenilir olarak kullanılabilecek bir ölçek olduğunu göstermiştir.

Kaynakça

  • Andrew, Y. (2015). ‘I’m strong with in myself’: Gender, class and emotional capital in childcare. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 36(5), 651-668.
  • Arif, H., & Zia-ur-Rehman, M. (2017). How ethical leadership and follower mindfulness play their role in developing organizational commitment? Analyzing the augmentative contribution of emotional capital. Global Management Journal for Academic & Corporate Studies, 7(1), 71-84.
  • Bagozzi, R. P. & Yi, Y. (1988). On the evaluation of structural equation models. Journal Of The Academy of Marketing Science, 16(1), 74-94.
  • Bilal, S., & Zia-ur-Rehman, M. (2017). The role of employee’s mindfulness and human resource development climate towards public leadership behavior-analyzing the moderating impact of emotional capital. Journal of Administrative and Business Studies, 3(5), 248-254.
  • Brislin, Richard W., LonnerWalter J. & Thorndike Robert M, (1973), Cross Cultural Research Methods, New York, John Wiley - SonsPub.
  • Brotheridge, C. M., & Grandey, A. A. (2002). Emotional labor and burnout: Comparing two perspectives of “people work”. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 60(1), 17-39.
  • Brown, B., Tanner, J., & Padley, W. (2014). ‘This wound has spoilt everything’: emotional capital and the experience of surgical site infections. Sociology of Health and İllness, 36(8), 1171-1187.
  • Butcher, J. N., & Spielberger, C. D. (2013). Advances in Personality Assessment: Volume 8. Routledge.
  • Candea, D., & Candea, R. (2010). Emotional Capital for Building Sustainable Business Performance. In Proceedings of the 2nd European Conference on Intellectual Capital: ISCTE Lisbon University Institute Lisbon, Portugal: (p.180). Academic Conferences Limited.
  • Caruso, D. R., Mayer, J. D., & Salovey, P. (2002). Relation of an ability measure of emotional intelligence to personality. Journal of Personality Assessment, 79(2), 306-320.
  • Choudhury, J. (2021). Emotional Intelligence, Socio-Emotional Competence and Human Capital. Ra Journal of Applied Research, 7(4), 2932-2938.
  • Cottingham, M. D. (2013). Men who care: How organizations and individuals negotiate masculinity, emotional capital, and emotion practice in nursing. Unpublished Doctoral dissertation, University of Akron.
  • Cronk, R. and Davis, C. (2016, October). A theoretical ınvestigation of the relationship between emotional ıntelligence, social capital and knowledge sharing. In International Conference on Intellectual Capital and Knowledge Management and Organisational Learning (p.82). Academic Conferences International Limited.
  • Çoruk. A. (2012). Yönetim süreçleri açısından yöneticilerin duygu yönetimi davranışları. Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Çanakkale.
  • Diefendorff, J. M., Croyle, M. H., & Gosserand, R. H. (2005). The dimensionality and antecedents of emotional labor strategies. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 66(2), 339-357.
  • Elicegui-Reyes, J. I., Barrena-Martínez, J., & Romero-Fernández, P. M. (2017). Emotional capital and sustainability in family businesses: Human resource management perspective and sustainability. In CSR 2.0 and the new era of corporate citizenship (pp. 231-250). IGI Global.
  • Eyel, C. Ş., & Akkaya, G. (2020). The effect of emotional capital on job satisfaction and life satisfaction: A research on basketball players in women’s super league in Turkey. Annals of Applied Sport Science, 0-0.
  • Eyel, C. Ş., & Durmaz, İ. B. V. (2019). The Effect of Emotional Capital on Individual Innovativeness: A Research on Bahcesehir University Business Administration Undergraduate Students. Procedia Computer Science, 158, 680-687.
  • Fornell, C. & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39-50.
  • Froyum, C. M. (2010). The reproduction of inequalities through emotional capital: The case of socializing low-income black girls. Qualitative Sociology, 33(1), 37-54.
  • Garland, C., Hume, F., & Majid, S. (2002). Remaking connections: refugees and the development of' emotional capital in therapy groups. Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy, 16(3), 197-214.
  • Gendron, B. (2002). Management, compétences et qualité en éducation: innovations pédagogiques en formation professionnelle, le cas des baccalauréats professionnels en France. International Conference, ADMEE, University of Lausanne, September, Switzerland.
  • Gendron, B. (2004). Why emotional capital matters in education and in labour? Toward an optimal exploitation of human capital and knowledge management, in Les Cahiers de la Maison des Sciences Economiques, serie rouge, 113, Paris: Universite Pantheon-Sorbonne, 1-37.
  • Gendron, B. (2007). Emotional capital: a crucial capital for a citizenship society with personal, Social and Economic Returns, in Ross, A. (ed) Citizenship Education in Society. London: CiCe, 401-416.
  • Gendron, B. (2017). Emotional capital: The set of emotional competencies as professional and vocational skills in emotional works and jobs. Revista Espanola de Educacion Comparada, 29, 44-61.
  • Gendron, B., Kouremenou, E. S., & Rusu, C. (2016). Emotional capital development, positive psychology and mindful teaching: Which Links? International Journal of Emotional Education, 8(1), 63-74.
  • Gillies, V. (2006). Working class mothers and school life: Exploring the role of emotional capital. Gender and education, 18(3), 281-293.
  • Gürbüz, S., & Şahin, F. (2014). Sosyal bilimlerde araştırma yöntemleri. Ankara: Seçkin Yayıncılık.
  • Hair, J.F., Hult, G.T.M., Ringle, C.M. & Sarstedt, M. (2014), A Primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM), SAGE Publications.
  • Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, J. B., & Anderson, R. E. (2014). Multivariate Data Analysis, 7th. Edition. Pearson.
  • Hochschild, A. R. (1979). Emotion work, feeling rules, and social structure. American Journal of Sociology, 85(3), 551-575.
  • Hochschild, A. R. (1983). The managed heart. Berkeley. CA: University of California Press. International Labour Organization (2001). Executive summary: The role of trade unions in promoting gender equality and protecting vulnerable workers: First report of the ILO-ICFTU survey. Retrieved March, 31, 2006.
  • Kim, T., Jung-Eun Yoo, J., Lee, G., & Kim, J. (2012). Emotional intelligence and emotional labor acting strategies among frontline hotel employees. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 24(7), 1029-1046.
  • Kong, F., Gong, X., Sajjad, S., Yang, K., & Zhao, J. (2019). How is emotional intelligence linked to life satisfaction? The mediating role of social support, positive affect and negative affect. Journal of Happiness Studies, 1-13.
  • Martins, A., & Martins, I. (2019, September). Emotional and spiritual capitals: linchpins for organizational sustainability. In European Conference on Knowledge Management (pp. 732-XXIII). Academic Conferences International Limited.
  • Mayer, J. D., Caruso, D. R., & Salovey, P. (1999). Emotional intelligence meets traditional standards for an intelligence. Intelligence, 27(4), 267–298.
  • Meydan, C. H., & Şeşen, H. (2011). Yapısal eşitlik modellemesi AMOS uygulamaları. Detay Yayıncılık.
  • Moon, T. W., & Hur, W. M. (2011). Emotional intelligence, emotional exhaustion, and job performance. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 39(8), 1087-1096.
  • Newman, M. & Purse, J. A. (2007). Emotional capital report technical manual. Roche Martin Institute.
  • Newman, M. (2008). Emotional capitalists: The new leaders. John Wiley ve Sons.
  • Newman, M., & Smith, K. H. (2014). Emotional intelligence and emotional labour: A comparison study using the emotional capital report (ECR). Education and Society, 32(1), 41-62. Newman, M., Purse, J., Smith, K., & Broderick, J. (2015). Assessing emotional intelligence in leaders and organisations: Reliability and validity of the emotional capital report (ECR). The Australasian Journal of Organisational Psychology, 8, 1-15.
  • Onay, M. (2011). Çalışanın sahip olduğu duygusal zekasının ve duygusal emeğinin, görev performansı ve bağlamsal performans üzerindeki etkisi. Ege Akademik Bakış, 11(4), 587.
  • Ortega, R. A. M. (2019). The Relationship between Income and Stressful Life Events: The Emotional Capital (Doctoral dissertation, State University of New York at Stony Brook). Passons, W. R. (1975). Gestalt approaches in counseling. Holt Rinehart and Winston.
  • Petrides, K. V., Pérez-González, J. C., & Furnham, A. (2007). On the criterion and incremental validity of trait emotional intelligence. Cognition and Emotion, 21(1), 26-55.
  • Piri, S., Pishghadam, R., Dixon, L. Q., & Razekh, Z. E. (2018). Predictors of L2 achievement: Testing a model based on EFL learners' emotional, social, and cultural capitals. Issues in Educational Research, 28(3), 737-755.
  • Reay, D. (2000). A Useful Extension of Bourdieu’s Conceptual Framework? Emotional capital as a way of understanding mothers’ involvement in their children’s education? The Sociological Review, 48(4), 568-585.
  • Tutcu, A. Çalışma hayatında duygusal sermaye ve tükenmişlik ilişkisi: Gaziantep ilindeki belediye çalışanları üzerine bir araştırma. Alanya Akademik Bakış, 4(3), 713-729.
  • Voorhees, C.M., Brady, M.K., Calantone, R. & Ramirez, E. (2016). Discriminant validity testing in marketing: an analysis, causes for concern, and proposed remedies. Journal of The Academy of Marketing Science, 44(1), 119-134.
  • Walsh, C. M. (2019). Emotional capital and the benefits for personal well-being: how positive moments with you might help me too (Doctoral dissertation).
  • Wen, J., Huang, S. S., & Hou, P. (2019). Emotional intelligence, emotional labor, perceived organizational support, and job satisfaction: A moderated mediation model. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 81, 120-130.
  • Wharton, A. S. (1999). The psychosocial consequences of emotional labor. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 561(1), 158-176.
  • Widarni, E. L. (2017). Relationship between Intellectual, Social and Emotional Capital: Its Impacts to Performance. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 11(10), 145-150.
  • Yıldırım Okutan, E., & Erdoğan, H. (2017). Türkiye'de son on yıldaki örgütsel davranış kongrelerindeki yönelimler: ulusal yönetim ve organizasyon kongresi ve örgütsel davranış kongresi örneği. Research Journal of Politics, Economics, 5(4).
  • Yin, H. B., Lee, J. C. K., & Zhang, Z. H. (2013). Exploring the relationship among teachers' emotional intelligence, emotional labor strategies and teaching satisfaction. Teaching and Teacher Education, 35, 137-145.
  • Zembylas, M. (2007). Emotional capital and education: Theoretical insights from Bourdieu, British Journal of Educational Studies, 55(4), 443-463.

Validity and Reliability Study of the Emotional Capital Scale

Yıl 2022, Cilt 17, Sayı 1, 71 - 91, 01.04.2022
https://doi.org/10.17153/oguiibf.959993

Öz

The concept of emotional capital is a limitedly studied subject in the literature. The aim of the study is to adapt the emotional capital scale developed by Newman et al. (2015) to Turkish culture. The properties of emotional capital scale were analysed through internal consistency coefficient, test-retest method, pilot application, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, and criterion-related validity method. Emotional capital and emotional labour scales were used for criterion-related validity. The results obtained show that, the emotional capital scale adapted in Turkey is a valid and reliable scale that can be used.

Kaynakça

  • Andrew, Y. (2015). ‘I’m strong with in myself’: Gender, class and emotional capital in childcare. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 36(5), 651-668.
  • Arif, H., & Zia-ur-Rehman, M. (2017). How ethical leadership and follower mindfulness play their role in developing organizational commitment? Analyzing the augmentative contribution of emotional capital. Global Management Journal for Academic & Corporate Studies, 7(1), 71-84.
  • Bagozzi, R. P. & Yi, Y. (1988). On the evaluation of structural equation models. Journal Of The Academy of Marketing Science, 16(1), 74-94.
  • Bilal, S., & Zia-ur-Rehman, M. (2017). The role of employee’s mindfulness and human resource development climate towards public leadership behavior-analyzing the moderating impact of emotional capital. Journal of Administrative and Business Studies, 3(5), 248-254.
  • Brislin, Richard W., LonnerWalter J. & Thorndike Robert M, (1973), Cross Cultural Research Methods, New York, John Wiley - SonsPub.
  • Brotheridge, C. M., & Grandey, A. A. (2002). Emotional labor and burnout: Comparing two perspectives of “people work”. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 60(1), 17-39.
  • Brown, B., Tanner, J., & Padley, W. (2014). ‘This wound has spoilt everything’: emotional capital and the experience of surgical site infections. Sociology of Health and İllness, 36(8), 1171-1187.
  • Butcher, J. N., & Spielberger, C. D. (2013). Advances in Personality Assessment: Volume 8. Routledge.
  • Candea, D., & Candea, R. (2010). Emotional Capital for Building Sustainable Business Performance. In Proceedings of the 2nd European Conference on Intellectual Capital: ISCTE Lisbon University Institute Lisbon, Portugal: (p.180). Academic Conferences Limited.
  • Caruso, D. R., Mayer, J. D., & Salovey, P. (2002). Relation of an ability measure of emotional intelligence to personality. Journal of Personality Assessment, 79(2), 306-320.
  • Choudhury, J. (2021). Emotional Intelligence, Socio-Emotional Competence and Human Capital. Ra Journal of Applied Research, 7(4), 2932-2938.
  • Cottingham, M. D. (2013). Men who care: How organizations and individuals negotiate masculinity, emotional capital, and emotion practice in nursing. Unpublished Doctoral dissertation, University of Akron.
  • Cronk, R. and Davis, C. (2016, October). A theoretical ınvestigation of the relationship between emotional ıntelligence, social capital and knowledge sharing. In International Conference on Intellectual Capital and Knowledge Management and Organisational Learning (p.82). Academic Conferences International Limited.
  • Çoruk. A. (2012). Yönetim süreçleri açısından yöneticilerin duygu yönetimi davranışları. Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Çanakkale.
  • Diefendorff, J. M., Croyle, M. H., & Gosserand, R. H. (2005). The dimensionality and antecedents of emotional labor strategies. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 66(2), 339-357.
  • Elicegui-Reyes, J. I., Barrena-Martínez, J., & Romero-Fernández, P. M. (2017). Emotional capital and sustainability in family businesses: Human resource management perspective and sustainability. In CSR 2.0 and the new era of corporate citizenship (pp. 231-250). IGI Global.
  • Eyel, C. Ş., & Akkaya, G. (2020). The effect of emotional capital on job satisfaction and life satisfaction: A research on basketball players in women’s super league in Turkey. Annals of Applied Sport Science, 0-0.
  • Eyel, C. Ş., & Durmaz, İ. B. V. (2019). The Effect of Emotional Capital on Individual Innovativeness: A Research on Bahcesehir University Business Administration Undergraduate Students. Procedia Computer Science, 158, 680-687.
  • Fornell, C. & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39-50.
  • Froyum, C. M. (2010). The reproduction of inequalities through emotional capital: The case of socializing low-income black girls. Qualitative Sociology, 33(1), 37-54.
  • Garland, C., Hume, F., & Majid, S. (2002). Remaking connections: refugees and the development of' emotional capital in therapy groups. Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy, 16(3), 197-214.
  • Gendron, B. (2002). Management, compétences et qualité en éducation: innovations pédagogiques en formation professionnelle, le cas des baccalauréats professionnels en France. International Conference, ADMEE, University of Lausanne, September, Switzerland.
  • Gendron, B. (2004). Why emotional capital matters in education and in labour? Toward an optimal exploitation of human capital and knowledge management, in Les Cahiers de la Maison des Sciences Economiques, serie rouge, 113, Paris: Universite Pantheon-Sorbonne, 1-37.
  • Gendron, B. (2007). Emotional capital: a crucial capital for a citizenship society with personal, Social and Economic Returns, in Ross, A. (ed) Citizenship Education in Society. London: CiCe, 401-416.
  • Gendron, B. (2017). Emotional capital: The set of emotional competencies as professional and vocational skills in emotional works and jobs. Revista Espanola de Educacion Comparada, 29, 44-61.
  • Gendron, B., Kouremenou, E. S., & Rusu, C. (2016). Emotional capital development, positive psychology and mindful teaching: Which Links? International Journal of Emotional Education, 8(1), 63-74.
  • Gillies, V. (2006). Working class mothers and school life: Exploring the role of emotional capital. Gender and education, 18(3), 281-293.
  • Gürbüz, S., & Şahin, F. (2014). Sosyal bilimlerde araştırma yöntemleri. Ankara: Seçkin Yayıncılık.
  • Hair, J.F., Hult, G.T.M., Ringle, C.M. & Sarstedt, M. (2014), A Primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM), SAGE Publications.
  • Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, J. B., & Anderson, R. E. (2014). Multivariate Data Analysis, 7th. Edition. Pearson.
  • Hochschild, A. R. (1979). Emotion work, feeling rules, and social structure. American Journal of Sociology, 85(3), 551-575.
  • Hochschild, A. R. (1983). The managed heart. Berkeley. CA: University of California Press. International Labour Organization (2001). Executive summary: The role of trade unions in promoting gender equality and protecting vulnerable workers: First report of the ILO-ICFTU survey. Retrieved March, 31, 2006.
  • Kim, T., Jung-Eun Yoo, J., Lee, G., & Kim, J. (2012). Emotional intelligence and emotional labor acting strategies among frontline hotel employees. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 24(7), 1029-1046.
  • Kong, F., Gong, X., Sajjad, S., Yang, K., & Zhao, J. (2019). How is emotional intelligence linked to life satisfaction? The mediating role of social support, positive affect and negative affect. Journal of Happiness Studies, 1-13.
  • Martins, A., & Martins, I. (2019, September). Emotional and spiritual capitals: linchpins for organizational sustainability. In European Conference on Knowledge Management (pp. 732-XXIII). Academic Conferences International Limited.
  • Mayer, J. D., Caruso, D. R., & Salovey, P. (1999). Emotional intelligence meets traditional standards for an intelligence. Intelligence, 27(4), 267–298.
  • Meydan, C. H., & Şeşen, H. (2011). Yapısal eşitlik modellemesi AMOS uygulamaları. Detay Yayıncılık.
  • Moon, T. W., & Hur, W. M. (2011). Emotional intelligence, emotional exhaustion, and job performance. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 39(8), 1087-1096.
  • Newman, M. & Purse, J. A. (2007). Emotional capital report technical manual. Roche Martin Institute.
  • Newman, M. (2008). Emotional capitalists: The new leaders. John Wiley ve Sons.
  • Newman, M., & Smith, K. H. (2014). Emotional intelligence and emotional labour: A comparison study using the emotional capital report (ECR). Education and Society, 32(1), 41-62. Newman, M., Purse, J., Smith, K., & Broderick, J. (2015). Assessing emotional intelligence in leaders and organisations: Reliability and validity of the emotional capital report (ECR). The Australasian Journal of Organisational Psychology, 8, 1-15.
  • Onay, M. (2011). Çalışanın sahip olduğu duygusal zekasının ve duygusal emeğinin, görev performansı ve bağlamsal performans üzerindeki etkisi. Ege Akademik Bakış, 11(4), 587.
  • Ortega, R. A. M. (2019). The Relationship between Income and Stressful Life Events: The Emotional Capital (Doctoral dissertation, State University of New York at Stony Brook). Passons, W. R. (1975). Gestalt approaches in counseling. Holt Rinehart and Winston.
  • Petrides, K. V., Pérez-González, J. C., & Furnham, A. (2007). On the criterion and incremental validity of trait emotional intelligence. Cognition and Emotion, 21(1), 26-55.
  • Piri, S., Pishghadam, R., Dixon, L. Q., & Razekh, Z. E. (2018). Predictors of L2 achievement: Testing a model based on EFL learners' emotional, social, and cultural capitals. Issues in Educational Research, 28(3), 737-755.
  • Reay, D. (2000). A Useful Extension of Bourdieu’s Conceptual Framework? Emotional capital as a way of understanding mothers’ involvement in their children’s education? The Sociological Review, 48(4), 568-585.
  • Tutcu, A. Çalışma hayatında duygusal sermaye ve tükenmişlik ilişkisi: Gaziantep ilindeki belediye çalışanları üzerine bir araştırma. Alanya Akademik Bakış, 4(3), 713-729.
  • Voorhees, C.M., Brady, M.K., Calantone, R. & Ramirez, E. (2016). Discriminant validity testing in marketing: an analysis, causes for concern, and proposed remedies. Journal of The Academy of Marketing Science, 44(1), 119-134.
  • Walsh, C. M. (2019). Emotional capital and the benefits for personal well-being: how positive moments with you might help me too (Doctoral dissertation).
  • Wen, J., Huang, S. S., & Hou, P. (2019). Emotional intelligence, emotional labor, perceived organizational support, and job satisfaction: A moderated mediation model. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 81, 120-130.
  • Wharton, A. S. (1999). The psychosocial consequences of emotional labor. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 561(1), 158-176.
  • Widarni, E. L. (2017). Relationship between Intellectual, Social and Emotional Capital: Its Impacts to Performance. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 11(10), 145-150.
  • Yıldırım Okutan, E., & Erdoğan, H. (2017). Türkiye'de son on yıldaki örgütsel davranış kongrelerindeki yönelimler: ulusal yönetim ve organizasyon kongresi ve örgütsel davranış kongresi örneği. Research Journal of Politics, Economics, 5(4).
  • Yin, H. B., Lee, J. C. K., & Zhang, Z. H. (2013). Exploring the relationship among teachers' emotional intelligence, emotional labor strategies and teaching satisfaction. Teaching and Teacher Education, 35, 137-145.
  • Zembylas, M. (2007). Emotional capital and education: Theoretical insights from Bourdieu, British Journal of Educational Studies, 55(4), 443-463.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Sosyal
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Gamze AY (Sorumlu Yazar)
Eskişehir Osmangazi Üniversitesi
0000-0003-1299-8552
Türkiye


Mazlum ÇELİK
HASAN KALYONCU ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0001-5021-3256
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 1 Nisan 2022
Başvuru Tarihi 30 Haziran 2021
Kabul Tarihi 5 Ekim 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 17, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

APA Ay, G. & Çelik, M. (2022). Validity and Reliability Study of the Emotional Capital Scale . Eskişehir Osmangazi Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Dergisi , 17 (1) , 71-91 . DOI: 10.17153/oguiibf.959993