Olgu Sunumu
BibTex RIS Kaynak Göster

Online Counseling: Ethical Guidelines, the COVID-19 Process, Suggestions

Yıl 2020, Cilt: 3 Sayı: 1, 59 - 83, 30.06.2020

Öz

Due to COVID-19, online counseling has become more important than before. The purpose of this paper is to define online counseling, discuss different methods to be used in the delivery of online counseling services, present findings from the literature about the effectiveness of online counseling, discuss advantages and disadvantages of online counseling, present information about the COVID-19 process and its effects on people’s psychological functioning, and discuss ethical guidelines by the American Psychological Association and the American Counseling Association to be considered in the delivery of online psychological services. Specifically, we point out different training programs that should be completed through professional organizations (APA, ACA, ASCA, etc.). The informed consent process seems to be one of the important components in the effective delivery of online services. Preventive online counseling services such as online support groups are important to help individuals deal with the psychological effects of COVID-19.

Kaynakça

  • Allen, L., (2020). 4 Questions for Steven Taylor. Monitor on Psychology, 51 (4). Downloaded from https://www.apa.org/monitor/2020/06/conversation-taylor
  • American Counseling Association. (2014). ACA Code of Ethics. Downloaded from https://www.counseling.org/resources/aca-code-of-ethics.pdf
  • American Counseling Association (2020). Counseling in a Time of COVID-19: Mental Health, Professional Counseling and Emergency Preparedness. Retrieved from https://www.counseling.org/knowledge-center/mental-health-resources/trauma-disaster/mental-health-professional-counseling-and-emergency-preparedness
  • American Psychological Association. (2020a). Guidelines for the Practice of Telepsychology. Downloaded from https://www.apa.org/practice/guidelines/telepsychology
  • American Psychological Association. (2020b). Telepsychology Best Practice 101 Series (Webinar). Downloaded from https://apa.content.online/catalog/product.xhtml?eid=15132\
  • American School Counselor Association (2020). Issues and Lessons Emerging From Covid-19. Retrieved from https://www.schoolcounselor.org/magazine/blogs/may-june-2020/issues-and-lessons-emerging%C2%A0-from-covid-19?feed=magazine
  • American School Counselor Association (2020). School counseling during Covid-19: Online lessons and resources. Retrieved from https://www.schoolcounselor.org/school-counselors/professional-development/learn-more/coronavirus-resources.
  • Mallen, M. J., Vogel, D. L., Rochlen, A. B., & Day, S. X. (2005). Online counseling: Reviewing the literature from a counseling framework. The Counseling Psychologist, 33(6), 819–871.
  • Barnett, J. E. (2005). Online counseling: New entity, new challenges. The Counseling Psychologist, 33(6), 872–880.
  • Barnett, J. E. (2011). Utilizing technological innovations to enhance psychotherapy supervision, training, and outcomes. Psychotherapy, 48(2), 103–108. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0023381
  • Cipolletta, S., & Damiano, M. (2018). Online counseling: An exploratory survey of Italian psychologists’ attitudes towards new ways of interaction. Psychotherapy Research, 28 (6). 909-924. DOI:10.1080/10503307.2016.1259533
  • Chang, T. (2005). Online counseling: Prioritizing psychoeducation, self-help, and mutual help for counseling psychology research and practice. The Counseling Psychologist, 33(6), 881–890.
  • Cohen, G. E., & Kerr, B. A. (1998) Computer-mediated counseling: An empirical study of a new mental health treatment. Computers in Human Services, 15 (4), 13-26, https://doi.org/10.1300/J407v15n04_02
  • Cook. E., & Doyle, C. (2004). Working alliance in online therapy as compared to face-to-face therapy: Preliminary results. CyberPsychology and Behavior, 5 (2). https://doi.org/10.1089/109493102753770480
  • Crystal, N. M. (2009). Ethical issues in using social networking sites. South Carolina Law, November, 10–12.
  • Day, S. X., & Schneider, P. L. (2002). Psychotherapy using distance technology: A comparison of face-to-face, video, and audio treatment. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 49, 499-503.
  • DeAngelis, T. (2012). Practicing distance therapy, legally and ethically. Monitor on Psychology, 43(3), 52.
  • Elleven, R., & Allen, J. (2004). Applying technology to online counselling: Suggestions for the beginning e-therapist. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 31(3), 223–227.
  • Euronews. (2020). Domestic violence cases jump 30% during lockdown in France. Downloaded from https://www.euronews.com/2020/03/28/domestic-violence-cases-jump-30-during-lockdown-in-france
  • Finn, J., & Barak, A. (2010). A descriptive study of e-counsellor attitudes, ethics, and practice. Counselling and Psychotherapy Research, 10(4), 268–277.
  • Haberstroh, S., Duffey, T., Evans, M., Gee, R., & Trepal, H. (2007). The experience of online counseling. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 29(3), 269–282.
  • Harris, B., & Birnbaum, R. (2015). Ethical and legal implications on the use of technology in counseling. Journal of Clinical Social Work, 43,133–141.
  • Ileri, E., & Demirbas, F. C. (2020). “Evde kal” doneminde aile ici siddete karsi uzman tavsiyeleri. Downloaded from https://www.aa.com.tr/tr/yasam/evde-kal-doneminde-aile-ici-siddete-karsi-uzman-tavsiyeleri-/1798334
  • Jencius, M., & Sager, D. E. (2001). The practice of marriage and family counseling in cyberspace. The Family Journal: Counseling and Therapy for Couples and Families, 9(3), 295-301.
  • Lee, S. J., & Ward, K.P. (2020). Stress and parenting during the coronavirus pandemic. Downloaded from https://www.parentingincontext.org/uploads/8/1/3/1/81318622/research_brief_stress_and_parenting_during_the_coronavirus_pandemic_final.pdf
  • Lovell, K., Fullalove, L., Garvey, R., & Brooker, C. (2000). Telephone treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 28, 87-91.
  • Maheu, M. M., & Gordon, B. L. (2000). Counseling and therapy on the internet. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 31(5), 484–489.
  • Mallen, M. J., & Vogel, D. L. (2005). Introduction to the major contribution: Counseling psychology and online counseling. The Counseling Psychologist, 33, 761-775.
  • Mallen, M. J., Vogel, D. L., & Rochlen, A. B., & Day, S. X. (2005). Online counseling: Reviewing the literature from a counseling psychology framework. The Counseling Psychologist, 33 (6), 819-871. https://doi-org.ezaccess.libraries.psu.edu/10.1177/0011000005278624
  • Miguez, M. A., Vazquez, F. L., & Becona, E. (2002). Effectiveness of telephone contact as anadjunct to a self-help program for smoking cessation: A randomized controlled trial in Span-ish smokers. Addictive Behaviors, 27, 139-144.
  • Milli Egitim Bakanligi. (2020). 12,5 milyon ogrenci ve veliye rehberlik hizmeti. Downloaded from https://www.meb.gov.tr/125-milyon-ogrenci-ve-veliye-rehberlik-hizmeti/haber/20882/tr
  • Petterson, S., Westfall, J. M., & Miller, B. F. (2020). Projected deaths of despair from COVID-19. Downloaded from https://wellbeingtrust.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/WBT_Deaths-of-Despair_COVID-19-FINAL-FINAL.pdf
  • Pomerantz, J. M. (2002). Clinical responsibility and e-therapy. Drug Benefit Trends, 14, 29-30.
  • Rawson, S., & Maidment, J. (2011). Email counselling with young people in Australia: A research report. Women in Welfare Education, 10, 14–28.
  • Reamer, F. G. (2013). Social work in a digital age: Ethical and risk management challenges. Social Work, 58(2), 163–172.
  • Richards, D., & Vigano, N. (2013). Online counseling: A narrative and critical review of the literature. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 69(9), 994–1011.
  • Riemer-Reiss, M. L. (2000). Utilizing distance technology for mental health counseling. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 22(3), 189–203.
  • VandenBos, G. R., & Williams, S. (2000). The Internet versus the telephone: What is telehealth, anyway? Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 31, 490-492.
  • World Health Organization. (2020). Mental health and psychosocial considerations during the COVID-19 outbreak. Downloaded from https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/mental-health-considerations.pdf
  • Zhu, S., Tedeschi, G., Anderson, C. M., Rosbrook, B., Byrd, M., Johnson, C. E., & Gutierrez-Terrell, E. (2000). Telephone counseling as adjuvant treatment for nicotine replacement therapy in a “real-world” setting. Preventive Medicine: An International Journal Devoted to Practice and Theory, 31, 357-363. https://doi.org/10.1006/pmed.2000.0720

Çevrim içi Psikolojik Danışma: Etik Kuralları, COVID-19 Süreci, Öneriler

Yıl 2020, Cilt: 3 Sayı: 1, 59 - 83, 30.06.2020

Öz

Bu makalenin amacı literature bağlı olarak çevrim içi psikolojik danışmanın ne olduğunu ortaya koymak, avantajlarını ve dezavantajlarını tartışmak ve COVID-19 sürecinde insanların psikolojik olarak neler yaşadıklarıyla ilgili bilgi vermektir. Makalenin içeriğinde, Amerikan Psikoloji Derneği’nin (APA) ve Amerikan Psikolojik Danışma Derneği’nin (ACA) çevrim içi psikolojik danışma ile ilgili etik kuralları sunulmuş, psikolojik danışmanlara çevrimiçi psikolojik danışma hizmetleri sunarken nelere dikkat etmeleri gerektiği bilgisi verilmiştir. Çevrim içi psikolojik danışmanın ilk koşulu hem danışmanın hem de danışanın, kullanılacak olan teknolojik yöntemle ilgili yeterli bilgiye ve beceriye sahip olmasıdır. Bu makalede, onam formu süreci ve vaka notuna neler yazılması gerektiği örneklerle anlatılmıştır. APA, ACA ve Amerikan Okul Psikolojik Danışma Birliği (ASCA) dahil olmak üzere, farklı kurumların bu alanda sunduğu hizmet içi eğitimlerle ilgili bilgiler de paylaşılmıştır. Psikolojik danışmanların ilgili etik kurallarını detaylı olarak öğrenmeleri ve ilgili kurumların sunduğu hizmet içi eğitim programlarına katılmaları şarttır. Önleyici ruh sağlığı hizmeleri (çevrim içi destek grupları vs.) COVID-19 sürecinde sunulmalıdır.

Kaynakça

  • Allen, L., (2020). 4 Questions for Steven Taylor. Monitor on Psychology, 51 (4). Downloaded from https://www.apa.org/monitor/2020/06/conversation-taylor
  • American Counseling Association. (2014). ACA Code of Ethics. Downloaded from https://www.counseling.org/resources/aca-code-of-ethics.pdf
  • American Counseling Association (2020). Counseling in a Time of COVID-19: Mental Health, Professional Counseling and Emergency Preparedness. Retrieved from https://www.counseling.org/knowledge-center/mental-health-resources/trauma-disaster/mental-health-professional-counseling-and-emergency-preparedness
  • American Psychological Association. (2020a). Guidelines for the Practice of Telepsychology. Downloaded from https://www.apa.org/practice/guidelines/telepsychology
  • American Psychological Association. (2020b). Telepsychology Best Practice 101 Series (Webinar). Downloaded from https://apa.content.online/catalog/product.xhtml?eid=15132\
  • American School Counselor Association (2020). Issues and Lessons Emerging From Covid-19. Retrieved from https://www.schoolcounselor.org/magazine/blogs/may-june-2020/issues-and-lessons-emerging%C2%A0-from-covid-19?feed=magazine
  • American School Counselor Association (2020). School counseling during Covid-19: Online lessons and resources. Retrieved from https://www.schoolcounselor.org/school-counselors/professional-development/learn-more/coronavirus-resources.
  • Mallen, M. J., Vogel, D. L., Rochlen, A. B., & Day, S. X. (2005). Online counseling: Reviewing the literature from a counseling framework. The Counseling Psychologist, 33(6), 819–871.
  • Barnett, J. E. (2005). Online counseling: New entity, new challenges. The Counseling Psychologist, 33(6), 872–880.
  • Barnett, J. E. (2011). Utilizing technological innovations to enhance psychotherapy supervision, training, and outcomes. Psychotherapy, 48(2), 103–108. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0023381
  • Cipolletta, S., & Damiano, M. (2018). Online counseling: An exploratory survey of Italian psychologists’ attitudes towards new ways of interaction. Psychotherapy Research, 28 (6). 909-924. DOI:10.1080/10503307.2016.1259533
  • Chang, T. (2005). Online counseling: Prioritizing psychoeducation, self-help, and mutual help for counseling psychology research and practice. The Counseling Psychologist, 33(6), 881–890.
  • Cohen, G. E., & Kerr, B. A. (1998) Computer-mediated counseling: An empirical study of a new mental health treatment. Computers in Human Services, 15 (4), 13-26, https://doi.org/10.1300/J407v15n04_02
  • Cook. E., & Doyle, C. (2004). Working alliance in online therapy as compared to face-to-face therapy: Preliminary results. CyberPsychology and Behavior, 5 (2). https://doi.org/10.1089/109493102753770480
  • Crystal, N. M. (2009). Ethical issues in using social networking sites. South Carolina Law, November, 10–12.
  • Day, S. X., & Schneider, P. L. (2002). Psychotherapy using distance technology: A comparison of face-to-face, video, and audio treatment. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 49, 499-503.
  • DeAngelis, T. (2012). Practicing distance therapy, legally and ethically. Monitor on Psychology, 43(3), 52.
  • Elleven, R., & Allen, J. (2004). Applying technology to online counselling: Suggestions for the beginning e-therapist. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 31(3), 223–227.
  • Euronews. (2020). Domestic violence cases jump 30% during lockdown in France. Downloaded from https://www.euronews.com/2020/03/28/domestic-violence-cases-jump-30-during-lockdown-in-france
  • Finn, J., & Barak, A. (2010). A descriptive study of e-counsellor attitudes, ethics, and practice. Counselling and Psychotherapy Research, 10(4), 268–277.
  • Haberstroh, S., Duffey, T., Evans, M., Gee, R., & Trepal, H. (2007). The experience of online counseling. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 29(3), 269–282.
  • Harris, B., & Birnbaum, R. (2015). Ethical and legal implications on the use of technology in counseling. Journal of Clinical Social Work, 43,133–141.
  • Ileri, E., & Demirbas, F. C. (2020). “Evde kal” doneminde aile ici siddete karsi uzman tavsiyeleri. Downloaded from https://www.aa.com.tr/tr/yasam/evde-kal-doneminde-aile-ici-siddete-karsi-uzman-tavsiyeleri-/1798334
  • Jencius, M., & Sager, D. E. (2001). The practice of marriage and family counseling in cyberspace. The Family Journal: Counseling and Therapy for Couples and Families, 9(3), 295-301.
  • Lee, S. J., & Ward, K.P. (2020). Stress and parenting during the coronavirus pandemic. Downloaded from https://www.parentingincontext.org/uploads/8/1/3/1/81318622/research_brief_stress_and_parenting_during_the_coronavirus_pandemic_final.pdf
  • Lovell, K., Fullalove, L., Garvey, R., & Brooker, C. (2000). Telephone treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 28, 87-91.
  • Maheu, M. M., & Gordon, B. L. (2000). Counseling and therapy on the internet. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 31(5), 484–489.
  • Mallen, M. J., & Vogel, D. L. (2005). Introduction to the major contribution: Counseling psychology and online counseling. The Counseling Psychologist, 33, 761-775.
  • Mallen, M. J., Vogel, D. L., & Rochlen, A. B., & Day, S. X. (2005). Online counseling: Reviewing the literature from a counseling psychology framework. The Counseling Psychologist, 33 (6), 819-871. https://doi-org.ezaccess.libraries.psu.edu/10.1177/0011000005278624
  • Miguez, M. A., Vazquez, F. L., & Becona, E. (2002). Effectiveness of telephone contact as anadjunct to a self-help program for smoking cessation: A randomized controlled trial in Span-ish smokers. Addictive Behaviors, 27, 139-144.
  • Milli Egitim Bakanligi. (2020). 12,5 milyon ogrenci ve veliye rehberlik hizmeti. Downloaded from https://www.meb.gov.tr/125-milyon-ogrenci-ve-veliye-rehberlik-hizmeti/haber/20882/tr
  • Petterson, S., Westfall, J. M., & Miller, B. F. (2020). Projected deaths of despair from COVID-19. Downloaded from https://wellbeingtrust.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/WBT_Deaths-of-Despair_COVID-19-FINAL-FINAL.pdf
  • Pomerantz, J. M. (2002). Clinical responsibility and e-therapy. Drug Benefit Trends, 14, 29-30.
  • Rawson, S., & Maidment, J. (2011). Email counselling with young people in Australia: A research report. Women in Welfare Education, 10, 14–28.
  • Reamer, F. G. (2013). Social work in a digital age: Ethical and risk management challenges. Social Work, 58(2), 163–172.
  • Richards, D., & Vigano, N. (2013). Online counseling: A narrative and critical review of the literature. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 69(9), 994–1011.
  • Riemer-Reiss, M. L. (2000). Utilizing distance technology for mental health counseling. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 22(3), 189–203.
  • VandenBos, G. R., & Williams, S. (2000). The Internet versus the telephone: What is telehealth, anyway? Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 31, 490-492.
  • World Health Organization. (2020). Mental health and psychosocial considerations during the COVID-19 outbreak. Downloaded from https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/mental-health-considerations.pdf
  • Zhu, S., Tedeschi, G., Anderson, C. M., Rosbrook, B., Byrd, M., Johnson, C. E., & Gutierrez-Terrell, E. (2000). Telephone counseling as adjuvant treatment for nicotine replacement therapy in a “real-world” setting. Preventive Medicine: An International Journal Devoted to Practice and Theory, 31, 357-363. https://doi.org/10.1006/pmed.2000.0720

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Şenel POYRAZLI

Ahmet CAN

Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Haziran 2020
Yayımlandığı Sayı Yıl 2020 Cilt: 3 Sayı: 1

Kaynak Göster

APA POYRAZLI, Ş., & CAN, A. (2020). Çevrim içi Psikolojik Danışma: Etik Kuralları, COVID-19 Süreci, Öneriler. Okul Psikolojik Danışmanlığı Dergisi, 3(1), 59-83.
AMA POYRAZLI Ş, CAN A. Çevrim içi Psikolojik Danışma: Etik Kuralları, COVID-19 Süreci, Öneriler. OPDD / JSC. Haziran 2020;3(1):59-83.
Chicago POYRAZLI, Şenel, ve Ahmet CAN. “Çevrim içi Psikolojik Danışma: Etik Kuralları, COVID-19 Süreci, Öneriler”. Okul Psikolojik Danışmanlığı Dergisi 3, sy. 1 (Haziran 2020): 59-83.
EndNote POYRAZLI Ş, CAN A (01 Haziran 2020) Çevrim içi Psikolojik Danışma: Etik Kuralları, COVID-19 Süreci, Öneriler. Okul Psikolojik Danışmanlığı Dergisi 3 1 59–83.
IEEE Ş. POYRAZLI ve A. CAN, “Çevrim içi Psikolojik Danışma: Etik Kuralları, COVID-19 Süreci, Öneriler”, OPDD / JSC, c. 3, sy. 1, ss. 59–83, 2020.
ISNAD POYRAZLI, Şenel - CAN, Ahmet. “Çevrim içi Psikolojik Danışma: Etik Kuralları, COVID-19 Süreci, Öneriler”. Okul Psikolojik Danışmanlığı Dergisi 3/1 (Haziran 2020), 59-83.
JAMA POYRAZLI Ş, CAN A. Çevrim içi Psikolojik Danışma: Etik Kuralları, COVID-19 Süreci, Öneriler. OPDD / JSC. 2020;3:59–83.
MLA POYRAZLI, Şenel ve Ahmet CAN. “Çevrim içi Psikolojik Danışma: Etik Kuralları, COVID-19 Süreci, Öneriler”. Okul Psikolojik Danışmanlığı Dergisi, c. 3, sy. 1, 2020, ss. 59-83.
Vancouver POYRAZLI Ş, CAN A. Çevrim içi Psikolojik Danışma: Etik Kuralları, COVID-19 Süreci, Öneriler. OPDD / JSC. 2020;3(1):59-83.

İletişim Adresi: Türk Psikolojik Danışma ve Rehberlik Derneği, Sağlık Mah. Süleyman Sırrı Cad. Sağlık İş Hanı No: 21/18, Çankaya/Ankara Tel: 0850 756 96 76