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Conventionalization and rural development critics on organic farming ıssues

Yıl 2022, Sayı 81, 187 - 196, 31.12.2022
https://doi.org/10.17211/tcd.1163100

Öz

Drought, as an unavoidable result of global climate change, will undoubtedly have a negative
impact on farming in the future. Drought-resistant and low-cost products will be commonly
grown in the future. As a result, the importance of organic farming practices and policies will
grow significantly over time. Indeed, emergence of organic farming is an objection to the
philosophy of conventional farming. Conventionalisation critics in organic farming have continued
since the 1990s. Similarly, conventionalization critics in organic farming are expected
to increase in the future. The basic motivation of organic farmers in the conventionalization
process is to maximize their profits. So, this process also contributes to rural development.
Furthermore, one option for reducing international human migration is to pursue rural development
strategies that are compatible with ever-changing global dynamics. In this sense,
the purpose of this study is to understand how conventionalization and rural development
arguments are examined. According to theoretical critics, this study addresses a few issues.
In organic farming, there is a strong link between conventionalization and rural development
phenomena. Furthermore, conventionalization criteria are critical arguments for bolstering
rural development. The research fills literature gap in view that it creates a leader perspective
attaching conventionalization and rural development to the organic farming axis.

Kaynakça

  • Adams, W. M., (2009). Greeen Development: Environment and Sustainability In A Developing World, Routledge, 3rd Edition, New York, USA. ISBN: 0-203-92971-3.
  • Aydoğan, M., (2012). Samsun İlinde Organik ve Konvansiyonel Fındık Yetiştiricilerinin Gübre Kullanımı Konusundaki İletişim Kaynaklarının Sosyal Ağ Analizi ile Karşılaştırılması, Ondokuz Mayıs Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Samsun.
  • Ayuya, O. I., Gıdo, E. O., Bett, H. K., Lagat, J. K., Kahi, A. K., & Bauer, S. (2015). Effect of certified organic production systems on poverty among smallholder farmers: empirical evidence from Kenya. World Development, 67: 27–37. doi:10.1016/j. worlddev.2014.10.005.
  • Berger, G. (1992). Social Structure & Rural Development In The Third World. 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Best, H. (2008). Organic agriculture and the conventionalization hypothesis: a case study from West Germany. Agriculture & Human Values, 25: 95–106. doi:10.1007/s10460-007-9073-1.
  • Blanc, J., & Kledal, P. R. (2012). The Brazilian organic food sector: prospects and constraints of facilitating the inclusion of smallholders. Journal of Rural Studies, 28(1):142-154. https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2011.10.005
  • Buck, D., Getz, C., Guthman, J., (1997). From farm to table: the organic vegetable commodity chain of Northern California. Sociologia Ruralis, 37 (1), 3-20.
  • Brundtland Raporu (2022, Ağustos). https://www.are.admin.ch/ are/en/home/media/publications/sustainable-development/ brundtland-report.html.5262
  • Carpenter, D. (2003). An investigation into the transition from technological to ecological rice farming among resource poor farmers from the Philippine Island of Bohol. Agriculture and Human Values, 20: 165–77. https://doi. org/10.1023/A:1024013509602
  • Chambers, R. (1998). Rural Development: Putting The Last First, Longman, England.
  • Cisilino, F., Bodini, A., & Zanoli, A. (2019). Rural development programs’ impact on environment: an ex-post evaluation of organic faming. Land Use Policy, 85: 454-462. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2019.04.016
  • Clammer, J. (2012). Culture, Development and Social Theory: Towards an Integrated Social Development. 1st ed. New York, USA: Zed Books.
  • Cobb, D., Feber, R., Hopkins, A., Stockdale, L., O’Riordan, T., Clements, B., Firbank, L., Goulding, K., Jarvis, S. & Macdonald, D. (1999). Integrating the environmental and economic consequences of converting to organic agriculture: evidence from a case study. Land Use Policy, 16(4): 207–21. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0264- 8377(99)00023-X
  • Constance, D.H., Choi, J.Y., Lyke-Ho-Gland, H., (2008). Conventionalization, bifurcation, and quality of life: Certified and non-certified organic farmers in Texas. Southern Rural Sociology, 23 (1), 208-234.
  • Cook, B. (2019). Organic rural development: barriers to value in the quest for qualities in Jordanian olive oil. Journal of Rural Studies, 69: 106-116. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2019.04.014
  • Crandfield, J., Henson, S. & Holliday, J. (2010). The motives, benefits, and problems of conversion to organic production. Agriculture and Human Values, 27: 291–306. https://doi.org/10.1007/ s10460-009-9222-9
  • Cihangir, E., Demirhan, Ö. & Şeremet, M., (2020). Kırsal turizm potansiyelinin ortaya çıkarılmasında kırsalda kadının durumuna bir bakış: Van otlu peyniri üretimi örneği, International Journal Of Geography And Geography Education, 42(1): 199-222. https://doi.org/10.32003/igge.692207
  • Çelik, F., (2019). GAP Organik tarım kümesi’nin bölgesel kalkınmaya etkisinin değerlendirilmesi, Aksaray Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi (ASED), 3(2): 220-242. ISSN: 2619-9211
  • Darnhofer, I., (2006). Organic farming between professionalisation and conventionalisation - The Need For A More Discerning View Of Farmer Practices. Paper at: Joint Organic Congress, Odense, Denmark, May 30-31, 2006.
  • De Master, K. (2012). Designing dreams or constructing contradictions? European Union multifunctional policies and the polish organic farm sector. Rural Sociology, 77 (1): 89–109. doi:10.1111/j.1549-0831.2012.00071.x.
  • Dufeu, I., Le Velly, R., Bréchet, J.‐P. & Loconto, A. (2020). Can standards save organic farming from conventionalisation? dynamics of collective projects and rules in a French organic producers’ organisation. Sociologia Ruralis, 60(3): 621-638. https://doi.org/10.1111/soru.12298
  • Duram, L. A. (2000). Agents’ perceptions of structure: how illinois organic farmers view political, economic, social, and ecological factors. Agriculture and Human Values, 17: 35–48. https://doi. org/10.1023/A:1007632810301
  • Duxbury, N., & Campbell, H. (2011). Developing and revitalizing rural communities through arts and culture. Small Cities Imprint 1 (3): 111–122.
  • Erdoğan, Ü., Erdoğan, Y., Çakmakçı, R., & Turan, M. (2014). Organic farming and sustainable rural development: Çoruh Valley. IFOAM Organic World Congress 2014, Building Organic Bridges, October. http://orgprints.org/24895/1/PT_24895_MTuran.pdf
  • Febles-Gonzalez, J. M., Tolon-Becerra, A., Lastra-Bravo, X., & Acosta- Valdes, X. (2011). Cuban agricultural policy in the last 25 years. from conventional to organic agriculture. Land Use Policy, 28: 723–35. doi:10.1016/j.landusepol.2010.12.008.
  • Goldberger, J. R. (2011). Conventionalization, civic engagement, and the sustainability of organic agriculture. Journal of Rural Studies, 27: 288–96. doi:10.1016/j.jrurstud.2011.03.002.
  • Gregory, D., Johnston, R., Pratt, G., Watts, M. J., & Whatmore, S., (2009). The Dictionary of Human Geography, Wiley-Blackwell Publication, Singapore.
  • Günay, S. (2007). Türkiye’de ekolojik fındık tarımının başlaması ve etkileri üzerine bir örnek: Çamlıca Köyü (Samsun), Ekoloji Dergisi, 16: 7–15.
  • Hall, A. & Mogyorody, V. (2001). Organic farmers in Ontario: an examination of the conventionalization argument. Sociologia Ruralis, 41(4): 399-422. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467- 9523.00191
  • Hendrickson, M., James, H., & Heffernan, W. D. (2014). Vertical integration and concentration in US agriculture, Encyclopedia of Food and Agricultural Ethics, p: 1799-1806.
  • Kadıoğlu, Y., (2012). Kırsal kalkınma açısından ayrancı ovası ve yakın çevresi (Banaz) doğal kaynakları, Marmara Coğrafya Dergisi, 25:1, s: 60-80, ISSN:1303-2429.
  • Karabaş, S., & Gürler, A. Z. (2011). “Organik tarım ve konvansiyonel tarım yapan İşletmelerin karşılaştırmalı analizi.” KMÜ Sosyal ve Ekonomik Araştırmalar Dergisi, 13(1): 75–84. ISSN: 1309-9132
  • Kings, D. & B. İlbery (2010). The environmental belief systems of organic and conventional farmers: evidence from Central- Southern England. Journal of Rural Studies, 26(4): 437-448. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2010.05.003
  • Knickel, K., Redman, M., Darnhofer, I., Ashkenazy, A., Chebach, T. C., Šūmane, S. & Rogge, E. (2018). Between aspirations and reality: making farming, food systems and rural areas more resilient, sustainable and equitable. Journal of Rural Studies, 59: 197-210. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2017.04.012
  • Lehtimäki, T. (2019). Making a difference. constructing relations between organic and conventional agriculture in Finland in the emergence of organic agriculture. Sociologia Ruralis, 59: 113- 136. https://doi.org/10.1111/soru.12222
  • Lobley, M., Butler, A. & Reed, M. (2009). The contribution of organic farming to rural development: an exploration of the socio-economic linkages of organic and non-organic farms in England. Land Use Policy 26: 723–35. doi:10.1016/j. landusepol.2008.09.007.
  • Lockie, S., & Halpin, D., (2005). The ‘conventionalisation’ thesis reconsidered: structural and ideological transformation of australian organic agriculture. Sociologia Ruralis, 45 (4): 284– 307. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9523.2005.00306.x
  • Marsden, T., Banks, J. & Bristow, G., (2002). The social management of rural nature: understanding agrarian-based rural development, Environmental and Planning A, 34: 809–825. https://doi. org/10.1068/a3427
  • McGreevy, S. R. (2012). Lost in translation: incomer organic farmers, local knowledge, and the revitalization of Upland Japanese Hamlets.” Agriculture and Human Values, 29: 393–412. doi:10.1007/s10460-011-9347-5.
  • Meng, F., Qiao, Y., Wu, W., Smith, P., & Scott, S. (2017). Environmental impacts and production performances of organic agriculture in China: a monetary valuation. Journal of Environmental Management, 188: 49-57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. jenvman.2016.11.080
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Organik tarım üzerinde konvansiyonelleşme ve kırsal kalkınma tartışmaları

Yıl 2022, Sayı 81, 187 - 196, 31.12.2022
https://doi.org/10.17211/tcd.1163100

Öz

Küresel iklim değişikliğinin en somut sonuçlarından biri olan kuraklığın, geleceğin tarım anlayışını
köklü bir şekilde değiştireceği açıktır. Kuraklığa dayanıklı ve girdi maliyeti düşük olan ürünler
daha yaygın yetiştirilecektir. Dolayısıyla organik tarım uygulamaları ve bu konuda geliştirilen politikaların
önemi giderek artacaktır. Bununla birlikte organik tarımın ortaya çıkışı konvansiyonel
tarımın felsefesine bir karşı çıkıştır. Organik tarımda konvansiyonelleşme tartışmaları 1990’lardan
beri devam etmektedir. Aynı şekilde organik tarımda konvansiyonelleşme tartışmalarının
bundan sonra da artacağı düşünülmektedir. Konvansiyonelleşme sürecinde organik üreticilerin
temel motivasyonu kârı maksimize etmektir. Böylece bu sürecin kırsal kalkınmaya katkı sağlaması
beklenmektedir. Dahası küresel göçü azaltabilmenin alternatiflerinden birisi de değişen
küresel dinamiklere uyumlu kırsal kalkınma stratejilerinin izlenmesidir. Bu bağlamda araştırmanın
amacı, organik tarım sektöründe yoğun bir şekilde tartışılan konvansiyonelleşme ve kırsal
kalkınma argümanlarının nasıl irdelendiğini ortaya koymaktır. Teorik tartışmalardan oluşan bu
araştırmada ortaya konan bazı sonuçlar bulunmaktadır. Bunların başında organik tarımda konvansiyonelleşme
ve kırsal kalkınma olguları arasında derin bir bağlantının olduğu sonucu ortaya
çıkmıştır. Konvansiyonelleşme kriterleri kırsal kalkınmayı tesis etmede önemli argümanlardan
biridir. Bu çalışma organik tarım ekseninde kırsal kalkınma ve konvansiyonelleşme argümanlarını
birbiriyle ilişkilendiren ilk araştırma olmasından dolayı literatürde önemli bir boşluğu doldurmaktadır.

Kaynakça

  • Adams, W. M., (2009). Greeen Development: Environment and Sustainability In A Developing World, Routledge, 3rd Edition, New York, USA. ISBN: 0-203-92971-3.
  • Aydoğan, M., (2012). Samsun İlinde Organik ve Konvansiyonel Fındık Yetiştiricilerinin Gübre Kullanımı Konusundaki İletişim Kaynaklarının Sosyal Ağ Analizi ile Karşılaştırılması, Ondokuz Mayıs Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Samsun.
  • Ayuya, O. I., Gıdo, E. O., Bett, H. K., Lagat, J. K., Kahi, A. K., & Bauer, S. (2015). Effect of certified organic production systems on poverty among smallholder farmers: empirical evidence from Kenya. World Development, 67: 27–37. doi:10.1016/j. worlddev.2014.10.005.
  • Berger, G. (1992). Social Structure & Rural Development In The Third World. 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Best, H. (2008). Organic agriculture and the conventionalization hypothesis: a case study from West Germany. Agriculture & Human Values, 25: 95–106. doi:10.1007/s10460-007-9073-1.
  • Blanc, J., & Kledal, P. R. (2012). The Brazilian organic food sector: prospects and constraints of facilitating the inclusion of smallholders. Journal of Rural Studies, 28(1):142-154. https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2011.10.005
  • Buck, D., Getz, C., Guthman, J., (1997). From farm to table: the organic vegetable commodity chain of Northern California. Sociologia Ruralis, 37 (1), 3-20.
  • Brundtland Raporu (2022, Ağustos). https://www.are.admin.ch/ are/en/home/media/publications/sustainable-development/ brundtland-report.html.5262
  • Carpenter, D. (2003). An investigation into the transition from technological to ecological rice farming among resource poor farmers from the Philippine Island of Bohol. Agriculture and Human Values, 20: 165–77. https://doi. org/10.1023/A:1024013509602
  • Chambers, R. (1998). Rural Development: Putting The Last First, Longman, England.
  • Cisilino, F., Bodini, A., & Zanoli, A. (2019). Rural development programs’ impact on environment: an ex-post evaluation of organic faming. Land Use Policy, 85: 454-462. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2019.04.016
  • Clammer, J. (2012). Culture, Development and Social Theory: Towards an Integrated Social Development. 1st ed. New York, USA: Zed Books.
  • Cobb, D., Feber, R., Hopkins, A., Stockdale, L., O’Riordan, T., Clements, B., Firbank, L., Goulding, K., Jarvis, S. & Macdonald, D. (1999). Integrating the environmental and economic consequences of converting to organic agriculture: evidence from a case study. Land Use Policy, 16(4): 207–21. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0264- 8377(99)00023-X
  • Constance, D.H., Choi, J.Y., Lyke-Ho-Gland, H., (2008). Conventionalization, bifurcation, and quality of life: Certified and non-certified organic farmers in Texas. Southern Rural Sociology, 23 (1), 208-234.
  • Cook, B. (2019). Organic rural development: barriers to value in the quest for qualities in Jordanian olive oil. Journal of Rural Studies, 69: 106-116. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2019.04.014
  • Crandfield, J., Henson, S. & Holliday, J. (2010). The motives, benefits, and problems of conversion to organic production. Agriculture and Human Values, 27: 291–306. https://doi.org/10.1007/ s10460-009-9222-9
  • Cihangir, E., Demirhan, Ö. & Şeremet, M., (2020). Kırsal turizm potansiyelinin ortaya çıkarılmasında kırsalda kadının durumuna bir bakış: Van otlu peyniri üretimi örneği, International Journal Of Geography And Geography Education, 42(1): 199-222. https://doi.org/10.32003/igge.692207
  • Çelik, F., (2019). GAP Organik tarım kümesi’nin bölgesel kalkınmaya etkisinin değerlendirilmesi, Aksaray Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi (ASED), 3(2): 220-242. ISSN: 2619-9211
  • Darnhofer, I., (2006). Organic farming between professionalisation and conventionalisation - The Need For A More Discerning View Of Farmer Practices. Paper at: Joint Organic Congress, Odense, Denmark, May 30-31, 2006.
  • De Master, K. (2012). Designing dreams or constructing contradictions? European Union multifunctional policies and the polish organic farm sector. Rural Sociology, 77 (1): 89–109. doi:10.1111/j.1549-0831.2012.00071.x.
  • Dufeu, I., Le Velly, R., Bréchet, J.‐P. & Loconto, A. (2020). Can standards save organic farming from conventionalisation? dynamics of collective projects and rules in a French organic producers’ organisation. Sociologia Ruralis, 60(3): 621-638. https://doi.org/10.1111/soru.12298
  • Duram, L. A. (2000). Agents’ perceptions of structure: how illinois organic farmers view political, economic, social, and ecological factors. Agriculture and Human Values, 17: 35–48. https://doi. org/10.1023/A:1007632810301
  • Duxbury, N., & Campbell, H. (2011). Developing and revitalizing rural communities through arts and culture. Small Cities Imprint 1 (3): 111–122.
  • Erdoğan, Ü., Erdoğan, Y., Çakmakçı, R., & Turan, M. (2014). Organic farming and sustainable rural development: Çoruh Valley. IFOAM Organic World Congress 2014, Building Organic Bridges, October. http://orgprints.org/24895/1/PT_24895_MTuran.pdf
  • Febles-Gonzalez, J. M., Tolon-Becerra, A., Lastra-Bravo, X., & Acosta- Valdes, X. (2011). Cuban agricultural policy in the last 25 years. from conventional to organic agriculture. Land Use Policy, 28: 723–35. doi:10.1016/j.landusepol.2010.12.008.
  • Goldberger, J. R. (2011). Conventionalization, civic engagement, and the sustainability of organic agriculture. Journal of Rural Studies, 27: 288–96. doi:10.1016/j.jrurstud.2011.03.002.
  • Gregory, D., Johnston, R., Pratt, G., Watts, M. J., & Whatmore, S., (2009). The Dictionary of Human Geography, Wiley-Blackwell Publication, Singapore.
  • Günay, S. (2007). Türkiye’de ekolojik fındık tarımının başlaması ve etkileri üzerine bir örnek: Çamlıca Köyü (Samsun), Ekoloji Dergisi, 16: 7–15.
  • Hall, A. & Mogyorody, V. (2001). Organic farmers in Ontario: an examination of the conventionalization argument. Sociologia Ruralis, 41(4): 399-422. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467- 9523.00191
  • Hendrickson, M., James, H., & Heffernan, W. D. (2014). Vertical integration and concentration in US agriculture, Encyclopedia of Food and Agricultural Ethics, p: 1799-1806.
  • Kadıoğlu, Y., (2012). Kırsal kalkınma açısından ayrancı ovası ve yakın çevresi (Banaz) doğal kaynakları, Marmara Coğrafya Dergisi, 25:1, s: 60-80, ISSN:1303-2429.
  • Karabaş, S., & Gürler, A. Z. (2011). “Organik tarım ve konvansiyonel tarım yapan İşletmelerin karşılaştırmalı analizi.” KMÜ Sosyal ve Ekonomik Araştırmalar Dergisi, 13(1): 75–84. ISSN: 1309-9132
  • Kings, D. & B. İlbery (2010). The environmental belief systems of organic and conventional farmers: evidence from Central- Southern England. Journal of Rural Studies, 26(4): 437-448. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2010.05.003
  • Knickel, K., Redman, M., Darnhofer, I., Ashkenazy, A., Chebach, T. C., Šūmane, S. & Rogge, E. (2018). Between aspirations and reality: making farming, food systems and rural areas more resilient, sustainable and equitable. Journal of Rural Studies, 59: 197-210. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2017.04.012
  • Lehtimäki, T. (2019). Making a difference. constructing relations between organic and conventional agriculture in Finland in the emergence of organic agriculture. Sociologia Ruralis, 59: 113- 136. https://doi.org/10.1111/soru.12222
  • Lobley, M., Butler, A. & Reed, M. (2009). The contribution of organic farming to rural development: an exploration of the socio-economic linkages of organic and non-organic farms in England. Land Use Policy 26: 723–35. doi:10.1016/j. landusepol.2008.09.007.
  • Lockie, S., & Halpin, D., (2005). The ‘conventionalisation’ thesis reconsidered: structural and ideological transformation of australian organic agriculture. Sociologia Ruralis, 45 (4): 284– 307. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9523.2005.00306.x
  • Marsden, T., Banks, J. & Bristow, G., (2002). The social management of rural nature: understanding agrarian-based rural development, Environmental and Planning A, 34: 809–825. https://doi. org/10.1068/a3427
  • McGreevy, S. R. (2012). Lost in translation: incomer organic farmers, local knowledge, and the revitalization of Upland Japanese Hamlets.” Agriculture and Human Values, 29: 393–412. doi:10.1007/s10460-011-9347-5.
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Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Coğrafya
Bölüm Derleme
Yazarlar

Ramazan OKUDUM> (Sorumlu Yazar)
VAN YÜZÜNCÜ YIL ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0003-2115-997X
Türkiye


Mehmet ŞEREMET>
VAN YÜZÜNCÜ YIL ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0003-3416-4794
Türkiye


Faruk ALAEDDİNOĞLU>
VAN YÜZÜNCÜ YIL ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-1682-7438
Türkiye

Destekleyen Kurum Van YYÜ Bilimsel Araştırma Projeleri Koordinasyon Birimi (BAP)
Proje Numarası 5203
Teşekkür Bu çalışma, Van YYÜ Bilimsel Araştırma Projeleri Koordinasyon Birimi (BAP) Tarafından 5203 nolu proje kapsamında desteklenmiştir
Yayımlanma Tarihi 31 Aralık 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt , Sayı 81

Kaynak Göster

APA Okudum, R. , Şeremet, M. & Alaeddinoğlu, F. (2022). Organik tarım üzerinde konvansiyonelleşme ve kırsal kalkınma tartışmaları . Türk Coğrafya Dergisi , (81) , 187-196 . DOI: 10.17211/tcd.1163100