Araştırma Makalesi
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Wooden remains found at Daskyleion and their anatomical examination

Yıl 2022, Cilt 0, Sayı 30, 55 - 64, 30.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.22520/tubaar2022.30.003

Öz

The wooden remains found in T6 and T7 tumuli and “Three-Room Building” complex of Acrodaskyleion are the subject of the study. These samples were found in the sockets of copper alloy arrowheads in T6 Tumulus. Also, another sample was found in a bullet covered tenon on a marble block in the T7 Tumulus. Anatomical examination on wooden samples, the arrows was made of poplar/willow. The wooden specimen found in the tenon belongs to the Black pine, the genera/species identified are the common trees in the region. Black pine is the main forest tree, which have a wide natural distribution area, and poplar/willow grow through the rivers in the region. As conclusion, the types of wood processed were selected according to its function. The tenon was made by black pine which is more resistant to external deteriorations. The wooden part of the arrows is made of low density and flexible poplar/willow wood.

Kaynakça

  • AKKEMİK, Ü. 2015. Woods of Yenikapı Shipwrecks. Istanbul.
  • AKKEMİK, Ü./ZENCİRKAYA, A./KAYGUSUZ, İ. 2019. “Identification and Evaluation of the Wood Materials Used in Two Historical Djemevies in the Village of Onar (Arapgir, Malatya)”, Eurasian Journal of Forest Science 7/1: 40-53.
  • AKKEMİK, Ü./GENÇ, U. 2016. “1770 Yevstafiy Batığına ait Rus Kılıcın Kabzasında Kullanılan Ahşabın Cins Tayini”, Arkeoloji ve Sanat 153: 249-253.
  • AKKEMİK, Ü./YAMAN, B. 2012. Wood Anatomy of Eastern Mediterranean Species. Kessel Publishing House. Germany.
  • AKKEMİK, Ü./METİN, M. 2011. “Ankara-Nallıhan-Çayırhan Juliopolis Nekropolü’nün Tabutlarında Kullanılan Ağaçların Cins/Tür Teşhisleri”, Journal of the Faculty of Forestry, Istanbul University 61/2: 105-114.
  • BAKIR, T. 2011. Daskyleion: Balıkesir’in Eski Çağlar’daki Valilik Merkezi. Balıkesir.
  • BLANCHETTE, R. A./SIMPSON, E. 1992. “Soft Rot and Wood Pseudomorphs in an Ancientcoffin (700 BC) from Tümülüs MM at Gordion, Turkey”, IAWA Bulletinn 13/2: 201-213.
  • BOZKURT, A.Y./ ERDİN, N. 1997. Ağaç Teknolojisi. İstanbul Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Yayınları. 3998/445.
  • BUMKE, H. 2020. “Holz im Bleimantel - …was den Bau im Innersten Zusammenhält”, Deutsches Archäologisches Institut Newsletter 18: 24-25.
  • DINSMOOR, W. B. 1922. “Structural Iron in Greek Architecture”, American Journal of Archaeology 26/2: 148-158.
  • DURM, J. 1910. Die Baukunst der Griechen. Leipzig.
  • GILBERT, B. 2018. Ghost Trees: Nature and People in a London Parish. Salford.
  • GRAYSON, C. E./FRENCH, M./O’BRIEN, M.J. 2007. Traditional Archery from Six Continents: The Charles E. Grayson Collection. Columbia.
  • GREENEWALT, C. 1968. “Lydian Vases from Western Asia Minor”, California Studies in Classical Antiquity 1: 139-154.
  • GREENEWALT, C. 1966. “Lydian Pottery of the Sixth Century B.C.: The Lydion and Marbled Ware”, PhD Thesis, University of Pennsylvania.
  • GUHL, E. K./HUEFFER, F./KONER, W. 1875. The Life of the Greeks and Romans, Described from Antique Monuments. London.
  • İREN, K./ÇOKAY-KEPÇE, S./KARAÖZ, Ç./KASAR, Ö. 2019. Daskyleion 2017 ve 2018 Kazı, Koruma ve Onarım Çalışmaları”, Kazı Sonuçları Toplantısı 41/3: 1-19.
  • İREN, K./YILDIZHAN, H. 2017. “Pers Daskyleion’u: Güney Marmara Bölgesi’nde Bir Satraplık Merkezi”, Persler: Anadolu’da Kudret ve Görkem (Eds. K. İren, Ç. Karaöz and Ö. Kasar). İstanbul: 332-350.
  • KASAR, Ö. 2021. “Daskyleion Metal Silah ve Teçhizatlar: İşlev, Üretim ve Süreçsel Farklılaşma”, Unpublished PhD Thesis, Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University.
  • KASAR, Ö./İREN, K. 2020. “Leaded Bronze Arrowheads at Daskyleion”, Adalya 23: 175-204.
  • KASAR, Ö. 2018. “Daskyleion’da Görülen Mezar Tipleri ve Ölü Gömme Gelenekleri”, Antik Çağ’dan Cumhuriyet’e Bandırma ve Yakın Çevresi Tarihi (Ed. U. T. Sivrioğlu). Bursa: 57-73.
  • KAYACIK, H./AYTUĞ, B. 1968. “Gordion Kral Mezarının Ağaç Malzemesi Üzerinde Ormancılık Yönünden Araştırmalar”, İstanbul Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi 18/A-1: 37-54.
  • KRENTZ, P. 2013. “Large Weapons, Small Greeks: The Practical Limitations of Hoplite Weapons and Equipment”, Men of Bronze: Hoplite Warfare in Ancient Greece (Eds. D. Kagan and G. F. Viggiano). New Jersey: 134-157.
  • KHORASANI, M. M., DWYER, B. 2016. “A Persian Archery Manual by Mohammad Zaman”, Revista de Artes Marciales Asiaticas 11/1: 48-65.
  • LAVANO, M. 2019. The World of Ancient Greece. Santa Barbara.
  • MILLER, R./ MCEWEN, E./BERGMANN, C. 1986. “Experimental Approaches to Ancient Near Eastern Archery”, World Archaeology 18/2: 178, 195.
  • NYLANDER, K. 1970. Ionians in Pasargadae. Uppsala.
  • RICHTER, H.G./GROSSER, D./HEINZ, I./GASSON, P. E. 2004. “IAWA list of microscopic features for hardwood identification”, Repr. IAWA Journal 25: 1- 70.
  • ROY, K. 2022. A Global History of Pre-Modern Warfare: Before the Rise of the West, 10,000 BCE-1500 CE. Abingdon, New York.
  • SCHWARTZ, A. 2013. “Large Weapons, Small Greeks: The Practical Limitations of Hoplite Weapons and Equipment”, Men of Bronze: Hoplite Warfare in Ancient Greece (Eds. D. Kagan ve G. F. Viggiano). New Jersey: 157-176.
  • SCHWEINGRUBER, F. H. 1998. Anatomy of European Woods. Paul Haupt.
  • STANTURF, J. A. and Van OOSTEN, C. 2014. “Operational Poplar and Willow Culture”, Poplars and Willows: Trees for Society and the Environment (Eds J. G. Isebrands ve J. Richardson). Canada: 200-258.
  • ŞANLI, İ. 1988. “Arkeolojik Araştırmalarda Ksiloloji’nin Önemi ve Anadolu’nun Bazı Uygarlıklarına Ait Odun Malzemelerinin Tanısı”, İstanbul Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi 38/A-2: 99-114.
  • ŞANLI, İ. 1989. “Ahşap ve Arkeoloji”, İstanbul Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi 39/A-1: 130-141.
  • WHEELER, E./BAAS, P./GASSON, P. E. 1989. “IAWA List of Microscopic Features for Softwood Identificatio”, Repr. IAWA Journal 10/3:219-332.
  • WHATELY, C. 2021. A Sensory History of Ancient Warfare: Reconstructing the Physical Experience of War in the Classical World. Barnsley.
  • YAMAN, B./AKYOL, A. A./ATAY, Ç. 2014. “Daskyleion Kazısı Karbonize Ahşap Buluntuların Anatomik Teşhisi”, Arkeometri Sonuçları Toplantısı 29: 174-184.
  • YÜCEL, Ü. 2021. Türk Okçuluğu. Atatürk Kültür Merkezi Yayınları.
  • ZUTTERMAN, C. 2003. “The Bow in the Ancient Near East, A Re-Evaluation of Archery from the Late 2nd Millennium to the end of the Achaemenid Empire”, Iranica Antiqua 38: 119-165.

Wooden remains found at Daskyleion and their anatomical examination

Yıl 2022, Cilt 0, Sayı 30, 55 - 64, 30.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.22520/tubaar2022.30.003

Öz

The wooden remains found in T6 and T7 tumuli and “Three-Room Building” complex of Acrodaskyleion are the subject of the study. These samples were found in the sockets of copper alloy arrowheads in T6 Tumulus. Also, another sample was found in a bullet covered tenon on a marble block in the T7 Tumulus. Anatomical examination on wooden samples, the arrows was made of poplar/willow. The wooden specimen found in the tenon belongs to the Black pine, the genera/species identified are the common trees in the region. Black pine is the main forest tree, which have a wide natural distribution area, and poplar/willow grow through the rivers in the region. As conclusion, the types of wood processed were selected according to its function. The tenon was made by black pine which is more resistant to external deteriorations. The wooden part of the arrows is made of low density and flexible poplar/willow wood.

Kaynakça

  • AKKEMİK, Ü. 2015. Woods of Yenikapı Shipwrecks. Istanbul.
  • AKKEMİK, Ü./ZENCİRKAYA, A./KAYGUSUZ, İ. 2019. “Identification and Evaluation of the Wood Materials Used in Two Historical Djemevies in the Village of Onar (Arapgir, Malatya)”, Eurasian Journal of Forest Science 7/1: 40-53.
  • AKKEMİK, Ü./GENÇ, U. 2016. “1770 Yevstafiy Batığına ait Rus Kılıcın Kabzasında Kullanılan Ahşabın Cins Tayini”, Arkeoloji ve Sanat 153: 249-253.
  • AKKEMİK, Ü./YAMAN, B. 2012. Wood Anatomy of Eastern Mediterranean Species. Kessel Publishing House. Germany.
  • AKKEMİK, Ü./METİN, M. 2011. “Ankara-Nallıhan-Çayırhan Juliopolis Nekropolü’nün Tabutlarında Kullanılan Ağaçların Cins/Tür Teşhisleri”, Journal of the Faculty of Forestry, Istanbul University 61/2: 105-114.
  • BAKIR, T. 2011. Daskyleion: Balıkesir’in Eski Çağlar’daki Valilik Merkezi. Balıkesir.
  • BLANCHETTE, R. A./SIMPSON, E. 1992. “Soft Rot and Wood Pseudomorphs in an Ancientcoffin (700 BC) from Tümülüs MM at Gordion, Turkey”, IAWA Bulletinn 13/2: 201-213.
  • BOZKURT, A.Y./ ERDİN, N. 1997. Ağaç Teknolojisi. İstanbul Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Yayınları. 3998/445.
  • BUMKE, H. 2020. “Holz im Bleimantel - …was den Bau im Innersten Zusammenhält”, Deutsches Archäologisches Institut Newsletter 18: 24-25.
  • DINSMOOR, W. B. 1922. “Structural Iron in Greek Architecture”, American Journal of Archaeology 26/2: 148-158.
  • DURM, J. 1910. Die Baukunst der Griechen. Leipzig.
  • GILBERT, B. 2018. Ghost Trees: Nature and People in a London Parish. Salford.
  • GRAYSON, C. E./FRENCH, M./O’BRIEN, M.J. 2007. Traditional Archery from Six Continents: The Charles E. Grayson Collection. Columbia.
  • GREENEWALT, C. 1968. “Lydian Vases from Western Asia Minor”, California Studies in Classical Antiquity 1: 139-154.
  • GREENEWALT, C. 1966. “Lydian Pottery of the Sixth Century B.C.: The Lydion and Marbled Ware”, PhD Thesis, University of Pennsylvania.
  • GUHL, E. K./HUEFFER, F./KONER, W. 1875. The Life of the Greeks and Romans, Described from Antique Monuments. London.
  • İREN, K./ÇOKAY-KEPÇE, S./KARAÖZ, Ç./KASAR, Ö. 2019. Daskyleion 2017 ve 2018 Kazı, Koruma ve Onarım Çalışmaları”, Kazı Sonuçları Toplantısı 41/3: 1-19.
  • İREN, K./YILDIZHAN, H. 2017. “Pers Daskyleion’u: Güney Marmara Bölgesi’nde Bir Satraplık Merkezi”, Persler: Anadolu’da Kudret ve Görkem (Eds. K. İren, Ç. Karaöz and Ö. Kasar). İstanbul: 332-350.
  • KASAR, Ö. 2021. “Daskyleion Metal Silah ve Teçhizatlar: İşlev, Üretim ve Süreçsel Farklılaşma”, Unpublished PhD Thesis, Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University.
  • KASAR, Ö./İREN, K. 2020. “Leaded Bronze Arrowheads at Daskyleion”, Adalya 23: 175-204.
  • KASAR, Ö. 2018. “Daskyleion’da Görülen Mezar Tipleri ve Ölü Gömme Gelenekleri”, Antik Çağ’dan Cumhuriyet’e Bandırma ve Yakın Çevresi Tarihi (Ed. U. T. Sivrioğlu). Bursa: 57-73.
  • KAYACIK, H./AYTUĞ, B. 1968. “Gordion Kral Mezarının Ağaç Malzemesi Üzerinde Ormancılık Yönünden Araştırmalar”, İstanbul Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi 18/A-1: 37-54.
  • KRENTZ, P. 2013. “Large Weapons, Small Greeks: The Practical Limitations of Hoplite Weapons and Equipment”, Men of Bronze: Hoplite Warfare in Ancient Greece (Eds. D. Kagan and G. F. Viggiano). New Jersey: 134-157.
  • KHORASANI, M. M., DWYER, B. 2016. “A Persian Archery Manual by Mohammad Zaman”, Revista de Artes Marciales Asiaticas 11/1: 48-65.
  • LAVANO, M. 2019. The World of Ancient Greece. Santa Barbara.
  • MILLER, R./ MCEWEN, E./BERGMANN, C. 1986. “Experimental Approaches to Ancient Near Eastern Archery”, World Archaeology 18/2: 178, 195.
  • NYLANDER, K. 1970. Ionians in Pasargadae. Uppsala.
  • RICHTER, H.G./GROSSER, D./HEINZ, I./GASSON, P. E. 2004. “IAWA list of microscopic features for hardwood identification”, Repr. IAWA Journal 25: 1- 70.
  • ROY, K. 2022. A Global History of Pre-Modern Warfare: Before the Rise of the West, 10,000 BCE-1500 CE. Abingdon, New York.
  • SCHWARTZ, A. 2013. “Large Weapons, Small Greeks: The Practical Limitations of Hoplite Weapons and Equipment”, Men of Bronze: Hoplite Warfare in Ancient Greece (Eds. D. Kagan ve G. F. Viggiano). New Jersey: 157-176.
  • SCHWEINGRUBER, F. H. 1998. Anatomy of European Woods. Paul Haupt.
  • STANTURF, J. A. and Van OOSTEN, C. 2014. “Operational Poplar and Willow Culture”, Poplars and Willows: Trees for Society and the Environment (Eds J. G. Isebrands ve J. Richardson). Canada: 200-258.
  • ŞANLI, İ. 1988. “Arkeolojik Araştırmalarda Ksiloloji’nin Önemi ve Anadolu’nun Bazı Uygarlıklarına Ait Odun Malzemelerinin Tanısı”, İstanbul Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi 38/A-2: 99-114.
  • ŞANLI, İ. 1989. “Ahşap ve Arkeoloji”, İstanbul Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi 39/A-1: 130-141.
  • WHEELER, E./BAAS, P./GASSON, P. E. 1989. “IAWA List of Microscopic Features for Softwood Identificatio”, Repr. IAWA Journal 10/3:219-332.
  • WHATELY, C. 2021. A Sensory History of Ancient Warfare: Reconstructing the Physical Experience of War in the Classical World. Barnsley.
  • YAMAN, B./AKYOL, A. A./ATAY, Ç. 2014. “Daskyleion Kazısı Karbonize Ahşap Buluntuların Anatomik Teşhisi”, Arkeometri Sonuçları Toplantısı 29: 174-184.
  • YÜCEL, Ü. 2021. Türk Okçuluğu. Atatürk Kültür Merkezi Yayınları.
  • ZUTTERMAN, C. 2003. “The Bow in the Ancient Near East, A Re-Evaluation of Archery from the Late 2nd Millennium to the end of the Achaemenid Empire”, Iranica Antiqua 38: 119-165.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Arkeoloji
Bölüm Araştırma Makaleleri
Yazarlar

Özgün KASAR> (Sorumlu Yazar)
MUĞLA SITKI KOÇMAN ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-7806-5221
Türkiye


Ünal AKKEMİK>
ISTANBUL UNIVERSITY
0000-0003-2099-5589
Türkiye


Kaan İREN>
MUGLA SITKI KOCMAN UNIVERSITY
0000-0002-9053-8693
Türkiye

Teşekkür Kültür Varlıkları ve Müzeler Genel Müdürlüğü, Balıkesir Büyükşehir Belediyesi, Bandırma Belediyesi, Muğla Sıtkı Koçman Üniversitesi, İstanbul Üniversitesi
Erken Görünüm Tarihi 22 Haziran 2022
Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Haziran 2022
Başvuru Tarihi 27 Şubat 2022
Kabul Tarihi 19 Nisan 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 0, Sayı 30

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { tubaar1079949, journal = {TÜBA-AR Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Arkeoloji Dergisi}, issn = {1301-8566}, eissn = {2667-5005}, address = {TÜBA - TÜRKİYE BİLİMLER AKADEMİSİ Piyade Sokak No: 27 Çankaya 06690 ANKARA}, publisher = {Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi}, year = {2022}, volume = {0}, number = {30}, pages = {55 - 64}, doi = {10.22520/tubaar2022.30.003}, title = {Wooden remains found at Daskyleion and their anatomical examination}, key = {cite}, author = {Kasar, Özgün and Akkemik, Ünal and İren, Kaan} }
APA Kasar, Ö. , Akkemik, Ü. & İren, K. (2022). Wooden remains found at Daskyleion and their anatomical examination . TÜBA-AR Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Arkeoloji Dergisi , 0 (30) , 55-64 . DOI: 10.22520/tubaar2022.30.003
MLA Kasar, Ö. , Akkemik, Ü. , İren, K. "Wooden remains found at Daskyleion and their anatomical examination" . TÜBA-AR Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Arkeoloji Dergisi 0 (2022 ): 55-64 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/tubaar/issue/70348/1079949>
Chicago Kasar, Ö. , Akkemik, Ü. , İren, K. "Wooden remains found at Daskyleion and their anatomical examination". TÜBA-AR Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Arkeoloji Dergisi 0 (2022 ): 55-64
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Wooden remains found at Daskyleion and their anatomical examination AU - Özgün Kasar , Ünal Akkemik , Kaan İren Y1 - 2022 PY - 2022 N1 - doi: 10.22520/tubaar2022.30.003 DO - 10.22520/tubaar2022.30.003 T2 - TÜBA-AR Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Arkeoloji Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 55 EP - 64 VL - 0 IS - 30 SN - 1301-8566-2667-5005 M3 - doi: 10.22520/tubaar2022.30.003 UR - https://doi.org/10.22520/tubaar2022.30.003 Y2 - 2022 ER -
EndNote %0 TÜBA-AR Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Arkeoloji Dergisi Wooden remains found at Daskyleion and their anatomical examination %A Özgün Kasar , Ünal Akkemik , Kaan İren %T Wooden remains found at Daskyleion and their anatomical examination %D 2022 %J TÜBA-AR Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Arkeoloji Dergisi %P 1301-8566-2667-5005 %V 0 %N 30 %R doi: 10.22520/tubaar2022.30.003 %U 10.22520/tubaar2022.30.003
ISNAD Kasar, Özgün , Akkemik, Ünal , İren, Kaan . "Wooden remains found at Daskyleion and their anatomical examination". TÜBA-AR Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Arkeoloji Dergisi 0 / 30 (Haziran 2022): 55-64 . https://doi.org/10.22520/tubaar2022.30.003
AMA Kasar Ö. , Akkemik Ü. , İren K. Wooden remains found at Daskyleion and their anatomical examination. TÜBA-AR. 2022; 0(30): 55-64.
Vancouver Kasar Ö. , Akkemik Ü. , İren K. Wooden remains found at Daskyleion and their anatomical examination. TÜBA-AR Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Arkeoloji Dergisi. 2022; 0(30): 55-64.
IEEE Ö. Kasar , Ü. Akkemik ve K. İren , "Wooden remains found at Daskyleion and their anatomical examination", TÜBA-AR Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Arkeoloji Dergisi, c. 0, sayı. 30, ss. 55-64, Haz. 2022, doi:10.22520/tubaar2022.30.003

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