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The Effect of Perceived Organizational Support on the Emotional Labor of Restaurant Employees and Mediating Role of Organizational Identification

Yıl 2021, Cilt 28, Sayı 2, 355 - 375, 28.06.2021

Öz

With the increasing importance of customer service in sustaining competitive advantage, one of the challenges for the organizations is how to motivate their employees to perform the desired emotional labor behaviors during their interaction with customers. The purpose of this study is to determine the mediating role of organizational identification in the relationship between perceived organizational support and emotional labor from a social exchange and social identity perspective. Data was collected from 259 restaurant staff working in Grand National Assembly of Turkey through a questionnaire prepared with quantitative research design. Hypothesis are tested with structural equation modeling analysis. According to the research findings, the perceived organizational support has a positive and significant effect on deep acting and genuine acting, while its effect on surface acting is insignificant. However, organizational identification has a full mediating effect in the relationship between perceived organizational support and deep acting as well as perceived organizational support and genuine acting. Key Words: Perceived Organizational Support, Organizational Identification, Emotional Labor, Surface Acting, Deep Acting, Genuine Acting JEL Classification: D23, L20, M10

Kaynakça

  • Akgunduz, Y., & Bardakoglu, O. (2017). The Impacts of Perceived Organizational Prestige and Organization Identification on Turnover Intention: The Mediating Effect of Psychological Empowerment. Current Issues in Tourism, 20(14), 1510-1526. doi:10.1080/13683500.2015.1034094
  • Ashforth, B. E., Harrison, S. H., & Corley, K. G. (2008). Identification in Organizations: An Examination of Four Fundamental Questions. Journal of Management, 34(3), 325-374. doi:10.1177/0149206308316059
  • Ashforth, B. E., & Humphrey, R. H. (1993). Emotional Labor in Service Roles: The Influence of Identity. Academy of Management Review, 18(1), 88-115. doi:10.2307/258824
  • Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The Moderator-Mediator Variable Distinction in Social Psychological Research: Conceptual, Strategic, and Statistical Considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173-1182.
  • Basım, H. N., & Beğenirbaş, M. (2012). Çalışma Yaşamında Duygusal Emek: Bir Ölçek Uyarlama Çalışması. Yönetim ve Ekonomi: Celal Bayar Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, 19(1), 77-90.
  • Begenirbaş, M., & Çalışkan, A. (2014). Duygusal Emeğin İş Performansı ve İşten Ayrılma Niyetine Etkisinde Kişilerarası Çarpıklığın Aracılık Rolü. Business and Economics Research Journal, 5(2), 109-127.
  • Begenirbaş, M., & Yalçın, R. C. (2012). Öğretmenlerin Kişilik Özelliklerinin Duygusal Emek Gösterimlerine Etkileri. Çağ Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 9(1), 47-65.
  • Blau, P. M. (1964). Exchange and Power in Social Life. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.
  • Brotheridge, C. M., & Grandey, A. A. (2002). Emotional Labor and Burnout: Comparing Two Perspectives of “People Work”. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 60(1), 17-39. doi:10.1006/jvbe.2001.1815
  • Büyükyılmaz, O., & Çakmak, A. F. (2014). İlişkisel ve İşlemsel Psikolojik Sözleşmede Algılanan İhlalin İşten Ayrılma Niyeti ve Algılanan Örgütsel Destek Üzerindeki Etkisi. Ege Akademik Bakış, 14(4), 583-596.
  • Chau, S. L., Dahling, J. J., Levy, P. E., & Diefendorff, J. M. (2009). A Predictive Study of Emotional Labor and Turnover. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 30(8), 1151-1163. doi:10.1002/job.617
  • Çoban, M., & Aytemiz Seymen, O. (2019). Hizmet Verme Yatkınlığının Duygusal Emek Üzerindeki Etkisinde Duygusal Zekânın Rolü: Kuşadası’nda Beş Yıldızlı Otel Çalışanları Örneği. Anatolia: Turizm Araştırmaları Dergisi, 30(1), 7-18. doi:10.17123/atad.580576
  • Dashper, K. (2020). More-Than-Human Emotions: Multispecies Emotional Labour in the Tourism Industry. Gender Work and Organization, 27(1), 24-40. doi:10.1111/gwao.12344
  • Diefendorff, J. M., Croyle, M. H., & Gosserand, R. H. (2005). The Dimensionality and Antecedents of Emotional Labor Strategies. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 66(2), 339-357. doi:10.1016/j.jvb.2004.02.001
  • Eisenberger, R., Armeli, S., Rexwinkel, B., Lynch, P. D., & Rhoades, L. (2001). Reciprocation of Perceived Organizational Support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(1), 42-51. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.86.1.42
  • Eisenberger, R., Cummings, J., Armeli, S., & Lynch, P. (1997). Perceived Organizational Support, Discretionary Treatment, and Job Satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82(5), 812-820. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.82.5.812
  • Eisenberger, R., Huntington, R., Hutchison, S., & Sowa, D. (1986). Perceived Organizational Support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71(3), 500-507. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.71.3.500
  • Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating Structural Equation Models with Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39-50. doi:10.2307/3151312
  • Glomb, T. M., & Tews, M. J. (2004). Emotional Labor: A Conceptualization and Scale Development. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 64(1), 1-23. doi:10.1016/S0001-8791(03)00038-1
  • Grandey, A. A. (2003). When "The Show Must Go On": Surface Acting and Deep Acting as Determinants of Emotional Exhaustion and Peer-Rated Service Delivery. Academy of Management Journal, 46(1), 86-96. doi:10.2307/30040678
  • Güler, H. N., & Marşap, A. (2019). Duygusal Zeka ve Duygusal Emek Etkileşimi Üzerine Bir Literatür İncelemesi. İstanbul Ticaret Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 18(35), 63-81.
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  • Hennig-Thurau, T., Groth, M., Paul, M., & Gremler, D. D. (2006). Are All Smiles Created Equal? How Emotional Contagion and Emotional Labor Affect Service Relationships. Journal of Marketing, 70(3), 58-73. doi:10.1509/jmkg.70.3.58
  • Hochschild, A. R. (2003). The Managed Heart: Commercialization of Human Feeling with a New Afterword (2 ed.). California: University of California Press.
  • Hulsheger, U. R., & Schewe, A. F. (2011). On the Costs and Benefits of Emotional Labor: A Meta-Analysis of Three Decades of Research. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 16(3), 361-389. doi:10.1037/a0022876
  • Humphrey, R. H., Ashforth, B. E., & Diefendorff, J. M. (2015). The Bright Side of Emotional Labor. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 36(6), 749-769. doi:10.1002/job.2019
  • Kerse, G., & Karabey, C. N. (2019). Örgütsel Sinizm ve Özdeşleşme Bağlamında Algılanan Örgütsel Desteğin İşe Bağlanma ve Politik Davranış Algısına Etkisi. Eskişehir Osmangazi Üniversitesi İİBF Dergisi, 14(1), 83-108. doi:10.17153/oguiibf.439835
  • Kinman, G., Wray, S., & Strange, C. (2011). Emotional Labour, Burnout and Job Satisfaction in UK Teachers: The Role of Workplace Social Support. Educational Psychology, 31(7), 843-856. doi:10.1080/01443410.2011.608650
  • Kırmızıgül, B., Evliyaoğlu, M. N., Cevher, M. F., & Yılmaz, T. (2017). Otel İşletmelerinde Çalışanların Duygusal Emek Davranışlarında Örgütsel Özdeşleşmenin Rolü. International Journal of Academic Value Studies, 3(16), 257-267.
  • Kumar Mishra, S. (2014). Linking Perceived Organizational Support to Emotional Labor. Personnel Review, 43(6), 845-860. doi:10.1108/PR-09-2012-0160
  • Lee, J., & Ok, C. (2012). Reducing Burnout and Enhancing Job Satisfaction: Critical Role of Hotel Employees’ Emotional Intelligence and Emotional Labor. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 31(4), 1101-1112. doi:10.1016/j.ijhm.2012.01.007
  • Lee, J., & Peccei, R. (2007). Perceived Organizational Support and Affective Commitment: The Mediating Role of Organization-Based Self-Esteem in the Context of Job Insecurity. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 28(6), 661-685. doi:10.1002/job.431
  • Loi, R., Chan, K. W., & Lam, L. W. (2014). Leader–Member Exchange, Organizational Identification, and Job Satisfaction: A Social Identity Perspective. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 87(1), 42-61. doi:10.1111/joop.12028
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Restoran Çalışanlarının Duygusal Emek Davranışı Üzerinde Örgütsel Desteğin Etkisi ve Örgütle Özdeşleşmenin Aracılık Rolü

Yıl 2021, Cilt 28, Sayı 2, 355 - 375, 28.06.2021

Öz

Rekabet avantajını sürdürmede müşteri hizmetlerinin artan önemiyle işletmelerin yaşadığı zorluklardan biri, çalışanlarını müşterilerle etkileşimleri sırasında istenen duygusal emek davranışlarını sergilemek için nasıl motive edecekleridir. Bu çalışmanın amacı, sosyal değişim ve sosyal kimlik bakış açısıyla, algılanan örgütsel desteğin duygusal emek üzerindeki etkisinde örgütsel özdeşleşmenin nasıl bir aracılık rolünün bulunduğunun tespit edilmesidir. Nicel araştırma tasarımıyla hazırlanan anket formu aracılığıyla Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi’nde çalışmakta olan 259 restoran personelinden veri toplanmıştır. Yapısal eşitlik modelleme analizi ile hipotez testleri gerçekleştirilmiştir. Araştırma bulgularına göre, algılanan örgütsel desteğin derinden rol yapma ve doğal duygular sergileme üzerinde pozitif yönlü ve anlamlı etkisi varken, yüzeysel rol yapma üzerindeki etkisi anlamsızdır. Bununla birlikte örgütsel özdeşleşme, hem algılanan örgütsel destek ile derinden rol yapma, hem de algılanan örgütsel destek ile doğal duygular sergileme arasındaki ilişkide tam aracı rolüne sahiptir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Algılanan Örgütsel Destek, Örgütsel Özdeşleşme, Duygusal Emek, Yüzeysel Rol Yapma, Derinden Rol Yapma, Doğal Duygular JEL Sınıflandırması: D23, L20, M10

Kaynakça

  • Akgunduz, Y., & Bardakoglu, O. (2017). The Impacts of Perceived Organizational Prestige and Organization Identification on Turnover Intention: The Mediating Effect of Psychological Empowerment. Current Issues in Tourism, 20(14), 1510-1526. doi:10.1080/13683500.2015.1034094
  • Ashforth, B. E., Harrison, S. H., & Corley, K. G. (2008). Identification in Organizations: An Examination of Four Fundamental Questions. Journal of Management, 34(3), 325-374. doi:10.1177/0149206308316059
  • Ashforth, B. E., & Humphrey, R. H. (1993). Emotional Labor in Service Roles: The Influence of Identity. Academy of Management Review, 18(1), 88-115. doi:10.2307/258824
  • Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The Moderator-Mediator Variable Distinction in Social Psychological Research: Conceptual, Strategic, and Statistical Considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173-1182.
  • Basım, H. N., & Beğenirbaş, M. (2012). Çalışma Yaşamında Duygusal Emek: Bir Ölçek Uyarlama Çalışması. Yönetim ve Ekonomi: Celal Bayar Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, 19(1), 77-90.
  • Begenirbaş, M., & Çalışkan, A. (2014). Duygusal Emeğin İş Performansı ve İşten Ayrılma Niyetine Etkisinde Kişilerarası Çarpıklığın Aracılık Rolü. Business and Economics Research Journal, 5(2), 109-127.
  • Begenirbaş, M., & Yalçın, R. C. (2012). Öğretmenlerin Kişilik Özelliklerinin Duygusal Emek Gösterimlerine Etkileri. Çağ Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 9(1), 47-65.
  • Blau, P. M. (1964). Exchange and Power in Social Life. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.
  • Brotheridge, C. M., & Grandey, A. A. (2002). Emotional Labor and Burnout: Comparing Two Perspectives of “People Work”. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 60(1), 17-39. doi:10.1006/jvbe.2001.1815
  • Büyükyılmaz, O., & Çakmak, A. F. (2014). İlişkisel ve İşlemsel Psikolojik Sözleşmede Algılanan İhlalin İşten Ayrılma Niyeti ve Algılanan Örgütsel Destek Üzerindeki Etkisi. Ege Akademik Bakış, 14(4), 583-596.
  • Chau, S. L., Dahling, J. J., Levy, P. E., & Diefendorff, J. M. (2009). A Predictive Study of Emotional Labor and Turnover. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 30(8), 1151-1163. doi:10.1002/job.617
  • Çoban, M., & Aytemiz Seymen, O. (2019). Hizmet Verme Yatkınlığının Duygusal Emek Üzerindeki Etkisinde Duygusal Zekânın Rolü: Kuşadası’nda Beş Yıldızlı Otel Çalışanları Örneği. Anatolia: Turizm Araştırmaları Dergisi, 30(1), 7-18. doi:10.17123/atad.580576
  • Dashper, K. (2020). More-Than-Human Emotions: Multispecies Emotional Labour in the Tourism Industry. Gender Work and Organization, 27(1), 24-40. doi:10.1111/gwao.12344
  • Diefendorff, J. M., Croyle, M. H., & Gosserand, R. H. (2005). The Dimensionality and Antecedents of Emotional Labor Strategies. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 66(2), 339-357. doi:10.1016/j.jvb.2004.02.001
  • Eisenberger, R., Armeli, S., Rexwinkel, B., Lynch, P. D., & Rhoades, L. (2001). Reciprocation of Perceived Organizational Support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(1), 42-51. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.86.1.42
  • Eisenberger, R., Cummings, J., Armeli, S., & Lynch, P. (1997). Perceived Organizational Support, Discretionary Treatment, and Job Satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82(5), 812-820. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.82.5.812
  • Eisenberger, R., Huntington, R., Hutchison, S., & Sowa, D. (1986). Perceived Organizational Support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71(3), 500-507. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.71.3.500
  • Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating Structural Equation Models with Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39-50. doi:10.2307/3151312
  • Glomb, T. M., & Tews, M. J. (2004). Emotional Labor: A Conceptualization and Scale Development. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 64(1), 1-23. doi:10.1016/S0001-8791(03)00038-1
  • Grandey, A. A. (2003). When "The Show Must Go On": Surface Acting and Deep Acting as Determinants of Emotional Exhaustion and Peer-Rated Service Delivery. Academy of Management Journal, 46(1), 86-96. doi:10.2307/30040678
  • Güler, H. N., & Marşap, A. (2019). Duygusal Zeka ve Duygusal Emek Etkileşimi Üzerine Bir Literatür İncelemesi. İstanbul Ticaret Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 18(35), 63-81.
  • Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2014). Multivariate Data Analysis (7th ed.). Harlow: Pearson New International Edition.
  • Hennig-Thurau, T., Groth, M., Paul, M., & Gremler, D. D. (2006). Are All Smiles Created Equal? How Emotional Contagion and Emotional Labor Affect Service Relationships. Journal of Marketing, 70(3), 58-73. doi:10.1509/jmkg.70.3.58
  • Hochschild, A. R. (2003). The Managed Heart: Commercialization of Human Feeling with a New Afterword (2 ed.). California: University of California Press.
  • Hulsheger, U. R., & Schewe, A. F. (2011). On the Costs and Benefits of Emotional Labor: A Meta-Analysis of Three Decades of Research. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 16(3), 361-389. doi:10.1037/a0022876
  • Humphrey, R. H., Ashforth, B. E., & Diefendorff, J. M. (2015). The Bright Side of Emotional Labor. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 36(6), 749-769. doi:10.1002/job.2019
  • Kerse, G., & Karabey, C. N. (2019). Örgütsel Sinizm ve Özdeşleşme Bağlamında Algılanan Örgütsel Desteğin İşe Bağlanma ve Politik Davranış Algısına Etkisi. Eskişehir Osmangazi Üniversitesi İİBF Dergisi, 14(1), 83-108. doi:10.17153/oguiibf.439835
  • Kinman, G., Wray, S., & Strange, C. (2011). Emotional Labour, Burnout and Job Satisfaction in UK Teachers: The Role of Workplace Social Support. Educational Psychology, 31(7), 843-856. doi:10.1080/01443410.2011.608650
  • Kırmızıgül, B., Evliyaoğlu, M. N., Cevher, M. F., & Yılmaz, T. (2017). Otel İşletmelerinde Çalışanların Duygusal Emek Davranışlarında Örgütsel Özdeşleşmenin Rolü. International Journal of Academic Value Studies, 3(16), 257-267.
  • Kumar Mishra, S. (2014). Linking Perceived Organizational Support to Emotional Labor. Personnel Review, 43(6), 845-860. doi:10.1108/PR-09-2012-0160
  • Lee, J., & Ok, C. (2012). Reducing Burnout and Enhancing Job Satisfaction: Critical Role of Hotel Employees’ Emotional Intelligence and Emotional Labor. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 31(4), 1101-1112. doi:10.1016/j.ijhm.2012.01.007
  • Lee, J., & Peccei, R. (2007). Perceived Organizational Support and Affective Commitment: The Mediating Role of Organization-Based Self-Esteem in the Context of Job Insecurity. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 28(6), 661-685. doi:10.1002/job.431
  • Loi, R., Chan, K. W., & Lam, L. W. (2014). Leader–Member Exchange, Organizational Identification, and Job Satisfaction: A Social Identity Perspective. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 87(1), 42-61. doi:10.1111/joop.12028
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Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Beşeri Bilimler, Ortak Disiplinler
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Ozan BÜYÜKYILMAZ (Sorumlu Yazar)
KARABÜK ÜNİVERSİTESİ, İŞLETME FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0001-5499-1485
Türkiye


Hande Gizem ÖZER Bu kişi benim
KARABÜK ÜNİVERSİTESİ, SOSYAL BİLİMLER ENSTİTÜSÜ
0000-0003-4124-6253
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 28 Haziran 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 28, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

APA Büyükyılmaz, O. & Özer, H. G. (2021). Restoran Çalışanlarının Duygusal Emek Davranışı Üzerinde Örgütsel Desteğin Etkisi ve Örgütle Özdeşleşmenin Aracılık Rolü . Yönetim ve Ekonomi Dergisi , 28 (2) , 355-375 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/yonveek/issue/63117/687439