Araştırma Makalesi
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Determination of Some Properties of Kefir Produced with Buffalo Milk and Other Milk Mixtures

Yıl 2020, 39 - 50, 31.12.2020
https://doi.org/10.20289/zfdergi.775279

Öz

Objective: The present study was aimed to determine the effect of buffalo and other ruminant milk mixtures (buffalo-cow; buffalo-sheep; buffalo-goat %70-%30; buffalo-cow-sheep-goat milk %70-%10-%10-%10 blends) on the production of kefir, some biochemical properties and microbiological counts of kefir samples.

Material and Methods: The scope of the study determination of dry matter, fat, protein, lactose, ash and acidity, Lactobacillus spp. count, Lactococcus spp. count and yeast count, determining acidity index, determining phenolic, antioxidant and proteolytic activities analyzes were carried out. According to the analysis results for the determination of the main components carried out in the study, it was determined that all kefir samples have high dry matter, fat, lactose, ash and protein content. Its Lactobacillus spp., Lactococcus spp. and yeast counts were found to be similar to all kefir samples. Although the kefir samples didn’t have great deal of total phenolic compounds, the antioxidant activity of kefir samples were higher than cow milk kefir’s. Also protein hydrolysis degree (OPA value) and acidity value (FFA amount) were regularly increased during storage.

Results and Conclusion:As a result of this study, kefir, which has an important place in fermented dairy products and also attracts attention with its probiotic properties, kefir has been associated with buffalo milk and buffalo-other ruminant milk mixtures using possibilities in the kefir production and product variation.

Kaynakça

  • Abou-Dobara, M.İ., M.M. Ismail and N.M. Refat. 2017.Preparation of functional fermented dairy product containing high levels of omega-6, omega-9, antioxidants activity and probiotic. Diabetes Monag 7 (3) 306-318.
  • Anandharaj, M.B. Sivasankari and R.P. Rani. 2014. Effects of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics on Hypercholesterolemia: A review. Chinese J. Biol., Article ID572754, 7.
  • Association of Official Analytical Chemists AOAC. 1997. Official Methods of Analysis (16th ed.) Association of Official Analytical Chemists Washington DC.
  • Association of Official Analytical Chemists – AOAC. 2012a. Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International (Solids (Total) in Milk. 990.20, 19th ed.). Gaithersburg: AOAC.
  • Association of Official Analytical Chemists – AOAC. 2012b. Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International (Nitrogen (Total) in Milk. Kjeldahl Method. 2000.20, 19th ed.). Gaithersburg: AOAC.
  • Association of Official Analytical Chemists – AOAC. 2012c. Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International (Fat Content of Raw and Pasteurized Whole Milk. 2000.18, 19th ed.). Gaithersburg: AOAC.
  • Association of Official Analytical Chemists – AOAC. 2012d. Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International (Acidity, Titrimetric Methods. 947.05, 19th ed.). Gaithersburg: AOAC.
  • Barat, A. ve T. Özcan. 2016. Fermente Süt İçeceğinde Probiyotik Bakterilerin Gelişimi Üzerine Meyve İlavesinin Etkisi. Ege Üniv. Ziraat Fak. Derg., 2016, 53 (3):259-267 ISSN 1018 – 8851.
  • Budak, N. ve Z. Güzel-Seydim. 2010. Antioxidant activity and phenolic content of wine vinegars produced by two different techniques. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 90: 2021-2026.
  • Coda, R., A. Larena, A. Trani, M. Gobbeti, R.D. Cagno. 2012. Yoghurt-like beverages made of mixture of a mixture of cereals, soy and grape must: microbiology, texture, nutritional and sensory properties. Int.J.Food Microbiol. 155:120-127.
  • Dinç, A. 2008. Kefirin Bazı Mikrobiyolojik ve Kimyasal Özelliklerinin Belirlenmesi. Ankara Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Yüksek Lisans Tezi.
  • El, S.N., S. Karakaya, Ş. Şimşek, D. Dupont, E. Menfaatli ve A.T. Eker. 2015. In vitro Digestibility of Goat Milk Kefir with New Standardised Static Digestion Method (INFOGEST Cost Action) and Bioactivities of the Resultant Peptides. Food & Function, Royal Society of Chemistry. DOI: 10.1039/c5fo00357a.
  • Elgarhy, M.R., M.M. Omar, I. A.A. Abou Ayana and S.A. Khalifa. 2018. Kefir Production From Cow’s and Buffalo’s Milk Under Egyptian Conditions.
  • Ergin, F., G. Öz, Ü. Özmen, Ş. Erdal, E. Çavana ve A. Küçükçetin. 2017. Sütün Homojenizasyonunun Kefirin Fizikokimyasal ve Mikrobiyolojik Özellikleri Üzerine Etkisi. Akademik Gıda 15(4) (2017) 368-376, DOI: 10.24323/akademik-gida.370105.
  • FDA-BAM, 2001. Yeasts, molds and mycotoxins. Bacteriological analytical manual, Chapter 18, April, 2001. (https://www.fda.gov/food/laboratory-methods-food/bam-yeasts-molds-and-mycotoxins).
  • Gül, O., M. Mortaş, I. Atalar, M. Dervisoglu ve T. Kahyaoglu. 2015. Manufacture and Characterization of Kefir Made From Cow and Buffalo Milk, Using Kefir Grain and Starter Culture. J.of Dairy Science 98: 1517-1525.
  • Hosono, A., T. Kashina and T. Kada. 1986. Antimutagenic properties of lactic acid cultured milk on chemical and fecal mutagens. J. of Dairy Science, 69:2237-2242.
  • Khan, I.T., M. Nadeem, M. Imran, M. Ayaz, M. Ajmal, M.Y. Ellahi, A. Khalique. 2017. Antioxidant capacity and fatty acids characterization of heat treated cow and buffalo milk. Lipids in health and disease 16 (163)1-10.
  • Kınık, Ö. ve O. Yerlikaya. 2015. Manda Sütü ve Özellikleri, Sidas Medya.
  • Kocadağ Kocazorbaz, E., Un, R.N., Erdag, A., Zihnioglu, F. 2017. ‘’Inhibitory Effects of Some Bryophytes on Glutathione-S – Transferase’’, Current Enzyme Inhibition, 13, 34-40. Liu, J.R., Y.Y. Lin, M.J. Chen, L.J. Chen, C.W. Lin. 2005. Antioxidative activities of kefir. Asian-Aust. J.Anim.Sci.18 (4) 567-573.
  • Liu, H.C., Chen, W.L. and Mao, S.J.T. 2007. Antioxdant nature of bovine milk β-Lactoglobulin. J Dairy Sci 2007;90:547-55. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(07)71538-2.
  • Lopitz-Otsoa, F., A. Rementeria, N. Elguezabal and J. Garaziar. 2006. Kefir: A Symbiotic Yeasts-bacteria Community with Alleged Healthy Capabilities. Rev Iberoam Micol 23:67-74.
  • Merin, U. and I. Rosenthal. 1986. Production of kefir from UHT milk. Milchwissenschaft., 41 (7): 395-396.
  • Nadeem M, Abdullah M, Khalique A, Hussain I, Mahmud A, Inayat S. 2013. The effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract as antioxidant on stabilization of butter oil with modified fatty acid profile. J Agric Sci Technol 2013;15:919-28.
  • Oliveira, S.F., I.P. Lobo, R.S. Cruz, J.L. Andrioli, S.M. Mata, G.A. Soares, E.C. Santos, E. Aguiar-Oliveira, M. Franco and A. Oliveira. 2018. Conceiç~aoAntimicrobial activity of coconut oil-in-water emulsion on Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli EPEC associated to Candida kefyr. Heliyon 4 (2018) e00924. doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2018. e00924.
  • Pavithra, K. and C. Vadivukkarasi. 2015. Evaluation of free radical scavenging activity of various extractsof leaves from Kedrostis foetidissima (Jacq.) Cogn. Food Science and Human Wellness 4 (2015) 42–46.
  • Rahmawati, I.S. and W. Suntory Suk. 2015. Effects of Fermentation and Storage on Bioactive Activities in Milks and Yoghurts. Molecular and Cellular Life Sciences: Infectious Diseases, Biochemistry and Structural Biology 2015 Conference, MCLS 2015.
  • Sabokbar, N. and F. Khodaiyan. 2016. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of pomegranate juice and whey based novel beverage fermented by kefir grains. J.Food Sci Technol. 53 (1) 739-747.
  • Shiby, V.K. and H.N. Mishra. 2013. Fermented milks and milk products as functional foods- A review.Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition,53: 482-96.
  • Shi, X., H. Chen, Y. Li, J. Huang, Y. He. 2018. Effects of kefir grains on fermentation and bioactivity of goat milk. Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis Series E: Food Technology 43 (1) 43-50.
  • Sokolinska, D.S., R. Dankow and J.Pikul.2008. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of sheep kefir during storage. Acta Sci.Pol.,Technol.Aliment 7 (2) 63-73.
  • Sousa, M.J., Y. Ardö and P.L.H. McSweeney. 2001. Advances in the study of proteolysis during cheese ripening, International Dairy Journal, 11, 327-345.
  • Tamime, A. Y. 2006. Production of Kefir, Koumiss and Other Related Products. In: Tamime, A. Y. (ed.), Fermented Milk Blackwell Science Ltd , Oxford, UK, p.174-216.
  • Tomar,O., G. Akarca, A. Çağlar, M. Beykaya, V.Gök. 2020. The effects of kefir grain and starter culture on kefir produced from cow and buffalo milk during storage periods.Food Sci. Technol.Campinas 40 (1) 238-244.
  • Yetişemiyen, A. 1995. Süt Teknolojisi. Ankara Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Yayınları, Yayın No: 1420, Ankara, s: 220.
  • Wszolek, M., A.Y. Tamime, D.D. Muir and M.N.I. Barclay. 2001. Properties of kefir made in Scotland and Poland using bovine, caprine and ovine milk with different starter cultures. Lebensm.- Wiss. u..- Technol., 34: 251-261.

Manda Sütü ve Diğer Süt Karışımlarıyla Üretilen Kefirlerin Bazı Özelliklerinin Belirlenmesi

Yıl 2020, 39 - 50, 31.12.2020
https://doi.org/10.20289/zfdergi.775279

Öz

Amaç: Bu çalışma, fermente bir süt ürünü olan kefirin manda sütü ile diğer ruminant süt çeşitlerinin karışımlarından (manda-inek, manda-koyun, manda-keçi; %70-%30 ve manda-inek-koyun-keçi; %70-%10-%10-%10 sütlerinin karışımı) üretilen kefirlerin bazı biyokimyasal ve mikrobiyolojik özelliklerine etkisinin belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır.
Materyal ve Metot: Çalışmada hammadde olarak kullanılan manda sütü ve koyun sütü özel bir süt işletmesinden, inek ve keçi sütleri devlet işletmesinden temin edilmiştir. Uygun şartlarda üretimi tamamlanan kefirlerin 200 ml’lik plastik şişelere dolumu yapılmış ve ürünler 28 gün süre ile +4℃’de soğuk hava deposunda depolanmıştır. Deneme iki tekerrür ve üç paralelli gerçekleştirilmiştir.
Bulgular: Bu çalışmada yüksek kuru madde ve yağ içeriğine sahip manda sütünün tek başına kullanıldığında karşılaşılabilen lezzet ve aroma yoğunluğu nedeni ile diğer ruminant sütleri ile belli oranlardaki karışımlarının kefir üretiminde kullanım olanakları incelenmiştir. Çalışmada üretilen kefirlerin kimyasal ve mikrobiyolojik özellikleri kullanılan süt karışımlarından önemli düzeyde etkilenmiştir.
Sonuç: Çalışma sonuçlarına göre üretilen kefirlerin raf ömrünün 28 gün yerine 14 veya 21 gün olması yüksek kuru madde ve yağ içerikli süt kullanılarak üretilen kefirlerde hem biyokimyasal olarak hem de duyusal olarak daha verimli sonuçlar alınacağını göstermiştir.

Kaynakça

  • Abou-Dobara, M.İ., M.M. Ismail and N.M. Refat. 2017.Preparation of functional fermented dairy product containing high levels of omega-6, omega-9, antioxidants activity and probiotic. Diabetes Monag 7 (3) 306-318.
  • Anandharaj, M.B. Sivasankari and R.P. Rani. 2014. Effects of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics on Hypercholesterolemia: A review. Chinese J. Biol., Article ID572754, 7.
  • Association of Official Analytical Chemists AOAC. 1997. Official Methods of Analysis (16th ed.) Association of Official Analytical Chemists Washington DC.
  • Association of Official Analytical Chemists – AOAC. 2012a. Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International (Solids (Total) in Milk. 990.20, 19th ed.). Gaithersburg: AOAC.
  • Association of Official Analytical Chemists – AOAC. 2012b. Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International (Nitrogen (Total) in Milk. Kjeldahl Method. 2000.20, 19th ed.). Gaithersburg: AOAC.
  • Association of Official Analytical Chemists – AOAC. 2012c. Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International (Fat Content of Raw and Pasteurized Whole Milk. 2000.18, 19th ed.). Gaithersburg: AOAC.
  • Association of Official Analytical Chemists – AOAC. 2012d. Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International (Acidity, Titrimetric Methods. 947.05, 19th ed.). Gaithersburg: AOAC.
  • Barat, A. ve T. Özcan. 2016. Fermente Süt İçeceğinde Probiyotik Bakterilerin Gelişimi Üzerine Meyve İlavesinin Etkisi. Ege Üniv. Ziraat Fak. Derg., 2016, 53 (3):259-267 ISSN 1018 – 8851.
  • Budak, N. ve Z. Güzel-Seydim. 2010. Antioxidant activity and phenolic content of wine vinegars produced by two different techniques. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 90: 2021-2026.
  • Coda, R., A. Larena, A. Trani, M. Gobbeti, R.D. Cagno. 2012. Yoghurt-like beverages made of mixture of a mixture of cereals, soy and grape must: microbiology, texture, nutritional and sensory properties. Int.J.Food Microbiol. 155:120-127.
  • Dinç, A. 2008. Kefirin Bazı Mikrobiyolojik ve Kimyasal Özelliklerinin Belirlenmesi. Ankara Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Yüksek Lisans Tezi.
  • El, S.N., S. Karakaya, Ş. Şimşek, D. Dupont, E. Menfaatli ve A.T. Eker. 2015. In vitro Digestibility of Goat Milk Kefir with New Standardised Static Digestion Method (INFOGEST Cost Action) and Bioactivities of the Resultant Peptides. Food & Function, Royal Society of Chemistry. DOI: 10.1039/c5fo00357a.
  • Elgarhy, M.R., M.M. Omar, I. A.A. Abou Ayana and S.A. Khalifa. 2018. Kefir Production From Cow’s and Buffalo’s Milk Under Egyptian Conditions.
  • Ergin, F., G. Öz, Ü. Özmen, Ş. Erdal, E. Çavana ve A. Küçükçetin. 2017. Sütün Homojenizasyonunun Kefirin Fizikokimyasal ve Mikrobiyolojik Özellikleri Üzerine Etkisi. Akademik Gıda 15(4) (2017) 368-376, DOI: 10.24323/akademik-gida.370105.
  • FDA-BAM, 2001. Yeasts, molds and mycotoxins. Bacteriological analytical manual, Chapter 18, April, 2001. (https://www.fda.gov/food/laboratory-methods-food/bam-yeasts-molds-and-mycotoxins).
  • Gül, O., M. Mortaş, I. Atalar, M. Dervisoglu ve T. Kahyaoglu. 2015. Manufacture and Characterization of Kefir Made From Cow and Buffalo Milk, Using Kefir Grain and Starter Culture. J.of Dairy Science 98: 1517-1525.
  • Hosono, A., T. Kashina and T. Kada. 1986. Antimutagenic properties of lactic acid cultured milk on chemical and fecal mutagens. J. of Dairy Science, 69:2237-2242.
  • Khan, I.T., M. Nadeem, M. Imran, M. Ayaz, M. Ajmal, M.Y. Ellahi, A. Khalique. 2017. Antioxidant capacity and fatty acids characterization of heat treated cow and buffalo milk. Lipids in health and disease 16 (163)1-10.
  • Kınık, Ö. ve O. Yerlikaya. 2015. Manda Sütü ve Özellikleri, Sidas Medya.
  • Kocadağ Kocazorbaz, E., Un, R.N., Erdag, A., Zihnioglu, F. 2017. ‘’Inhibitory Effects of Some Bryophytes on Glutathione-S – Transferase’’, Current Enzyme Inhibition, 13, 34-40. Liu, J.R., Y.Y. Lin, M.J. Chen, L.J. Chen, C.W. Lin. 2005. Antioxidative activities of kefir. Asian-Aust. J.Anim.Sci.18 (4) 567-573.
  • Liu, H.C., Chen, W.L. and Mao, S.J.T. 2007. Antioxdant nature of bovine milk β-Lactoglobulin. J Dairy Sci 2007;90:547-55. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(07)71538-2.
  • Lopitz-Otsoa, F., A. Rementeria, N. Elguezabal and J. Garaziar. 2006. Kefir: A Symbiotic Yeasts-bacteria Community with Alleged Healthy Capabilities. Rev Iberoam Micol 23:67-74.
  • Merin, U. and I. Rosenthal. 1986. Production of kefir from UHT milk. Milchwissenschaft., 41 (7): 395-396.
  • Nadeem M, Abdullah M, Khalique A, Hussain I, Mahmud A, Inayat S. 2013. The effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract as antioxidant on stabilization of butter oil with modified fatty acid profile. J Agric Sci Technol 2013;15:919-28.
  • Oliveira, S.F., I.P. Lobo, R.S. Cruz, J.L. Andrioli, S.M. Mata, G.A. Soares, E.C. Santos, E. Aguiar-Oliveira, M. Franco and A. Oliveira. 2018. Conceiç~aoAntimicrobial activity of coconut oil-in-water emulsion on Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli EPEC associated to Candida kefyr. Heliyon 4 (2018) e00924. doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2018. e00924.
  • Pavithra, K. and C. Vadivukkarasi. 2015. Evaluation of free radical scavenging activity of various extractsof leaves from Kedrostis foetidissima (Jacq.) Cogn. Food Science and Human Wellness 4 (2015) 42–46.
  • Rahmawati, I.S. and W. Suntory Suk. 2015. Effects of Fermentation and Storage on Bioactive Activities in Milks and Yoghurts. Molecular and Cellular Life Sciences: Infectious Diseases, Biochemistry and Structural Biology 2015 Conference, MCLS 2015.
  • Sabokbar, N. and F. Khodaiyan. 2016. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of pomegranate juice and whey based novel beverage fermented by kefir grains. J.Food Sci Technol. 53 (1) 739-747.
  • Shiby, V.K. and H.N. Mishra. 2013. Fermented milks and milk products as functional foods- A review.Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition,53: 482-96.
  • Shi, X., H. Chen, Y. Li, J. Huang, Y. He. 2018. Effects of kefir grains on fermentation and bioactivity of goat milk. Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis Series E: Food Technology 43 (1) 43-50.
  • Sokolinska, D.S., R. Dankow and J.Pikul.2008. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of sheep kefir during storage. Acta Sci.Pol.,Technol.Aliment 7 (2) 63-73.
  • Sousa, M.J., Y. Ardö and P.L.H. McSweeney. 2001. Advances in the study of proteolysis during cheese ripening, International Dairy Journal, 11, 327-345.
  • Tamime, A. Y. 2006. Production of Kefir, Koumiss and Other Related Products. In: Tamime, A. Y. (ed.), Fermented Milk Blackwell Science Ltd , Oxford, UK, p.174-216.
  • Tomar,O., G. Akarca, A. Çağlar, M. Beykaya, V.Gök. 2020. The effects of kefir grain and starter culture on kefir produced from cow and buffalo milk during storage periods.Food Sci. Technol.Campinas 40 (1) 238-244.
  • Yetişemiyen, A. 1995. Süt Teknolojisi. Ankara Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Yayınları, Yayın No: 1420, Ankara, s: 220.
  • Wszolek, M., A.Y. Tamime, D.D. Muir and M.N.I. Barclay. 2001. Properties of kefir made in Scotland and Poland using bovine, caprine and ovine milk with different starter cultures. Lebensm.- Wiss. u..- Technol., 34: 251-261.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Mühendislik
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Cansu AKDAN> (Sorumlu Yazar)
EGE ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-8200-2338
Türkiye


Özer KINIK>
EGE ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-5811-9851
Türkiye


Filiz İÇİER>
EGE ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-9555-3390
Türkiye

Destekleyen Kurum Ege Üniversitesi Bilimsel Araştırma Projeleri Koordinatörlüğü
Proje Numarası FYL-2019-20613
Teşekkür Çalışmam için araştırma olanakları sağlayan Ege Üniversitesi Bilimsel Araştırma Projeleri Koordinatörlüğü'ne, bilgi ve tecrübelerini sonuna kadar benimle paylaşan Prof. Dr. Özer Kınık ve Prof. Dr. Filiz İçier'e kıymetli katkılarından dolayı teşekkürü bir borç bilirim.
Yayımlanma Tarihi 31 Aralık 2020
Başvuru Tarihi 28 Temmuz 2020
Kabul Tarihi 3 Aralık 2020
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2020, Cilt , Sayı

Kaynak Göster

APA Akdan, C. , Kınık, Ö. & İçier, F. (2020). Manda Sütü ve Diğer Süt Karışımlarıyla Üretilen Kefirlerin Bazı Özelliklerinin Belirlenmesi . Ege Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi , E.Ü Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi Özel Sayısı 2020 , 39-50 . DOI: 10.20289/zfdergi.775279

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