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Antioxidant Properties of Roasted Whole-Grain, Oilseed and Nut Snacks and Effect of Roasting Process on These Properties

Year 2019, Volume 17, Issue 2, 149 - 156, 02.09.2019
https://doi.org/10.24323/akademik-gida.612869

Abstract

In this research, the antioxidant properties of unroasted and roasted snacks such as hazelnut, pistachio, peanut, sunflower seed, pumpkin seed, chickpea, corn and wheat were determined using Trolox® (6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchromane-2-carboxylic acid) equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and Folin-Ciocalteu total phenolic methods, besides their acrylamide contents. Variations were detected in the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total phenolic (TP) contents of roasted snacks, which were obtained from at least four different processing plants. Although antioxidant capacity tests produced different values for snacks, a significant and positive correlation (r2=0.91, P<0.01) was found between TEAC and FRAP results. Similarly, significant and positive correlations were obtained between TP contents and TEAC (r2=0.91, P<0.01) and FRAP (r2=0.94, P<0.01) values. Among snack foods, roasted sunflower seed had the highest mean TAC and TP content (TEAC 46.6 µmol TE/g, FRAP 63.9 µmol TE/g and TP 1021.5 mg GAE/100 g), followed by roasted pistachio (TEAC 28.9 µmol TE/g, FRAP 22.3 µmol TE/g and TP 530.5 mg GAE/100 g) and roasted corn (TEAC 5.6 µmol TE/g, FRAP 10.6 µmol TE/g and TP 178.0 mg GAE/100 g). The TAC of remaining snacks (TEAC 2.4-3.3 µmol TE/g, FRAP 2.9-5.7 µmol TE/g) and their TP contents (37.2-265.1 mg GAE/100 g) were lower and somewhat comparable. The TAC and TP contents of hazelnuts and peanuts decreased significantly (P<0.05) upon roasting, while those of sunflower seed, pumpkin seed, corn and wheat were influenced to a lesser extent. Acrylamide contents of roasted snacks were low (<290.9 µg/kg).

References

  • [1] Kaur, C., Kapoor, H.C. (2001). Antioxidants in fruits and vegetables-The millennium’s health. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 36, 703-725.
  • [2] Pellegrini, N., Serafini, M., Colombi, B., Rio, D.D., Salvatore, S., Bianchi, M., Brighenti, F. (2003). Total antioxidant capacity of plant foods, beverages and oils consumed in Italy by three different in vitro assays. Journal of Nutrition, 133, 2812-2819.
  • [3] Lee, J., Koo, N., Min, D.B. (2004). Reactive oxygen species, aging, and antioxidative nutraceuticals. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 3, 21-33.
  • [4] Willcox, J.K., Ash, S.L., Catignani, G.L. (2004). Antioxidants and prevention of chronic disease. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 44, 275-295.
  • [5] Miller, H.E., Rigelhof, F., Marquart, L., Prakash, A., Kanter, M. (2000). Antioxidant content of whole grain breakfast cereals, fruits and vegetables. Journal of American College of Nutrition, 19, 312S-319S.
  • [6] Kahlon, T.S.., Smith, G.E. (2004). Health benefits of grains, fruits, and vegetables and the USDA food guide pyramid. Cereal Foods World, 49, 288-291.
  • [7] Hall, C. (2001). Sources of natural antioxidants: Oilseeds, nuts, cereals, legumes, animal products and microbial sources. In: Antioxidants in Food - Practical Applications. Edited by J. Pokorny, N. Yanishlieva, M. Gordon, CRC Press, New York, NY, pp. 159-209.
  • [8] Alaşalvar, C., Karamac, M., Amarowicz, R., Shahidi F. (2006). Antioxidant and antiradical activities in extracts of hazelnut kernel (Corylus avellana L.) and hazelnut green leafy cover. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 54, 4826-4832.
  • [9] Çağlar, A., Tomar, O., Vatansever, H., Ekmekçi, E. (2017). Antepfıstığı (Pistacia vera L.) ve insan sağlığı üzerine etkileri. Akademik Gıda, 15(4), 436-447.
  • [10] Karaosmanoğlu, H., Üstün, N.Ş. (2017). Organik ve konvansiyonel fındıkların (Corylus avellana L.) bazı fiziksel özellikleri. Akademik Gıda, 15(4), 377-385.
  • [11] Lee, K.G., Shibamoto T. (2002). Toxicology and antioxidant activities of non-enzymatic browning reaction products - Review. Food Reviews International, 18, 151-175.
  • [12] Şenyuva, H.Z., Gökmen, V. (2005). Survey of acrylamide in Turkish foods by an in-house validated LC-MS method. Food Additives and Contaminants, 22, 204-209.
  • [13] Ölmez, H., Tuncay, F., Özcan, N., Demirel, S. (2008). A survey of acrylamide levels in foods from the Turkish market. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 21, 564-568.
  • [14] Şensoy, I. (2014). A Review on the relationship between food structure, processing, and bioavailability. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 54, 902-909.
  • [15] Sayaslan, A., Akarçay, E., Tokatlı, M. (2016). Kavrulmuş mısır, buğday ve nohut (leblebi) çerezlerinin beslenme açısından önemli karbonhidrat fraksiyonları. Akademik Gıda, 14, 284-292.
  • [16] Köksel, H., Sivri, D., Scanlon, M.G., Bushuk, W. (1998). Comparison of physical properties of raw and roasted chickpeas (leblebi). Food Research International, 31, 659-665.
  • [17] Coşkuner, Y., Karababa, E. (2004). Leblebi, A roasted chickpea product as a traditional Turkish snack food. Food Reviews International, 20, 257-274.
  • [18] Yurttaş, H.C., Schafer, H.W., Warthesen, J.J. (2000). Antioxidant activity of nontocopherol hazelnut (Corylus ssp) phenolics. Journal of Food Science, 65, 276-280.
  • [19] Wu, X., Beecher, G.R., Holden, J.M., Haytowitz, D.B., Gebhardt, SE., Prior, R.L. (2004). Lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidant capacities of common foods in the United States. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 52, 4026-4037.
  • [20] Seeram, N.P., Zhang, Y., Henning, S.M., Lee, R., Niu, Y, Lin, G., Heber, D. (2006). Pistachio skin phenolics are destroyed by bleaching resulting in reduced antioxidative capacities. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 54, 7036-7040.
  • [21] Wodd, J.A., Grusak, M.A. (2007). Nutritional value of chickpea. In: Chickpea Breeding and Management. Edited by S.S. Yadav, CAB International, New York, NY, pp. 101-142.
  • [22] Dykes, L., Rooney, L.W. (2007). Phenolic compounds in cereal grains and their health benefits. Cereal Foods World, 52, 105-111.
  • [23] Adom, K.K., Liu, R.H. (2002). Antioxidant activity of grains. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 50, 6182-6187.
  • [24] Halvorsen, B.L., Holte, K, Myrhstad, M.C.W., Barikmo, I., Hvattum, E, Remberg, S.F., Wold, A.B., Hafner, K., Baugerod, H., Andersen, L.F., Moskaug, JQ., Jacobs, D.R., Blomhoff, R. (2002). A systematic screening of total antioxidants in dietary plants. Nutrient Requirements, 132, 461-471.
  • [25] Arcan, I., Yemenicioğlu, A. (2009). Antioxidant activity and phenolic content of fresh and dry nuts with or without the seed coat. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 22, 184-188.
  • [26] Jogihalli, P., Singh, L., Sharanagat, V.S. (2007). Effect of microwave roasting parameters on functional and antioxidant properties of chickpea (Cicer arietinum). LWT-Food Science and Technology, 79, 223-233.
  • [27] Krings, U., Berger, R.G. (2001). Antioxidant activity of some roasted foods. Food Chemistry, 72, 223-229.
  • [28] Oboh, G., Ademiluyi, A.O., Akindahunsi, A.A. (2010). The effect of roasting on the nutritional and antioxidant properties of yellow and white maize varieties. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 45, 1236-1242.
  • [29] Singh, L., Varshney, J.G., Agarwal, T. (2016). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons' formation and occurrence in processed food. Food Chemistry, 199, 768-781.
  • [30] Özdemir, M. (2001) Mathematical Analysis of Color Changes and Chemical Parameters of Roasted Hazelnuts. PhD Thesis. İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, Department of Food Engineering, Istanbul, Turkey.
  • [31] Saura-Calixto, F., Goni, I. (2006). Antioxidant capacity of the Spanish Mediterranean diet. Food Chemistry, 94, 442-447.
  • [32] Pellegrini, N., Re, R., Yang, M., Rice-Evans, C.A. (1999). Screening of dietary carotenoids and carotenoid-rich fruit extracts for antioxidant activities applying the 2, 2’-azobis (3-ethylenebenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic) acid radical cation decolorization assay. Methods in Enzymology, 299, 379-389.
  • [33] Benzie, I.F.F., Strain, J.J. (1996). The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of “antioxidant power”: The FRAP assay. Analytical Biochemistry, 239, 70-76.
  • [34] Singleton, V.L., Orthofer, R., Lamuela-Raventos, R.M. (1999). Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Methods in Enzymology, 299, 152-178.
  • [35] Cavalli, S., Maurer, R., Höfler, F. (2003). Fast Determination of Acrylamide in Food Samples. Dionex Application Note 409, Sunnyvale, CA.
  • [36] Orak, H.H., Karamac, M., Orak, A., Amarowicz, R. (2016). Antioxidant potential and phenolic compounds of some widely consumed Turkish white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) varieties. Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences, 66, 253-260.
  • [37] Shahidi, F., Alaşalvar, C. (2004). Fındık ve Fındık Yan Ürünlerinde Fitokimyasal Maddeler ve Biyoaktif Bileşikler. Fındık Tanıtım Grubu Araştırma Sonuç Raporu, Ankara, Turkey. www.ftg.org.tr/files/downloads/findikta-fitokimyasal-maddeller-ve-bioaktifle.doc.
  • [38] Blomhoff, R., Carlsen, M.H., Andersen, L.F., Jacobs, Jr. D.R. (2006). Health benefits of nuts: Potential role of antioxidants. British Journal of Nutrition, 96, S52-S60.
  • [39] Kosinska, A., Karamac, M. (2006). Antioxidant capacity of roasted health-promoting products. Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences, 15/56, 193-198.
  • [40] Isanga, J., Zhang, G.N. (2007). Biologically active components and nutraceuticals in peanuts and related products: Review. Food Reviews International, 23, 123-140.
  • [41] Yu, J., Ahmedna, M., Goktepe, I., Dai, J. (2006). Peanut skin procyanidins: Composition and antioxidant activities as affected by processing. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 19, 364-371.
  • [42] Parry, J., Hao, Z.G., Luther, M., Su, L., Zhou, K.Q., Yu, L.L. (2006). Characterization of cold-pressed onion, parsley, cardamom, mullein, roasted pumpkin, and milk thistle seed oils. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society, 83, 847-854.
  • [43] Arvanitoyannis, I.S., Dionisopoulou, N. (2014). Acrylamide: Formation, occurrence in food products, detection methods, and legislation. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 54, 708-733.
  • [44] Koh, B.K. (2006). Determination of acrylamide content of food products in Korea. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 86, 2587-2591.
  • [45] Ono, H., Chuda, Y., Ohnishi-Kameyama, M., Yada, H., Ishizaka, M., Kobayashi, H., Yoshida, M. (2003). Analysis of acrylamide by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS in processed Japanese foods. Food Additives and Contaminants, 20, 215-220.

Kavrulmuş Tüm Tane Çerez Gıdaların Antioksidan Özellikleri ve Kavurma İşleminin Etkileri

Year 2019, Volume 17, Issue 2, 149 - 156, 02.09.2019
https://doi.org/10.24323/akademik-gida.612869

Abstract

Bu çalışmada, kavrulmamış (ham) ve kavrulmuş fındık, Antep fıstığı, yer fıstığı, ayçiçeği çekirdeği, kabak çekirdeği, nohut, mısır ve buğday çerezlerinin antioksidan özellikleri, Trolox® (6-hidroksi-2,5,7,8-tetrametilkroman-2-karboksilik asit) eşdeğeri antioksidan kapasite (TEAC), demir indirgeme antioksidan gücü (FRAP) ve Folin-Ciocalteu toplam fenolik madde yöntemleri kullanılarak araştırılmıştır. Ayrıca, tahıl ve baklagil esaslı çerezlerin akrilamid içerikleri de belirlenmiştir. Her biri en az dört farklı işletmeden temin edilen kavrulmuş çerezlerin toplam antioksidan kapasite (TAC) ve toplam fenolik madde (TP) içeriklerinde kaynaklarına göre farklılıklar saptanmıştır. Antioksidan kapasite testleri (TEAC ve FRAP) farklı rakamsal değerler vermekle birlikte, TEAC ve FRAP değerleri arasında önemli bir korelasyon (r2=0.91, P<0.01) bulunmuştur. Çerezlerin toplam fenolik madde (TP) içerikleri ile TEAC (r2=0.91, P<0.01) ve FRAP (r2=0.94, P<0.01) değerleri arasında da önemli korelasyonlar tespit edilmiştir. Çerez gıdalardan kavrulmuş ayçiçeği çekirdeği en yüksek TAC ve TP değerleri sağlamış (TEAC 46.6 µmol TE/g, FRAP 63.9 µmol TE/g, TP 1021.5 mg GAE/100 g), bunu kavrulmuş Antep fıstığı (TEAC 28.9 µmol TE/g, FRAP 22.3 µmol TE/g, TP 530.5 mg GAE/100 g) ve kavrulmuş mısır (TEAC 5.6 µmol TE/g, FRAP 10.6 µmol TE/g, TP 178.0 mg GAE/100 g) takip etmiştir. Diğer çerezlerin TAC (TEAC 2.4-3.3 µmol TE/g, FRAP 2.9-5.7 µmol TE/g) ve TP içerikleri (37.2-265.1 mg GAE/100 g) daha düşük ve birbirleriyle benzer bulunmuştur. Fındık ve yer fıstığının TAC ve TP içerikleri kavurma işlemiyle önemli oranda (P<0.05) düşerken, ayçiçeği çekirdeği, kabak çekirdeği, mısır ve buğdayın TAC ve TP içerikleri daha az etkilenmiştir. Çerez gıdaların akrilamid içerikleri ise oldukça düşük (<290.9 µg/kg) düzeyde bulunmuştur. 

References

  • [1] Kaur, C., Kapoor, H.C. (2001). Antioxidants in fruits and vegetables-The millennium’s health. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 36, 703-725.
  • [2] Pellegrini, N., Serafini, M., Colombi, B., Rio, D.D., Salvatore, S., Bianchi, M., Brighenti, F. (2003). Total antioxidant capacity of plant foods, beverages and oils consumed in Italy by three different in vitro assays. Journal of Nutrition, 133, 2812-2819.
  • [3] Lee, J., Koo, N., Min, D.B. (2004). Reactive oxygen species, aging, and antioxidative nutraceuticals. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 3, 21-33.
  • [4] Willcox, J.K., Ash, S.L., Catignani, G.L. (2004). Antioxidants and prevention of chronic disease. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 44, 275-295.
  • [5] Miller, H.E., Rigelhof, F., Marquart, L., Prakash, A., Kanter, M. (2000). Antioxidant content of whole grain breakfast cereals, fruits and vegetables. Journal of American College of Nutrition, 19, 312S-319S.
  • [6] Kahlon, T.S.., Smith, G.E. (2004). Health benefits of grains, fruits, and vegetables and the USDA food guide pyramid. Cereal Foods World, 49, 288-291.
  • [7] Hall, C. (2001). Sources of natural antioxidants: Oilseeds, nuts, cereals, legumes, animal products and microbial sources. In: Antioxidants in Food - Practical Applications. Edited by J. Pokorny, N. Yanishlieva, M. Gordon, CRC Press, New York, NY, pp. 159-209.
  • [8] Alaşalvar, C., Karamac, M., Amarowicz, R., Shahidi F. (2006). Antioxidant and antiradical activities in extracts of hazelnut kernel (Corylus avellana L.) and hazelnut green leafy cover. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 54, 4826-4832.
  • [9] Çağlar, A., Tomar, O., Vatansever, H., Ekmekçi, E. (2017). Antepfıstığı (Pistacia vera L.) ve insan sağlığı üzerine etkileri. Akademik Gıda, 15(4), 436-447.
  • [10] Karaosmanoğlu, H., Üstün, N.Ş. (2017). Organik ve konvansiyonel fındıkların (Corylus avellana L.) bazı fiziksel özellikleri. Akademik Gıda, 15(4), 377-385.
  • [11] Lee, K.G., Shibamoto T. (2002). Toxicology and antioxidant activities of non-enzymatic browning reaction products - Review. Food Reviews International, 18, 151-175.
  • [12] Şenyuva, H.Z., Gökmen, V. (2005). Survey of acrylamide in Turkish foods by an in-house validated LC-MS method. Food Additives and Contaminants, 22, 204-209.
  • [13] Ölmez, H., Tuncay, F., Özcan, N., Demirel, S. (2008). A survey of acrylamide levels in foods from the Turkish market. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 21, 564-568.
  • [14] Şensoy, I. (2014). A Review on the relationship between food structure, processing, and bioavailability. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 54, 902-909.
  • [15] Sayaslan, A., Akarçay, E., Tokatlı, M. (2016). Kavrulmuş mısır, buğday ve nohut (leblebi) çerezlerinin beslenme açısından önemli karbonhidrat fraksiyonları. Akademik Gıda, 14, 284-292.
  • [16] Köksel, H., Sivri, D., Scanlon, M.G., Bushuk, W. (1998). Comparison of physical properties of raw and roasted chickpeas (leblebi). Food Research International, 31, 659-665.
  • [17] Coşkuner, Y., Karababa, E. (2004). Leblebi, A roasted chickpea product as a traditional Turkish snack food. Food Reviews International, 20, 257-274.
  • [18] Yurttaş, H.C., Schafer, H.W., Warthesen, J.J. (2000). Antioxidant activity of nontocopherol hazelnut (Corylus ssp) phenolics. Journal of Food Science, 65, 276-280.
  • [19] Wu, X., Beecher, G.R., Holden, J.M., Haytowitz, D.B., Gebhardt, SE., Prior, R.L. (2004). Lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidant capacities of common foods in the United States. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 52, 4026-4037.
  • [20] Seeram, N.P., Zhang, Y., Henning, S.M., Lee, R., Niu, Y, Lin, G., Heber, D. (2006). Pistachio skin phenolics are destroyed by bleaching resulting in reduced antioxidative capacities. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 54, 7036-7040.
  • [21] Wodd, J.A., Grusak, M.A. (2007). Nutritional value of chickpea. In: Chickpea Breeding and Management. Edited by S.S. Yadav, CAB International, New York, NY, pp. 101-142.
  • [22] Dykes, L., Rooney, L.W. (2007). Phenolic compounds in cereal grains and their health benefits. Cereal Foods World, 52, 105-111.
  • [23] Adom, K.K., Liu, R.H. (2002). Antioxidant activity of grains. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 50, 6182-6187.
  • [24] Halvorsen, B.L., Holte, K, Myrhstad, M.C.W., Barikmo, I., Hvattum, E, Remberg, S.F., Wold, A.B., Hafner, K., Baugerod, H., Andersen, L.F., Moskaug, JQ., Jacobs, D.R., Blomhoff, R. (2002). A systematic screening of total antioxidants in dietary plants. Nutrient Requirements, 132, 461-471.
  • [25] Arcan, I., Yemenicioğlu, A. (2009). Antioxidant activity and phenolic content of fresh and dry nuts with or without the seed coat. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 22, 184-188.
  • [26] Jogihalli, P., Singh, L., Sharanagat, V.S. (2007). Effect of microwave roasting parameters on functional and antioxidant properties of chickpea (Cicer arietinum). LWT-Food Science and Technology, 79, 223-233.
  • [27] Krings, U., Berger, R.G. (2001). Antioxidant activity of some roasted foods. Food Chemistry, 72, 223-229.
  • [28] Oboh, G., Ademiluyi, A.O., Akindahunsi, A.A. (2010). The effect of roasting on the nutritional and antioxidant properties of yellow and white maize varieties. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 45, 1236-1242.
  • [29] Singh, L., Varshney, J.G., Agarwal, T. (2016). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons' formation and occurrence in processed food. Food Chemistry, 199, 768-781.
  • [30] Özdemir, M. (2001) Mathematical Analysis of Color Changes and Chemical Parameters of Roasted Hazelnuts. PhD Thesis. İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, Department of Food Engineering, Istanbul, Turkey.
  • [31] Saura-Calixto, F., Goni, I. (2006). Antioxidant capacity of the Spanish Mediterranean diet. Food Chemistry, 94, 442-447.
  • [32] Pellegrini, N., Re, R., Yang, M., Rice-Evans, C.A. (1999). Screening of dietary carotenoids and carotenoid-rich fruit extracts for antioxidant activities applying the 2, 2’-azobis (3-ethylenebenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic) acid radical cation decolorization assay. Methods in Enzymology, 299, 379-389.
  • [33] Benzie, I.F.F., Strain, J.J. (1996). The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of “antioxidant power”: The FRAP assay. Analytical Biochemistry, 239, 70-76.
  • [34] Singleton, V.L., Orthofer, R., Lamuela-Raventos, R.M. (1999). Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Methods in Enzymology, 299, 152-178.
  • [35] Cavalli, S., Maurer, R., Höfler, F. (2003). Fast Determination of Acrylamide in Food Samples. Dionex Application Note 409, Sunnyvale, CA.
  • [36] Orak, H.H., Karamac, M., Orak, A., Amarowicz, R. (2016). Antioxidant potential and phenolic compounds of some widely consumed Turkish white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) varieties. Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences, 66, 253-260.
  • [37] Shahidi, F., Alaşalvar, C. (2004). Fındık ve Fındık Yan Ürünlerinde Fitokimyasal Maddeler ve Biyoaktif Bileşikler. Fındık Tanıtım Grubu Araştırma Sonuç Raporu, Ankara, Turkey. www.ftg.org.tr/files/downloads/findikta-fitokimyasal-maddeller-ve-bioaktifle.doc.
  • [38] Blomhoff, R., Carlsen, M.H., Andersen, L.F., Jacobs, Jr. D.R. (2006). Health benefits of nuts: Potential role of antioxidants. British Journal of Nutrition, 96, S52-S60.
  • [39] Kosinska, A., Karamac, M. (2006). Antioxidant capacity of roasted health-promoting products. Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences, 15/56, 193-198.
  • [40] Isanga, J., Zhang, G.N. (2007). Biologically active components and nutraceuticals in peanuts and related products: Review. Food Reviews International, 23, 123-140.
  • [41] Yu, J., Ahmedna, M., Goktepe, I., Dai, J. (2006). Peanut skin procyanidins: Composition and antioxidant activities as affected by processing. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 19, 364-371.
  • [42] Parry, J., Hao, Z.G., Luther, M., Su, L., Zhou, K.Q., Yu, L.L. (2006). Characterization of cold-pressed onion, parsley, cardamom, mullein, roasted pumpkin, and milk thistle seed oils. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society, 83, 847-854.
  • [43] Arvanitoyannis, I.S., Dionisopoulou, N. (2014). Acrylamide: Formation, occurrence in food products, detection methods, and legislation. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 54, 708-733.
  • [44] Koh, B.K. (2006). Determination of acrylamide content of food products in Korea. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 86, 2587-2591.
  • [45] Ono, H., Chuda, Y., Ohnishi-Kameyama, M., Yada, H., Ishizaka, M., Kobayashi, H., Yoshida, M. (2003). Analysis of acrylamide by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS in processed Japanese foods. Food Additives and Contaminants, 20, 215-220.

Details

Primary Language English
Journal Section Research Papers
Authors

Aysun OĞUZ
0000-0001-8376-5313


Abdulvahit SAYASLAN (Primary Author)
0000-0001-7161-1552

Publication Date September 2, 2019
Published in Issue Year 2019, Volume 17, Issue 2

Cite

Bibtex @research article { akademik-gida612869, journal = {Akademik Gıda}, issn = {1304-7582}, eissn = {2148-015X}, address = {Fevzipaşa Bulv. Çelik İş Merkezi, No: 162, Kat: 3, D:302, Çankaya, İzmir}, publisher = {Sidas Medya A.Ş.}, year = {2019}, volume = {17}, pages = {149 - 156}, doi = {10.24323/akademik-gida.612869}, title = {Antioxidant Properties of Roasted Whole-Grain, Oilseed and Nut Snacks and Effect of Roasting Process on These Properties}, key = {cite}, author = {Oğuz, Aysun and Sayaslan, Abdulvahit} }
APA Oğuz, A. & Sayaslan, A. (2019). Antioxidant Properties of Roasted Whole-Grain, Oilseed and Nut Snacks and Effect of Roasting Process on These Properties . Akademik Gıda , 17 (2) , 149-156 . DOI: 10.24323/akademik-gida.612869
MLA Oğuz, A. , Sayaslan, A. "Antioxidant Properties of Roasted Whole-Grain, Oilseed and Nut Snacks and Effect of Roasting Process on These Properties" . Akademik Gıda 17 (2019 ): 149-156 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/akademik-gida/issue/48469/612869>
Chicago Oğuz, A. , Sayaslan, A. "Antioxidant Properties of Roasted Whole-Grain, Oilseed and Nut Snacks and Effect of Roasting Process on These Properties". Akademik Gıda 17 (2019 ): 149-156
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Antioxidant Properties of Roasted Whole-Grain, Oilseed and Nut Snacks and Effect of Roasting Process on These Properties AU - Aysun Oğuz , Abdulvahit Sayaslan Y1 - 2019 PY - 2019 N1 - doi: 10.24323/akademik-gida.612869 DO - 10.24323/akademik-gida.612869 T2 - Akademik Gıda JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 149 EP - 156 VL - 17 IS - 2 SN - 1304-7582-2148-015X M3 - doi: 10.24323/akademik-gida.612869 UR - https://doi.org/10.24323/akademik-gida.612869 Y2 - 2019 ER -
EndNote %0 Akademik Gıda Antioxidant Properties of Roasted Whole-Grain, Oilseed and Nut Snacks and Effect of Roasting Process on These Properties %A Aysun Oğuz , Abdulvahit Sayaslan %T Antioxidant Properties of Roasted Whole-Grain, Oilseed and Nut Snacks and Effect of Roasting Process on These Properties %D 2019 %J Akademik Gıda %P 1304-7582-2148-015X %V 17 %N 2 %R doi: 10.24323/akademik-gida.612869 %U 10.24323/akademik-gida.612869
ISNAD Oğuz, Aysun , Sayaslan, Abdulvahit . "Antioxidant Properties of Roasted Whole-Grain, Oilseed and Nut Snacks and Effect of Roasting Process on These Properties". Akademik Gıda 17 / 2 (September 2019): 149-156 . https://doi.org/10.24323/akademik-gida.612869
AMA Oğuz A. , Sayaslan A. Antioxidant Properties of Roasted Whole-Grain, Oilseed and Nut Snacks and Effect of Roasting Process on These Properties. Akademik Gıda. 2019; 17(2): 149-156.
Vancouver Oğuz A. , Sayaslan A. Antioxidant Properties of Roasted Whole-Grain, Oilseed and Nut Snacks and Effect of Roasting Process on These Properties. Akademik Gıda. 2019; 17(2): 149-156.
IEEE A. Oğuz and A. Sayaslan , "Antioxidant Properties of Roasted Whole-Grain, Oilseed and Nut Snacks and Effect of Roasting Process on These Properties", Akademik Gıda, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 149-156, Sep. 2019, doi:10.24323/akademik-gida.612869

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