Volume: 8 Issue: 2, 10/17/23

Year: 2023

Research Articles

Review Articles

Journal of Academic Projection (JAP), which is a refereed academic journal within the body of Bitlis Eren University Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, aims to contribute to science with studies in the field of social sciences at national and international level. Within the scope of JAP; Articles are published on topics including business, economics, public administration, international relations, finance, econometrics, labor economics, management information systems and political science.

Within the scope of the JAP, which is published twice a year, in March and October; original research-review articles, translation, essay, book introduction-criticism, congress-symposium news are published. The articles can be published in Turkish and English. There is no charge for publications. All rights of the published articles belong to the JAP. Published articles cannot be quoted without showing the source.

JAP is sensitive to the principles of publication ethics and takes all possible measures against any unethical attitude. The responsibility of the articles published within the scope of the JAP in terms of science and language belongs to the authors. The university and faculty cannot be held responsible for the ideas. Authors are obliged to take into consideration editorial warnings and referee reports. The articles of the authors who do not pay attention to the relevant warnings are returned / rejected at any stage. Studies that do not comply with the writing rules and journal template will not be evaluated.

  • Authors who want to send articles to our journal should upload their work to the system after placing their work in the sample template.

    Articles that do not conform to the journal template will be returned to their authors.

    Click for  the journal writing rules.

    Click for the template.

    1. The title of the article in Turkish and other languages should be in line with the scope of the article and should reflect the subject of the article briefly, clearly, and sufficiently.
    2. Articles should comply with grammar rules in terms of language and expression, and the spelling rules of the Turkish Language Association should be followed in the studies.
    3. Figures, tables, photographs, and other documents used in the article should be prepared in accordance with scientific rules, selected according to the purpose and scope of the article, and there should be a simple and sufficient explanation under them in an understandable way.
    4. The page dimensions of the journal should be set as 2.6 cm from the top, 2.2 cm from the bottom, 2 cm from the left, and 2 cm from the right. In Microsoft Office Word program, the page size should be 16x25 cm, and the inside should be written in "Bookman Old Style" font style with "11 points" and "Line Spacing: Full, Value: 14 pt" line spacing.
    5. The Turkish abstract, English title of the article, English abstract, and keywords should be complete. They should be adjusted as 12 pt before and 6 pt after themselves. Abstracts and keywords should be placed immediately after the title. The abstract should be between 150 and 200 words; the keywords should be at least three and no more than five words. There should be at least 2 Jel Codes. The article should consist of at least 5000 words and at most 8000 words.
    6. The dimensions given below should be considered in tables and special drawings. Paying attention to this measure will be appropriate to avoid shifts in tables and distortions in shapes.
    7. The article title should be 12 pt, bold,  all letters capitalized, and centered.
    • The English title of the article should be 11 pt bold, only the first letter capitalized, and centered.
    •  The titles of Summary, Abstract, Keywords, and Jel Codes should be 10 pt, , italic, and their contents should be 9 pt.
    • The names of the authors should be 11 pt, with the first names in lowercase and the last names in uppercase and right-aligned.
    • The main headings should be 12 pt, bold, capitalized on both sides, and 12 pt before and 6 pt after themselves.
    •  The second, third, or fourth headings, if any, should be 11 pt, bold, left-aligned, only the first letters capitalized, and adjusted as 12 pt before and 6 pt after themselves.
    8. In the text, line spacing should be full, 11 pt, and aligned on both sides, and there should be a space of 6 pt before and after the paragraphs.
    9. Abbreviations should be written clearly and in their abbreviated form in parentheses when they are first introduced. In subsequent references, only the abbreviated form should be used.
    10. A period should be placed after the table and figure number, and a title should be provided for the table or figure. The first word of each title should be capitalized (Example: Table 1. Per Capita Income by Year). If the table or figure is taken from another source, the source should be cited in italics and small font size below the table or figure, in accordance with the reference rules. Tables and figures should be prepared for black and white printing.
    11. Double quotation marks should be used for direct quotations that do not exceed three lines in the text. Double quotation marks should not be used in the text for anything other than direct quotations.
    12. When a long quotation (more than three lines) is taken from a source, it should be indented from both sides (0.5 cm) and written in 10-point font (without quotation marks). At the end of the quotation, the source from which it was taken should be provided in parentheses along with the page number.
    13. Special terms and phrases in the text should be shown in "double quotation marks". If it is not a proper noun, the words inside the quotation marks should be written in lowercase. For words or phrases that need to be emphasized, single quotation marks or italics should be used instead of underlining or bolding.
    14. Foreign words in the text should be written in italics. If the foreign term or phrase is also given in Turkish, it should be written in parentheses in italics.
    15. If a number is one digit, it should be written in words, and if it has two or more digits, it should be written in numerals.
    16. When numbering in the text, a period should be used instead of the suffixes "th/nd/rd".
    17. The percentage symbol (%) should be used for the word "percent".
    18. If a quotation is made from within another quotation, it should be referenced with the expression "cited by".
    19. The results should be in line with the aim and scope of the research and should be given in summary form with the main lines and essence. The conclusion section should be formatted with 12 point font size, all caps, and 12pt spacing before and 6pt  after.
    20. The sources used in the article should be organized in accordance with the writing rules, every document mentioned should be included in the references section, and a bibliography should be added to the end of the study in accordance with the reference rules. The bibliography section should be formatted with 12 point font size, all caps, and 12pt spacing before and 6pt after.
    21. The extended abstract should be at least 450 and at most 750 words long; it should clearly state the aim, problem, method, findings, and conclusions of the study in subheadings.
    22. APA 6th edition rules should be applied for in-text citation and reference list. Examples of citation (reference) and reference list formatting are shown below.
    Single Author Books
    In Text:
    (Işık, 2020: 75).
    In the bibliography:
    Işık, M. (2020). Changing Managerial Typology: C-Level Managers. Ankara Gazi Bookstore.
    Single author articles
    In Text:
    (Erat, 2021: 123).
    In the bibliography:
    Erat, V. (2021). Governance in Public Administration Studies. Bingöl University Journal of Social Sciences Institute (BUSBED), 11(21), 121-135.
    Books with two authors
    In the text:
    (Erat & Arap, 2016: 90).
    In the bibliography:
    Erat, V. & Arap, I. (2016). Evolution of Science-Power Relationship in the World and Turkey. Ankara: Notabene Publishing.
    Articles with two authors
    In the text:
    (Uçar & Sezgin, 2021: 207)
    In the bibliography:
    Uçar, Z. & Sezgin, O. B. (2021). Perceived Overqualification: A Study of Scale Development, Reliability, and Validity. Pamukkale University Journal of Social Sciences Institute, 42, 196-208.
    Books with more than two authors
    In the text:
    (Koçak et al., 2016: 101).
    In the bibliography:
    Koçak, Z., Demirtaş, M. & Taşkıran, H. (2016). XIX. The Demographic Situation of Ahlat in the 21st Century. Ankara: Night Library Publications.
    Articles with more than two authors
    In the text:
    (İzci et al., 2021: 13)
    In the bibliography:
    Izci, F., Othman, N. & Ameen, S. H. (2021). The Importance of Staff Motivation in Improving Performance and Job Satisfaction in The Public Health Sector. Journal of Academic Projection, 6(2), 1-18.
    Compilation Publications
    In the text:
    (Kalaycıoğlu and Sarıbay, 1986: 3)
    In the bibliography:
    Kalaycıoğlu, E. & A. Y. Sarıbay (Ed.) (2011). Development of Turkish Political Life. Istanbul: Beta Publishing.
    Articles included in compilation publications
    In the text:
    (Mardin, 1986: 39).
    In the bibliography:
    Mardin, S. (1986). Extreme Westernization After the Tanzimat. Development of Turkish Political Life. (Ed. E. Kalaycıoğlu and A. Y. Sarıbay). Istanbul: Beta Publishing.
    Authorless/collective publications
    In the text:
    (TODAIE, 1991: 101)
    In the bibliography:
    TODAIE (1966). Central Government Organization Establishment and Duties, Central Government Organization Research Project Report. Ankara: TODAIE Publication.
    In the text:
    (Akkoyunlu, 2007: 62)
    In the bibliography:
    Akkoyunlu, B. (2007). learning styles. Y. Tonta (Ed.) Information Management National Symposium Proceedings (pp. 51-71). Ankara: Hacettepe University.
    In the text:
    (Demirkanoğlu, 2016: 13)
    In the bibliography:
    Demirkanoglu, Y. (2013). Conservative Right and Women in Turkey: The Changing Political Panorama from Msp to Ak Parti. (Unpublished PhD Thesis). Trabzon: Karadeniz Technical University.
    Report and Technical Texts
    In the text:
    (Gencel Bek, 1998: 3).
    In the bibliography:
    Gencel Bek, M. (1998). Mediscape Turkey 2000 (Report No. 2). Ankara: BAYAUM.
    Web page
    In the text:
    (MIPEX, 2015)
    In the bibliography:
    MIPEX. (2015). Access to Nationality. Retrieved 05 01, 2017 from Migrant Integration Policy: http://www.mipex.eu/access-nationality.

    The content of the bibliography should be listed in order of surname and letter, without making any distinction between books and journals.


The ethical duties and responsibilities outlined below have been prepared taking into account the guidelines and policies published by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) as open access.

Authors submitting to Bitlis Eren University Academic Reflection Journal are expected to adhere to ethical responsibilities and all partners are expected to bear the following ethical responsibilities within the scope of publishing ethics.


It is expected that the studies submitted by the author(s) are original. If the author(s) use other studies or sources, they must cite and/or quote them completely and accurately.

Individuals who do not contribute to the content of the study from an intellectual perspective should not be listed as authors.

If there are any situations or relationships that may constitute a conflict of interest, they should be disclosed for all studies submitted for publication.

During the evaluation process, authors may be requested to provide raw data related to their articles. In such a case, authors should be prepared to submit the expected data and information to the publication and scientific board.

The author(s) must have the rights to use the data used and have the necessary permissions for the research/analysis, or have the consent of the subjects in the experiment.

If the author(s) notices a mistake or error in their published, preprint or evaluated work, they have an obligation to inform the journal editor or publisher, and collaborate with the editor in correction or retraction procedures.

Authors cannot submit their work to multiple journals simultaneously. Each application can be started after the completion of the previous application.A study published in another journal cannot be sent to Bitlis Eren University Academic Projection Journal.
Changing the author responsibilities of a work whose evaluation process has begun (such as adding an author, changing the order of authors, removing an author) cannot be proposed.

General duties and responsibilities

Editors are responsible for every publication in Bitlis Eren University Academic Projection Journal. In this context of responsibility, editors carry out the following roles and obligations:

-Making efforts to meet the information needs of readers and authors,
-Ensuring the continuous development of the journal,
-Managing the processes aimed at improving the quality of the works published in the journal,
-Supporting freedom of thought,
-Ensuring academic integrity,
-Continuing the business processes without compromising intellectual property rights and ethical standards,
-Demonstrating clarity and transparency in terms of publication in matters requiring correction and explanation.

Relationship with readers

Editors should decide by taking into account the information, skill, and experience expectations of all readers, researchers, and practitioners. They should pay attention to the contribution of published works to the reader, researcher, practitioner, and scientific literature and their originality. In addition, editors are obliged to take into account the feedback from readers, researchers, and practitioners, and provide explanatory and informative feedback.

Relationship with authors

The duties and responsibilities of editors towards authors are as follows:

-Editors should make a positive or negative decision based on the importance, original value, validity, clarity of expression, and the objectives of the journal.
-They should take the pre-evaluation stage for studies that are appropriate to the scope of publication and do not have a serious problem.
-Editors should not ignore positive referee recommendations unless there is a serious problem with the study.
-New editors should not change the decisions made by the previous editor(s) about the studies unless there is a serious problem.
-"Blind Peer Review and Evaluation Process" must be published, and editors must prevent deviations that may occur in the defined processes.
-Notification and feedback should be provided to the authors in an explanatory and informative manner.

Relationship with referees

-Editors should determine referees according to the subject of the study.
-They are obliged to provide referees with the information and guidance they will need in the evaluation stage.
-Editors must monitor whether there is a conflict of interest between authors and referees.
-In the context of blind refereeing, they should keep the referees' identities confidential.
-Editors should encourage referees to evaluate the study in an impartial, scientific, and objective language.
-They should determine the practices and policies that increase the performance of referees.
-They should take necessary steps for the dynamic updating of the pool of referees.
-They should prevent impolite and unscientific evaluations.
-They should take steps to ensure that the pool of referees consists of a wide range of referees.

Relationship with the publication board

Editors should ensure that all publication board members carry out the processes in accordance with publication policies and guidelines. They should inform publication board members about publication policies and keep them informed about developments.

Owner and publisher relations

The relationship between editors and publishers is based on the principle of editorial independence. According to the written agreement between editors and publishers, all decisions made by the editors are independent of the publisher and the journal owner.

Editorial and blind peer review processes:

Editors are responsible for implementing the "Blind Peer Review and Evaluation Process" policies included in the journal’s publication policies. In this context, editors ensure that the fair, impartial, and timely evaluation process of each work is completed.

Quality assurance:

Editors are responsible for ensuring that every article published in the journal is published in accordance with the journal's publication policies and international standards.

Protection of personal data:

Editors are responsible for protecting the personal data of subjects or visuals involved in the evaluated studies. They are obliged to reject studies unless the explicit consent of individuals used in the studies is documented. Additionally, editors are responsible for protecting the individual data of authors, reviewers, and readers.

Ethics committee, human and animal rights:

Editors are responsible for protecting human and animal rights in evaluated studies. In cases where there is no ethical committee approval or experimental research permissions regarding the subjects used in the studies, editors are responsible for rejecting the study.

Prevention of possible abuse and misuse of duty:

Editors are responsible for taking precautions against possible abuse and misuse of duty. In addition to conducting a thorough and objective investigation to determine complaints regarding this situation, sharing the findings related to the issue is also among the responsibilities of the editor.

Ensuring academic publishing integrity:

Editors should ensure that errors, inconsistencies, or misleading judgments in the works are corrected quickly.

Protection of intellectual property rights:

Editors are responsible for protecting the intellectual property rights of all published articles and defending the rights of the journal and author(s) in case of possible violations. Additionally, editors are responsible for taking necessary precautions to ensure that the contents of all published articles do not violate the intellectual property rights of other publications.

Constructiveness and openness to discussion:

Editors should take persuasive criticisms of published works into account and show a constructive attitude towards these criticisms. They should also give the authors of criticized works the right to reply. Editors should not ignore or exclude studies that contain negative results.


Editors are responsible for carefully examining and responding in an explanatory and informative manner to complaints received from authors, reviewers, or readers.

Political and commercial concerns:

The journal owner, publisher, and no other political or commercial factor influence the independent decision-making of editors.

Conflict of interests:

Editors ensure that the publication process of the studies is completed independently and impartially by taking into account conflicts of interest between authors, reviewers, and other editors.

The Ethical Responsibilities of Reviewers

The evaluation of all works through "Blind Peer Review" directly affects the quality of the publication. This process ensures trust through objective and independent evaluation of the publication. The evaluation process of Bitlis Eren University Academic Projection Journal is carried out with the principle of double-blind peer review. Reviewers cannot directly communicate with authors; evaluations and comments are transmitted through the journal management system. In this process, reviewer comments on evaluation forms and full texts are transmitted to the author(s) through the editor. In this context, it is expected that the reviewers evaluating the work for Bitlis Eren University Academic Projection Journal have the following ethical responsibilities:
• They should only accept evaluations related to their field of expertise.
• They must evaluate in a neutral and confidential manner.
• If they think they are faced with a conflict of interest in the evaluation process, they should inform the journal editor by refusing to review the work.
• They must destroy the works they have reviewed after the evaluation process due to the confidentiality principle. They can only use the final versions of the works they reviewed after they are published.
• They must evaluate objectively only regarding the content of the work. They should not allow nationality, gender, religious beliefs, political beliefs, and commercial concerns to affect the evaluation.
• They must make the evaluation in a constructive and kind language. They should not make derogatory personal comments containing hostility, defamation, or insult.
• They must perform the work they have accepted for evaluation in a timely and in accordance with the above ethical responsibilities.

The Ethical Responsibilities of Publishers

The Bitlis Eren University Academic Projection Journal Editors and Publication Board act with awareness of the following ethical responsibilities:
• Editors are responsible for all processes of the works submitted to the Bitlis Eren University Academic Projection Journal. In this framework, the decision-making persons, regardless of economic or political gains, are editors.
• They commit to the creation of independent editorial decisions.
• They protect the ownership and copyright of every article published in the Bitlis Eren University Academic Projection Journal and assume the obligation to keep the record of every published copy.
• They are responsible for taking any measures related to scientific misconduct, citation fraud, and plagiarism related to editors.

If You Encounter an Unethical Situation

If you encounter an unethical behavior or content beyond the ethical responsibilities mentioned above at the Bitlis Eren University Academic Projection Journal, please report it via email.

Journal Policy

Open Access Policy

As a journal aware of the necessity of easy access to information for the advancement of scientific studies, Bitlis Eren University Academic Projection Journal supports the initiative of open access in peer-reviewed journal literature as stated in the Budapest Open Access Initiative and presents all published articles in an environment where everyone can read and download them free of charge. In this declaration, open access is used to mean "the accessibility, readability, recordability, copyability, printable, scannable, full-text linkable, indexable, transferable to software as data, and available for any legal purpose without financial, legal, and technical barriers via the Internet for scientific literature." Considering the role of knowledge sharing in the advancement of science, open access is crucial for researchers and readers. Therefore, the articles in this journal are available as long as the author and original source are cited. No permission is required from authors or publishers. Articles in this journal can be accessed through search engines, websites, blogs, and other digital platforms.

Fee Policy

No fee is charged for article publication and article processing in the journal.

Evaluation Process

The studies sent to the journal for publication are initially evaluated by the editor for compliance with the aim and scope of the journal, compliance with writing rules, and adherence to the proposed draft. In this stage, studies that are not compliant with the aim and scope of the journal are returned to the authors. Studies that do not comply with writing rules and draft formatting are returned to the authors for correction and re-submission.
All studies are expected to be original and unique, not previously published in any medium. During the evaluation stage, the articles are reviewed through the Ithenticate similarity scanning and plagiarism detection program. The similarity index value of the articles must be below 20%. Articles with a similarity index value above this limit are rejected without evaluation.
The studies found appropriate by the editor are referred to the relevant section editor according to their subject matter and quality.
The section editor initiates the peer-review process of the study by determining two referees suitable for the subject matter and quality of the study.
The referees selected for the first step evaluation process are given 30 days for the evaluation process. Referees who do not complete their evaluations or upload their evaluation reports at the end of this period are terminated from their duties, and new referees are appointed.
Studies deemed inappropriate for publication according to the referee evaluation are returned to the authors. Authors are informed about the studies accepted for publication, and the study is published in the next issue.
Authors are given 30 days to make the necessary corrections for studies requested by referees. Corrections must be made and uploaded to the journal system within this period. If this period is exceeded, the process of the study is terminated, and it must be uploaded as a new article from the beginning. In this case, the first step evaluation process is restarted if required.

The authors are not charged an application and evaluation fee for the articles.

The publication rights of the articles accepted for publication and all kinds of copyrights in the published articles belong to the journal. No copyright is paid to the author.