Research Article
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Investigation on the effects of cooking methods on anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of five mostly consumed vegetables in winter

Year 2022, Volume 6, Issue 1, 182 - 188, 15.03.2022
https://doi.org/10.31015/jaefs.2022.1.23

Abstract

The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of steaming and boiling on antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of five frequently consumed vegetables in winter. The vegetables were prepared by three different cooking methods including steaming, 5-minute boiling, 15-minute boiling to compare with their raw forms. Antioxidant capacity was measured with 1, 1-diphenyl–2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method, anti-inflammatory activity was measured with 5-lipoxgenase inhibitory method, and the total phenolic content was detected after in vitro cooking process. The highest antioxidant activities among the raw vegetables were found in spinach (SR) (425.80 µg/mL, 12.83 mg/g) and broccoli (BR) (754.50 µg/mL, 7 mg/g). While boiling for 15 minutes and steaming slightly increased the antioxidant capacity in spinach and decreased it in broccoli; the highest activities among the mentioned cooking methods and vegetable samples were detected in these two vegetables. The lowest antioxidant activities were determined in leek (LR) (5662.0 µg/mL, 1.24 mg/g) and celery (CeR) (2796.0 µg/mL, 2.98 mg/g). In addition, the least affected vegetable from the cooking methods was spinach (S) (227.4-549.8 µg/mL). Cooking techniques have significative effects on the levels of phytochemical compounds and antioxidant capacities. It was observed that cooking methods increased the anti-inflammatory activity of the vegetables used in this study. Only broccoli (B) showed a decrease. The highest anti-inflammatory activity was found in the leek (L15) which was boiled for 15 minutes. Also, our results contribute to the databases that provide information about the effects of different cooking techniques on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of vegetables.

References

  • Abuajah, C.I., Ogbonna, A.C., Osuji, C.M. (2015). Functional components and medicinal properties of food: A review. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 52, 2522-2529. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-014-1396-5
  • Adefegha S.A., Oboh G (2011). Enhancement of total phenolics and antioxidant properties of some tropical green leafy vegetables by steam cooking. Journal of Food Processing and Preservervation, 35, 615-622. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4549.2010.00509.x
  • Aruoma, O. (2003). Methodological considerations for characterizing potential antioxidant actions of bioactive components in plant foods. Mutation Research, 523–524, 9–20. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0027-5107(02)00317-2
  • Brand-Williams, W., Cuvelier, M.E., Berset, C. (1995). Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 28, 1, 25-30. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0023-6438(95)80008-5
  • Dolinsky, M., Agostinho, C., Ribeiro, D.C., Rocha, G.S., Barroso, S.G., Ferreira, D., Polinati, R., Ciarelli, G., Fialho, E. (2016). Effect of different cooking methods on the polyphenol concentration and antioxidant capacity of selected vegetables. Journal of Culinary Science and Technology, 14, 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1080/15428052.2015.1058203
  • Finley, J.W., Kong, A., Hintze, K.J., Jeffery, E.H., Ji, L.L., Lei, X.G. (2011). Antioxidant in foods: state of the science important to the food industry. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 59, 6837-6846. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf2013875
  • Grebmer, V.K., Saltzman, A., Birol, E., Wiesmann, D., Prasai, N., Yin, S., Yohannes Y., Menon, P., Thompson, J., Sonntag, A. (2014). 2014 Global Hunger Index: The Challenge of Hidden Hunger. Welthungerhilfe, International Food Policy Research Institute, and Concern Worldwide, Bonn, Washington, D.C, and Dublin. http://dx.doi.org/10.2499/9780896299580
  • Grosso, G., Bei, R., Mistretta, A., Marventano, S., Calabrese, G., Masuelli, L., Giganti, M.G., Modesti, A., Galvano, F., Gazzolo, D. (2013). Effects of vitamin C on health: a review of evidence. Frontiers in Bioscience, 18, 1017-1029. http://dx.doi.org/10.2741/4160
  • Hossain, A., Khatun, M.A., Islam, M., Huque, R. (2017). Enhancement of Antioxidant Quality of Green Leafy Vegetables upon Different Cooking Method. Preventive Nutrition and Food Science, 22, 216-222. https://doi.org/10.3746/pnf.2017.22.3.216
  • Iborra-Bernad, C., García-Segovia, P., Martínez-Monzó, J. (2015). Physico-chemical and structural characteristics of vegetables cooked under sous-vide, cook-vide, and conventional boiling. Journal of Food Science, 80, E1725-E1734. https://doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.12950
  • Kosewski, G., Górna, I., Bolesławska, I., Kowalówka, M., Więckowska, B., Główka, A.K., Morawska, A., Jakubowski, K., Dobrzyńska, M., Miszczuk, P., Przysławsk, J. (2018). Comparison of antioxidative properties of raw vegetables and thermally processed ones using the conventional and sous-vide methods. Food Chemistry, 240, 1092–1096. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.08.048
  • Lafarga, T., Boboa, G., Viñas, I., Zudaire, L., Simó, J., Aguiló-Aguayo, I. (2018). Steaming and sous-vide: Effects on antioxidant activity, vitamin C, and total phenolic content of Brassica vegetables. International Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science, 13, 134-139. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijgfs.2018.05.007
  • Link, L.B., Potter, J.D., (2004). Raw versus cooked vegetables and cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, 13, 1422-1435. https://cebp.aacrjournals.org/content/13/9/1422.long
  • Martínez-Hernández, G.B., Artés-Hernández, F., Gómez, P.A., Artés, F. (2013). Quality changes after vacuum-based and conventional industrial cooking of kailan-hybrid broccoli throughout retail cold storage. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 50, 707-714. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2012.07.014
  • Mazzeo, T., N’Dri, D., Chiavaro, E., Visconti, A., Fogliano, V., Pellegrini, N. (2011). Effect of two cooking procedures on phytochemical compounds, total antioxidant capacity and colour of selected frozen vegetables. Food Chemistry, 128, 627-633. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.03.070
  • Miglio, C., Chiavaro, E., Visconti, A., Fogliano, V., Pellegrini, N. (2008). Effects of Different Cooking Methods on Nutritional and Physicochemical Characteristics of Selected Vegetables. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 56, 139-147. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf072304b
  • Morales, F.J., Babbel, M.B. (2002). Antiradical efficiency of Maillard reaction mixtures in a hydrophilic media. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 50, 2788-2792. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf011449u
  • Mori, C. and Todaka, E. (2009) Establishment of sustainable health science for future generations: from a hundred years ago to a hundred years in the future. Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine, 14:1-6. 10.1007/s12199-008-0051-z
  • Onur, N., Sarper, F., Onur, F. (2017). The Cases of Consuming Vegetables and Fruit of the Families in Different Socio-Economic Levels. 5 (1), 10.21325/jotags.2017.62
  • Paciulli, M., Dall’Asta, C., Rinaldi, M., Pellegrini, N., Pugliese, A., Chiavaro, E. (2018). Application and optimisation of air–steam cooking on selected vegetables: impact on physical and antioxidant properties. Journal of Science of Food and Agriculture, 98, 2267-2276. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.8715
  • Palermo, M., Pellegrini, N., Fogliano, V. (2014). The effect of cooking on the phytochemical content of vegetables. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 94, 1057-1070. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.6478
  • Pellegrini, N., Chiavaro, E., Gardana, C., Mazzeo, T., Contino, D., Gallo, M., Riso, P., Fogliano, V., Porrini, M. (2010). Effect of different cooking methods on color, phytochemical concentration, and antioxidant capacity of raw and frozen Brassica vegetables. Journal of Science of Food and Agriculture, 58, 4310-4321. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf904306r
  • Perez-Burillo, S., Rufián-Henares, J.A., Pastoriza, S. (2019). Effect of home cooking on the antioxidant capacity of vegetables: Relationship with Maillard reaction indicators. Food Research International, 121, 514-523. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2018.12.007
  • Phosrithong, N., Nuchtavorn, N. (2016). Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activites of Clerodendrum leaf extracts collected in Thailand. European Journal of Integrative Medicine, 8, 281-285. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eujim.2015.10.002
  • Ramirez-Anaya, J.P., Samaniego-Sánchez, C., Castañeda-Saucedo, M.A., Villalón-Mir, M., Serrana, H.L.G. (2015). Phenols and the antioxidant capacity of Mediterranean vegetables prepared with extra virgin olive oil using different domestic cooking techniques. Food Chemistry, 188, 430-438. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.04.124
  • Singleton, V. and Rossi, J. (1965). Colorimetry of Total Phenolic Compounds with Phosphomolybdic-Phosphotungstic Acid Reagents. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 16, 144-158. https://www.ajevonline.org/content/16/3/144
  • Soares, A., Carrascosa, C., Raposo, A. (2017). Influence of Different Cooking Methods on the Concentration of Glucosinolates and Vitamin C in Broccolli. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 10, 1387-1411. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11947-017-1930-3
  • Turkmen, N., Sari, F., Velioglu, S. (2005). The effect of cooking methods on total phenolics and antioxidant activity of selected green vegetables. Food Chemistry, 93, 713-718. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.12.038
  • Wach, A., Pyrzynska, K., Biesaga, M. (2007). Quercetin content in some food and herbal samples. Food Chemistry, 100, 699-704. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.10.028
  • Yıldırım, A., Şen, A., Doğan, A., Bitis, L. (2019). Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of capitula, leaf and stem extracts of Tanacetum cilicicum (Boiss.) Grierson. International Journal of Secondary Metabolite, 6, 211-222. https://doi.org/10.21448/ijsm.510316

Year 2022, Volume 6, Issue 1, 182 - 188, 15.03.2022
https://doi.org/10.31015/jaefs.2022.1.23

Abstract

References

  • Abuajah, C.I., Ogbonna, A.C., Osuji, C.M. (2015). Functional components and medicinal properties of food: A review. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 52, 2522-2529. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-014-1396-5
  • Adefegha S.A., Oboh G (2011). Enhancement of total phenolics and antioxidant properties of some tropical green leafy vegetables by steam cooking. Journal of Food Processing and Preservervation, 35, 615-622. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4549.2010.00509.x
  • Aruoma, O. (2003). Methodological considerations for characterizing potential antioxidant actions of bioactive components in plant foods. Mutation Research, 523–524, 9–20. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0027-5107(02)00317-2
  • Brand-Williams, W., Cuvelier, M.E., Berset, C. (1995). Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 28, 1, 25-30. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0023-6438(95)80008-5
  • Dolinsky, M., Agostinho, C., Ribeiro, D.C., Rocha, G.S., Barroso, S.G., Ferreira, D., Polinati, R., Ciarelli, G., Fialho, E. (2016). Effect of different cooking methods on the polyphenol concentration and antioxidant capacity of selected vegetables. Journal of Culinary Science and Technology, 14, 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1080/15428052.2015.1058203
  • Finley, J.W., Kong, A., Hintze, K.J., Jeffery, E.H., Ji, L.L., Lei, X.G. (2011). Antioxidant in foods: state of the science important to the food industry. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 59, 6837-6846. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf2013875
  • Grebmer, V.K., Saltzman, A., Birol, E., Wiesmann, D., Prasai, N., Yin, S., Yohannes Y., Menon, P., Thompson, J., Sonntag, A. (2014). 2014 Global Hunger Index: The Challenge of Hidden Hunger. Welthungerhilfe, International Food Policy Research Institute, and Concern Worldwide, Bonn, Washington, D.C, and Dublin. http://dx.doi.org/10.2499/9780896299580
  • Grosso, G., Bei, R., Mistretta, A., Marventano, S., Calabrese, G., Masuelli, L., Giganti, M.G., Modesti, A., Galvano, F., Gazzolo, D. (2013). Effects of vitamin C on health: a review of evidence. Frontiers in Bioscience, 18, 1017-1029. http://dx.doi.org/10.2741/4160
  • Hossain, A., Khatun, M.A., Islam, M., Huque, R. (2017). Enhancement of Antioxidant Quality of Green Leafy Vegetables upon Different Cooking Method. Preventive Nutrition and Food Science, 22, 216-222. https://doi.org/10.3746/pnf.2017.22.3.216
  • Iborra-Bernad, C., García-Segovia, P., Martínez-Monzó, J. (2015). Physico-chemical and structural characteristics of vegetables cooked under sous-vide, cook-vide, and conventional boiling. Journal of Food Science, 80, E1725-E1734. https://doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.12950
  • Kosewski, G., Górna, I., Bolesławska, I., Kowalówka, M., Więckowska, B., Główka, A.K., Morawska, A., Jakubowski, K., Dobrzyńska, M., Miszczuk, P., Przysławsk, J. (2018). Comparison of antioxidative properties of raw vegetables and thermally processed ones using the conventional and sous-vide methods. Food Chemistry, 240, 1092–1096. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.08.048
  • Lafarga, T., Boboa, G., Viñas, I., Zudaire, L., Simó, J., Aguiló-Aguayo, I. (2018). Steaming and sous-vide: Effects on antioxidant activity, vitamin C, and total phenolic content of Brassica vegetables. International Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science, 13, 134-139. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijgfs.2018.05.007
  • Link, L.B., Potter, J.D., (2004). Raw versus cooked vegetables and cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, 13, 1422-1435. https://cebp.aacrjournals.org/content/13/9/1422.long
  • Martínez-Hernández, G.B., Artés-Hernández, F., Gómez, P.A., Artés, F. (2013). Quality changes after vacuum-based and conventional industrial cooking of kailan-hybrid broccoli throughout retail cold storage. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 50, 707-714. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2012.07.014
  • Mazzeo, T., N’Dri, D., Chiavaro, E., Visconti, A., Fogliano, V., Pellegrini, N. (2011). Effect of two cooking procedures on phytochemical compounds, total antioxidant capacity and colour of selected frozen vegetables. Food Chemistry, 128, 627-633. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.03.070
  • Miglio, C., Chiavaro, E., Visconti, A., Fogliano, V., Pellegrini, N. (2008). Effects of Different Cooking Methods on Nutritional and Physicochemical Characteristics of Selected Vegetables. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 56, 139-147. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf072304b
  • Morales, F.J., Babbel, M.B. (2002). Antiradical efficiency of Maillard reaction mixtures in a hydrophilic media. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 50, 2788-2792. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf011449u
  • Mori, C. and Todaka, E. (2009) Establishment of sustainable health science for future generations: from a hundred years ago to a hundred years in the future. Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine, 14:1-6. 10.1007/s12199-008-0051-z
  • Onur, N., Sarper, F., Onur, F. (2017). The Cases of Consuming Vegetables and Fruit of the Families in Different Socio-Economic Levels. 5 (1), 10.21325/jotags.2017.62
  • Paciulli, M., Dall’Asta, C., Rinaldi, M., Pellegrini, N., Pugliese, A., Chiavaro, E. (2018). Application and optimisation of air–steam cooking on selected vegetables: impact on physical and antioxidant properties. Journal of Science of Food and Agriculture, 98, 2267-2276. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.8715
  • Palermo, M., Pellegrini, N., Fogliano, V. (2014). The effect of cooking on the phytochemical content of vegetables. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 94, 1057-1070. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.6478
  • Pellegrini, N., Chiavaro, E., Gardana, C., Mazzeo, T., Contino, D., Gallo, M., Riso, P., Fogliano, V., Porrini, M. (2010). Effect of different cooking methods on color, phytochemical concentration, and antioxidant capacity of raw and frozen Brassica vegetables. Journal of Science of Food and Agriculture, 58, 4310-4321. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf904306r
  • Perez-Burillo, S., Rufián-Henares, J.A., Pastoriza, S. (2019). Effect of home cooking on the antioxidant capacity of vegetables: Relationship with Maillard reaction indicators. Food Research International, 121, 514-523. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2018.12.007
  • Phosrithong, N., Nuchtavorn, N. (2016). Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activites of Clerodendrum leaf extracts collected in Thailand. European Journal of Integrative Medicine, 8, 281-285. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eujim.2015.10.002
  • Ramirez-Anaya, J.P., Samaniego-Sánchez, C., Castañeda-Saucedo, M.A., Villalón-Mir, M., Serrana, H.L.G. (2015). Phenols and the antioxidant capacity of Mediterranean vegetables prepared with extra virgin olive oil using different domestic cooking techniques. Food Chemistry, 188, 430-438. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.04.124
  • Singleton, V. and Rossi, J. (1965). Colorimetry of Total Phenolic Compounds with Phosphomolybdic-Phosphotungstic Acid Reagents. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 16, 144-158. https://www.ajevonline.org/content/16/3/144
  • Soares, A., Carrascosa, C., Raposo, A. (2017). Influence of Different Cooking Methods on the Concentration of Glucosinolates and Vitamin C in Broccolli. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 10, 1387-1411. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11947-017-1930-3
  • Turkmen, N., Sari, F., Velioglu, S. (2005). The effect of cooking methods on total phenolics and antioxidant activity of selected green vegetables. Food Chemistry, 93, 713-718. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.12.038
  • Wach, A., Pyrzynska, K., Biesaga, M. (2007). Quercetin content in some food and herbal samples. Food Chemistry, 100, 699-704. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.10.028
  • Yıldırım, A., Şen, A., Doğan, A., Bitis, L. (2019). Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of capitula, leaf and stem extracts of Tanacetum cilicicum (Boiss.) Grierson. International Journal of Secondary Metabolite, 6, 211-222. https://doi.org/10.21448/ijsm.510316

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Food Science and Technology
Published Date March 2022
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Tuğba İDUĞ (Primary Author)
ISTANBUL MEDIPOL UNIVERSITY
0000-0001-8241-647X
Türkiye


Hilal HIZLI GÜLDEMİR
Anadolu Üniversitesi
0000-0002-3951-5023
Türkiye


Ali ŞEN
Marmara Üniversitesi
0000-0002-2144-5741
Türkiye


Osman GÜLDEMİR
Anadolu Üniversitesi
0000-0002-7476-5482
Türkiye

Publication Date March 15, 2022
Application Date December 27, 2021
Acceptance Date March 23, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 6, Issue 1

Cite

APA İduğ, T. , Hızlı Güldemir, H. , Şen, A. & Güldemir, O. (2022). Investigation on the effects of cooking methods on anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of five mostly consumed vegetables in winter . International Journal of Agriculture Environment and Food Sciences , 6 (1) , 182-188 . DOI: 10.31015/jaefs.2022.1.23


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