Ethical Principles and Publication Policy


Author is the person who created the work. In order for the work to be attributed to a person as an "author", it must bear the characteristics of that person. The originality is the intellectual contribution that shapes a work.

The following stages may be involved in a scientific study in the field of law:

- Formation of the article idea.

-The design of the article. For example, designing the sections, main titles, introduction, development and conclusion parts,

- Obtaining article data. For example, determining and collecting resources, decisions and other data to be used.

- Exchanging views on article idea, resources and plan.

- Writing the article. In this context, analyzing and interpreting the idea of the article in the light of sources and other data.

- Completing the article by reviewing it as a whole.

- Making changes proposed by the editor or referees of the journal on the article submitted for publication.

Abstract ideas do not constitute a basis for work ownership and authorship rights. For example, the statement that there is a legal problem on a subject and that it should be solved is an abstract idea. As long as it remains at this stage, it is not preserved.

Support for technical service or details do not justify ownership right of the work. For example, reviewing a legal text only in terms of language and correcting spelling mistakes is of this nature.

Research and Publication Ethics Sets Considered

All studies submitted to TFM must be original, not published elsewhere and also not sent for publication.

Studies are subjected to similarity screening within the technical facilities of Ankara Yildirim Beyazit University.

Plagiarism, illegal citation, unfair authorship, article slicing, and other copyright violations are considered unethical behavior.

Studies must first be in accordance with YÖK Interuniversity Board Publication Ethics Directive. For the relevant directive, follow the link: Interuniversity Board Directive

Compliance of the studies with international publication ethics standards is also a requirement. TFM works in accordance with the ethical principles described by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) under the Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing. For these policies, follow the link: COPE Principles

TFM also observes the criteria sought by the International Medical Journal Editors Committee (ICMJE) in terms of scientific studies. Criteria are available at: ICMJE Criteria

Accordingly, criteria of the authorship consist of;

1. A substantial contribution in terms of obtaining, analyzing and interpreting the data used with the idea or design of the study,

2. Establishing the draft or critical review of it in terms of its important intellectual content,

3. Final approval of the text of the study to be published,

4. Accepting responsibility to ensure that questions regarding the accuracy or completeness of any part, in all aspects of the work, are properly investigated and resolved.

All of these criteria must be met together.

All studies that are found not to comply with generally accepted ethical standards are removed from the publication process by the editors.

Rules for the Editors

The TFM Editorial Board examines the articles submitted for publication only according to the criteria set by the publication ethics and TFM Publication Board. The examination is made independent of the author's identity, title, gender, ethnic origin, location and other personal characteristics.

A manuscript sent to TFM for publication is forwarded to two referees determined by the editors and / or appointed assistant editors or publishing secretaries and is subject to double-blind evaluation by the referees.

If one of the referee reports is negative, a third referee opinion is sought. However, editors also have the option to reject the article based on the negative report content. Otherwise, a decision is made based on the direction of two of the three reports.

In cases where there is at least one positive referee report about the submitted manuscript, the editorial board may decide on the publication of a study. Editors explain their opinions within the referee evaluation form.

With the recommendation of the TFM Editorial Board, the TFM Publication Board determines the publication order of the articles submitted to the journal and whose referee processes have been completed.

TFM editors may share information that the referees and editorial board need to know about the work they have reviewed. Apart from these, no information about the author and the work is shared with anyone before publication.

The study and referee process are not shared or followed with anyone other than those authorized by the editor.

Rules for the Referee


Referees are determined by the editorial board. While determining the referee, the suitability of the field of study to the subject of the article is taken into consideration.

The referee fulfills his duty on the basis of objectivity and impartiality.

If the referee finds that the article is not compatible with his / her field of study or if he /she thinks that the review will not be carried out within the specified period, the referee informs the editor of the situation without delay and conveys his/her request to leave the post.

The referee respects confidentiality for any work that is submitted to him/her for evaluation; and cannot explain about the study and its content.

Unpublished materials described in a submitted article cannot be used by the referee for personal purposes, even if they are of scientific nature, without the express written permission of the author.

Confidentiality of the information or ideas obtained during the referee review is essential.

Referees cannot evaluate the works of people who have a closeness or conflict of interest among them for any reason to protect their objectivity.

The referees establish the "Referee Evaluation Form" with justification and evidence for their opinions, which is formed as a result of their review on the study.

The style used by the referees in this report should be polite, respectful and scientific, and not subjective and aggressive. Otherwise, the referee can be contacted to re-review and correct their comments.

The referees primarily examine the manuscript in terms of whether the published literature has been fully and adequately evaluated. If necessary, in his/her report, she/he states the works that are not cited by the authors.

The referee should draw the attention of the editor in case of significant similarity or unacceptable overlaps between the article being evaluated and another published article that he/she knows.

The editor cannot determine the referees or referees of his/her own article that she/he wishes to be published in TFM. Rather, she/he submits the article to other editors. The referee process is carried out by other editors by showing maximum attention to the confidentiality of the referees and taking the necessary precautions.

The referee completes his/her evaluations within the time allotted to them.

Author's Liability

The copyright and compliance of the articles with ethical rules are the responsibility of the authors. All responsibility arising from the work that constitutes a violation in any way belongs to the author.

An original research article is expected to include an accurate and detailed description of the study and an objective discussion stating its importance. The data that form the basis of the study should be accurately reflected in the article.

Miscellaneous Rules About Authorship

In terms of the studies produced from the theses written for the graduate education, the person who undertakes the supervisory role of the related thesis can be included in the work as a co-author, depending on the conditions sought to be a work owner. Thesis advisory alone does not justify co-authorship on the thesis (articles produced from theses and other studies).

To be included in articles produced from homework, projects, presentations, etc. within an undergraduate or graduate course as an author depends on fulfilling the necessary conditions for authorship.

Suggestions and criticisms made for the article within the scope of the editorial service do not justify copyright.

The suggestions and criticisms made for the article within the scope of the refereeing service do not justify the copyright.

A referee cannot be treated differently from any other authors regarding an article that he/she wishes to be published in the TFM.

The author cannot recommend or determine the referees of the article or referee his own article.

Those who take part in TFM processes cannot be treated differently from any other author regarding an article they want to be published in TFM. It cannot recommend or determine the referees of the article and cannot referee its own article. Such work is treated confidential.