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Farklı Süt Çeşitleri ile Üretilen İzmir Tulum Peynirlerinin Bazı Fizikokimyasal Özellikleri ve Aroma Bileşikleri

Year 2017, Volume 54, Issue 1, 27 - 35, 20.03.2017
https://doi.org/10.20289/zfdergi.297939

Abstract

Bu çalışmada geleneksel bir türk peynir çeşidi olan İzmir Tulum Peyniri’nin fiziksel ve  kimyasal gibi bazı karakteristik özellikleri ile aroma maddeleri çalışılmıştır. 21 adet inek sütünden ve 16 adet ise inek, koyun ve keçi sütü karışımından üretilen olmak üzere toplam 37 peynir örneği analiz edilmiştir. Yalnızca inek sütü kullanılarak üretilen 21 adet pH, titrasyon asitliği, kuru madde içeriği, yağ ve kurumaddede yağ, tuz ve kurumaddede tuz, toplam azot, protein, suda çözünen azot, trikloroasetik asitte çözünen azot, proteoz-pepton azotu değerleri sırasıyla 4.11-4.92, %0.522-1.408, %49.920-68.648, %17.50-30.50, %35.06-51.98, %2.340-4.563, %3.75-5.26, %3.29-4.29, %20.99-27.37, %0.47-1.21, %0.32-0.91, %0.12-0.46 arasında değişiklik göstermiştir. Buna ek olarak, inek, koyun ve keçi sütü karışımlarından üretilen toplam 16 peynir örneğinde bu değerler sırasıya 4.01-4.75, %0.86-1.447, %54.587-71.854, %24.00-32.00, %33.59-52.71, %1.872-5.265, %3.02-9.65, %3.37-4.31, %21.50-27.50, %0.56-1.29, %0.34-1.03, %0.12-0.60 ve 14.51-33.78 arasında değişiklik göstermiştir. Izmir Tulum Peynirlerinin aroma maddesi profilleri katı faz mikroekstraksiyon tekniği ile gaz kromotografisinde belirlenmiştir. Gaz kromotografisinden elde edilen veriler uçucu profillerine dayalı temel bileşenler analizi ile analiz edilmiştir. Tulum peyniri örneklerinde serbest yağ asidi, ester, aldehit ve ketonlar temel aroma fraksiyonları olarak öne çıkmış ve aynı zamanda aroma maddesi kompozisyon özelliklerinin süt çeşidi ve üretim yöntemlerine göre etkilendiğini göstermiştir.

References

  • Alewijn, M., Sliwinski, E. L. & Wouters, J. T. M. 2005. Production of fat-derived (flavour) compounds during the ripening of Gouda cheese. Int. Dairy J. 15: 733–740.
  • Anonymous. 1978. TS 3046. Cheese-Determination of Fat Content-Van Gulik Method.https://intweb.tse.org.tr/standard/standard/ Standard.aspx?081118051115108051104119110104055047105102120088111043113104073098084107108070082107087068073097, Erişim: Şubat,2015. TSE, Ankara. (in Turkish)
  • Anonymous, 2006. White Cheese Standard (TS 591). https://intweb.tse.org.tr/standard/standard/Standard.aspx?081118051115108051104119110104055047105102120088111043113104073099079118067120113075075119106115, Erişim: Mart, 2013. TSE, Ankara. (in Turkish)
  • Anonymous, 2006. Tulum Cheese Standard (TS 3001), https://intweb.tse.org.tr/standard/standard/Standard.aspx?081118051115108051104119110104055047105102120088111043113104073101048085072066089088069107071114, Erişim: Ekim, 2010. TSE, Ankara (in Turkish)
  • AOAC, 1990. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. In K. Helrich, Official methods of analysis (15th ed.). Arlington, VA: Association of Official Analytical Chemists Publ.
  • Attai, R. 2009. Quantification of volatile compounds in goat milk Jack cheese using headspace gas choromotography. J. Dairy Sci. 92:2435-43
  • Ardo, Y. & Polychroniadou, A. 1999. Nitrogen Fractionation. Laboratory Manual For Chemical Analysis Of Cheese. Publication Office of the European Communities, Luxemburg, pp: 31-40.
  • Aslaner A. (2008). Determination of some quality properties of Erzincan tulum cheese made from different milks by using traditional method and applying heat treatment and ripened assorted packaging materials. PhD Thesis. Atatürk Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Gıda Mühendisliği A.B.D., Erzurum. (in Turkish)
  • Avşar, Y.K., Karagül-Yüceer, Y., Akdemir-Evrendilek, G. and Eştürk, O. 2009. The Determination of Aroma Profile of Economycally Important Traditional Cheese (Erzincan Tulum Cheese, Ezine Beyaz Cheese, Kars Kaşar Cheese, İzmir Tulum Cheese) and the Use of Aroma Active Agents Determining of Its Originally/Quality,” TÜBİTAK Carier Project, Project No: 104-O-530, Hatay, Turkey.
  • Bayar, N. 2008. Compare of tulum cheese by traditional methods and its production as technologically with using of different package materials. Master Thesis, Y.Y.Ü. Fen Bil. Ens. Gıda Müh. A.B.D. Van. (in Turkish)
  • Cakmakci, S., Dagdemir, E., Hayaloglu, A.A., Gurses, M. & Gundogdu, E. 2008. Influence of ripening container on the lactic acid bacteria population in Tulum cheese. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 24: 293–299.
  • Carunchia Whetstine, M.E., Karagul-Yuceer, Y., Avsar, Y.K. & Drake, M.A. 2003. Identification and quantification of character aroma components in fresh Chevre-style goat cheese. J. Food Sci. 68(8): 2441–2447.
  • Chiofalo, B., Todaro, M., Costa, R., Alicata, M.L., Chiofalo, V. & Giaccone, P., 2004. Influenza del pastazzo di limone sulla qualità del formaggio pecorino. Proc. 16th National Congress of Società Italiana di Patologia e Allevamento degli ovini e dei <rini – S.I.P.A.O.C.
  • Collins, Y. F., McSweeney, P. L. H. & Wilkinson, M. G. 2003. Lipolysis and free fatty acid catabolism in cheese. A review of current knowledge. Int. Dairy J. 13: 841–866.
  • Durlu-Özkaya, F., Gün, İ. 2014. Aroma compounds of some traditional turkish cheeses and their importance for turkish cuisine. Food Nutr. Sci. 5: 425-434.
  • Ercan, D. 2009. Quality characteristics of traditional sepet cheese. Master Thesis. İzmir Yüksek Teknoloji Enstitüsü, Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Gıda Mühendisliği A.B.D., İzmir.
  • Ercan, D., Korel, F. & Orsahin, H. (2014). Microbiological quality of artisanal sepet cheese. Int. J. Dairy Tech. 67(3): 384–393.
  • Fox, Patrick F., Guinee P.T., Cogan M. T. & McSweeney Paul L.H. 2000. Fundamentals of Cheese Scinece. Chapter 23 Analytical Methods for cheese, Aspen Publishers, Inc. Gaithersburg, Maryland, pp:523-551.
  • Frank D.C., Owen C.M. & Patterson J. 2004. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) combined with gas-chromatography and olfactometry-mass spectrometry for characterization of cheese aroma compounds. Lebensmittel Wissenschaft und Technologie, 37: 139–154.
  • Gonzales De Llano, D., Ramos, M. and Polo, C. 1990 Evolution of the volatile companents of artisanal Blue Cheese during ripening. J. Dairy Sci. 73, 1676-1683
  • Gripon, J.C. 1975. Desmazeaud, M. J., Et. Le Baes, D., Bergere J. H. Role Des Microorganismes et Des Enzymes du Cours de la Maturation. Le Lait, 55 (548): 502 -516.
  • Gurses, M. & Erdoğan, A. 2006: Identification of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Tulum cheese during ripening period, Int. J. Food Prop. 9: 551-557.
  • Hayaloglu, A.A., Fox, F.P., Guven, M. & Cakmakci, S. 2007. Cheeses of Turkey: 1. Varieties ripened in goat-skin bags. Le Lait 87:79–95.
  • Hayaloglu, A. A., Ozer, B. H. & Fox, P. F. 2008. Cheeses of Turkey: 2. Varieties ripened under brine. Dairy Sci. Tech. 88: 225–244.
  • Hayaloğu, A.A., Çakmakçı, S., Brechany, E.Y., Deegan, K.C. and McSweeney, P.L.H. 2007. Microbiology, biochemistry and volatile composition of tulum cheese ripened in goat’s skin or plastic bags, J. Dairy Sci. 90(3): 1102-1121.
  • Kosikowski, F., 1982. “Cheese and Fermented Milks”. 2 nd Ed., Edwards Broth. Inc. Ann. Arbor., Michigan, pp:109-112.
  • Kamber, U. 2008. The Traditional Cheeses of Turkey: The Aegean Region. Food Rev. Int. 24: 39–61.
  • Karagözlü, C., Yerlikaya, O., Akpınar, A., Ünal, G., Ergönül, B., Ender, G. & Uysal, H.R., 2016. Cholesterol levels and some nutritional parameters of traditional cheeses in Turkey. Ege Üniv. Ziraat Fak. Derg., 53(2): 161-168.
  • Katsiari, M.C., Voutsinas, L.P, Alichanidis, E. & Rousis, I.G. 2000. Lypolisis in reduced sodium Feta Cheese made by partial substituation of NaCl by KCI. Int. Dairy J. 10: 369-373.
  • Kesenkaş, H., Dinkçi, N. & Kınık, Ö. 2012. Properties of Köy Cheeses produced in different dairies. Ege Üniv. Ziraat Fak. Derg. 49 (2): 167-173. (in Turkish)
  • Kinik, Ö., Gürsoy, O. & Seçkin, K. 2005. Cholesterol content and fatty acid composition of most consumed Turkish hard and soft cheeses. Czech J. Food Sci. 23(4): 166–172
  • Leuven, I.V., Caelenberg, T.V. & Dirinck, P. 2008. Aroma characterisation of Gouda-type cheeses. Int. Dairy J. 18:790–800.
  • Liu, S.-Q., Holland, R., & Crow, V. L. 2004. Esters and their biosynthesis in fermented dairy products: A review. Int. Dairy J. 14: 923–945.
  • McSweeney, P. L. H., & Sousa, M. J. 2000. Biochemical pathways for the production of flavour compounds in cheeses during ripening: A review. Lait, 80: 293–324
  • Marilley, L., & Casey, M. G. 2004. Flavours of cheese products: Metabolic pathways, analytical tools and identification of producing strains. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 90: 139–159.
  • Nogueira, M. C. L., Lubachevsky, G., & Rankin, S. A. 2005. A study of the volatile composition of Minas cheese. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 38(5): 555-563. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j. lwt.2004.07.019
  • Pappa, E.C., Kandarakis, I.G., Zerfiridis, G.K., Anıfantakıs, E.M., & Sotirakoglou K. 2006. Influence of starter cultures on the proteolysis of Teleme cheese made from different types of milk. Lait 86:273–290.
  • Qian, M. & Reineccius, G. 2002. Identification of aroma compounds in Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese by gas chromatography/ olfactometry. J. Dairy Sci. 85:1362–1369
  • Tarakçı, Z. & Kuçukoner, E. 2006. Changes on physicochemical, lipolysis and proteolysis of vacuum packed Turkish Kashar Cheese during ripening. Centr. Eur. Agric. J. 3: 459-464.
  • Üçüncü, M., 2004. Cheese Technology From A to Z. Cilt II. Meta Basim, Bornova, Izmir, Turkey, 1236 p. (in Turkish)

Some Physicochemical Characteristics and Aroma Compounds of Izmir Tulum Cheese Produced with Different Milk Types

Year 2017, Volume 54, Issue 1, 27 - 35, 20.03.2017
https://doi.org/10.20289/zfdergi.297939

Abstract

In this research some characteristics including physical, chemical, and volatile compounds of Izmir Tulum Cheese; a Turkish artisanal cheese were studied. A total of 37 samples, 21 produced from cow’s milk (CM), 16 produced from the mixture of cow’s, sheep’s and goat’s milks (MM) were analyzed. The pH, titratable acidity, dry matter contents, fat and fat-in-dry matter, salt and salt-in-dry matter, total nitrogen, protein,  Water Soluble Nitrogen (WSN), Soluble Nitrogen in Trichloroacetic acid (TCA-N), Proteose-Peptone Nitrogen (PPN) values of 21 cheese samples produced  from  cow’s milk (CM)  varied between 4.11-4.92, 0.522-1.408%, 49.920-68.648%, 17.50-30.50%, 35.06-51.98%, 2.340-4.563%, 3.75-8.66%, 3.29-4.29%, 20.99-27.37%, 0.47-1.21%, 0.32-0.91%, 0.12-0.46%, respectively. In addition, characteristics stated above for a total of 16 cheese samples produced from cow’s, sheep’s and goat’s milk (MM) varied between 4.01-4.75%, 0.86-1.447%, 54.587-71.854%, 24.00-32.00%, 33.59-52.71%, 1.872-5.265%, 3.02-9.65%, 3.37-4.31%, 21.50-27.50%, 0.56-1.29%, 0.34-1.03%, 0.12-0.60%, and 14.51-33.78, respectively. Volatile aroma compounds of Izmir Tulum Cheese samples were determined by gas chromatography (GC) using a solid-phase microextraction technique. The GC data were analyzed by principal component analysis based on their volatile profiles. Free fatty acids, esters, aldehydes, and ketones became prominent as aroma fractions in Izmir Tulum Cheese samples. It was also determined that the composition properties of aroma compounds were affected by milk type and production method.

References

  • Alewijn, M., Sliwinski, E. L. & Wouters, J. T. M. 2005. Production of fat-derived (flavour) compounds during the ripening of Gouda cheese. Int. Dairy J. 15: 733–740.
  • Anonymous. 1978. TS 3046. Cheese-Determination of Fat Content-Van Gulik Method.https://intweb.tse.org.tr/standard/standard/ Standard.aspx?081118051115108051104119110104055047105102120088111043113104073098084107108070082107087068073097, Erişim: Şubat,2015. TSE, Ankara. (in Turkish)
  • Anonymous, 2006. White Cheese Standard (TS 591). https://intweb.tse.org.tr/standard/standard/Standard.aspx?081118051115108051104119110104055047105102120088111043113104073099079118067120113075075119106115, Erişim: Mart, 2013. TSE, Ankara. (in Turkish)
  • Anonymous, 2006. Tulum Cheese Standard (TS 3001), https://intweb.tse.org.tr/standard/standard/Standard.aspx?081118051115108051104119110104055047105102120088111043113104073101048085072066089088069107071114, Erişim: Ekim, 2010. TSE, Ankara (in Turkish)
  • AOAC, 1990. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. In K. Helrich, Official methods of analysis (15th ed.). Arlington, VA: Association of Official Analytical Chemists Publ.
  • Attai, R. 2009. Quantification of volatile compounds in goat milk Jack cheese using headspace gas choromotography. J. Dairy Sci. 92:2435-43
  • Ardo, Y. & Polychroniadou, A. 1999. Nitrogen Fractionation. Laboratory Manual For Chemical Analysis Of Cheese. Publication Office of the European Communities, Luxemburg, pp: 31-40.
  • Aslaner A. (2008). Determination of some quality properties of Erzincan tulum cheese made from different milks by using traditional method and applying heat treatment and ripened assorted packaging materials. PhD Thesis. Atatürk Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Gıda Mühendisliği A.B.D., Erzurum. (in Turkish)
  • Avşar, Y.K., Karagül-Yüceer, Y., Akdemir-Evrendilek, G. and Eştürk, O. 2009. The Determination of Aroma Profile of Economycally Important Traditional Cheese (Erzincan Tulum Cheese, Ezine Beyaz Cheese, Kars Kaşar Cheese, İzmir Tulum Cheese) and the Use of Aroma Active Agents Determining of Its Originally/Quality,” TÜBİTAK Carier Project, Project No: 104-O-530, Hatay, Turkey.
  • Bayar, N. 2008. Compare of tulum cheese by traditional methods and its production as technologically with using of different package materials. Master Thesis, Y.Y.Ü. Fen Bil. Ens. Gıda Müh. A.B.D. Van. (in Turkish)
  • Cakmakci, S., Dagdemir, E., Hayaloglu, A.A., Gurses, M. & Gundogdu, E. 2008. Influence of ripening container on the lactic acid bacteria population in Tulum cheese. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 24: 293–299.
  • Carunchia Whetstine, M.E., Karagul-Yuceer, Y., Avsar, Y.K. & Drake, M.A. 2003. Identification and quantification of character aroma components in fresh Chevre-style goat cheese. J. Food Sci. 68(8): 2441–2447.
  • Chiofalo, B., Todaro, M., Costa, R., Alicata, M.L., Chiofalo, V. & Giaccone, P., 2004. Influenza del pastazzo di limone sulla qualità del formaggio pecorino. Proc. 16th National Congress of Società Italiana di Patologia e Allevamento degli ovini e dei <rini – S.I.P.A.O.C.
  • Collins, Y. F., McSweeney, P. L. H. & Wilkinson, M. G. 2003. Lipolysis and free fatty acid catabolism in cheese. A review of current knowledge. Int. Dairy J. 13: 841–866.
  • Durlu-Özkaya, F., Gün, İ. 2014. Aroma compounds of some traditional turkish cheeses and their importance for turkish cuisine. Food Nutr. Sci. 5: 425-434.
  • Ercan, D. 2009. Quality characteristics of traditional sepet cheese. Master Thesis. İzmir Yüksek Teknoloji Enstitüsü, Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Gıda Mühendisliği A.B.D., İzmir.
  • Ercan, D., Korel, F. & Orsahin, H. (2014). Microbiological quality of artisanal sepet cheese. Int. J. Dairy Tech. 67(3): 384–393.
  • Fox, Patrick F., Guinee P.T., Cogan M. T. & McSweeney Paul L.H. 2000. Fundamentals of Cheese Scinece. Chapter 23 Analytical Methods for cheese, Aspen Publishers, Inc. Gaithersburg, Maryland, pp:523-551.
  • Frank D.C., Owen C.M. & Patterson J. 2004. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) combined with gas-chromatography and olfactometry-mass spectrometry for characterization of cheese aroma compounds. Lebensmittel Wissenschaft und Technologie, 37: 139–154.
  • Gonzales De Llano, D., Ramos, M. and Polo, C. 1990 Evolution of the volatile companents of artisanal Blue Cheese during ripening. J. Dairy Sci. 73, 1676-1683
  • Gripon, J.C. 1975. Desmazeaud, M. J., Et. Le Baes, D., Bergere J. H. Role Des Microorganismes et Des Enzymes du Cours de la Maturation. Le Lait, 55 (548): 502 -516.
  • Gurses, M. & Erdoğan, A. 2006: Identification of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Tulum cheese during ripening period, Int. J. Food Prop. 9: 551-557.
  • Hayaloglu, A.A., Fox, F.P., Guven, M. & Cakmakci, S. 2007. Cheeses of Turkey: 1. Varieties ripened in goat-skin bags. Le Lait 87:79–95.
  • Hayaloglu, A. A., Ozer, B. H. & Fox, P. F. 2008. Cheeses of Turkey: 2. Varieties ripened under brine. Dairy Sci. Tech. 88: 225–244.
  • Hayaloğu, A.A., Çakmakçı, S., Brechany, E.Y., Deegan, K.C. and McSweeney, P.L.H. 2007. Microbiology, biochemistry and volatile composition of tulum cheese ripened in goat’s skin or plastic bags, J. Dairy Sci. 90(3): 1102-1121.
  • Kosikowski, F., 1982. “Cheese and Fermented Milks”. 2 nd Ed., Edwards Broth. Inc. Ann. Arbor., Michigan, pp:109-112.
  • Kamber, U. 2008. The Traditional Cheeses of Turkey: The Aegean Region. Food Rev. Int. 24: 39–61.
  • Karagözlü, C., Yerlikaya, O., Akpınar, A., Ünal, G., Ergönül, B., Ender, G. & Uysal, H.R., 2016. Cholesterol levels and some nutritional parameters of traditional cheeses in Turkey. Ege Üniv. Ziraat Fak. Derg., 53(2): 161-168.
  • Katsiari, M.C., Voutsinas, L.P, Alichanidis, E. & Rousis, I.G. 2000. Lypolisis in reduced sodium Feta Cheese made by partial substituation of NaCl by KCI. Int. Dairy J. 10: 369-373.
  • Kesenkaş, H., Dinkçi, N. & Kınık, Ö. 2012. Properties of Köy Cheeses produced in different dairies. Ege Üniv. Ziraat Fak. Derg. 49 (2): 167-173. (in Turkish)
  • Kinik, Ö., Gürsoy, O. & Seçkin, K. 2005. Cholesterol content and fatty acid composition of most consumed Turkish hard and soft cheeses. Czech J. Food Sci. 23(4): 166–172
  • Leuven, I.V., Caelenberg, T.V. & Dirinck, P. 2008. Aroma characterisation of Gouda-type cheeses. Int. Dairy J. 18:790–800.
  • Liu, S.-Q., Holland, R., & Crow, V. L. 2004. Esters and their biosynthesis in fermented dairy products: A review. Int. Dairy J. 14: 923–945.
  • McSweeney, P. L. H., & Sousa, M. J. 2000. Biochemical pathways for the production of flavour compounds in cheeses during ripening: A review. Lait, 80: 293–324
  • Marilley, L., & Casey, M. G. 2004. Flavours of cheese products: Metabolic pathways, analytical tools and identification of producing strains. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 90: 139–159.
  • Nogueira, M. C. L., Lubachevsky, G., & Rankin, S. A. 2005. A study of the volatile composition of Minas cheese. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 38(5): 555-563. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j. lwt.2004.07.019
  • Pappa, E.C., Kandarakis, I.G., Zerfiridis, G.K., Anıfantakıs, E.M., & Sotirakoglou K. 2006. Influence of starter cultures on the proteolysis of Teleme cheese made from different types of milk. Lait 86:273–290.
  • Qian, M. & Reineccius, G. 2002. Identification of aroma compounds in Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese by gas chromatography/ olfactometry. J. Dairy Sci. 85:1362–1369
  • Tarakçı, Z. & Kuçukoner, E. 2006. Changes on physicochemical, lipolysis and proteolysis of vacuum packed Turkish Kashar Cheese during ripening. Centr. Eur. Agric. J. 3: 459-464.
  • Üçüncü, M., 2004. Cheese Technology From A to Z. Cilt II. Meta Basim, Bornova, Izmir, Turkey, 1236 p. (in Turkish)

Details

Subjects Science, Engineering
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Aslı AKPINAR


Oktay YERLİKAYA
0000-0002-1532-4687


Özer KINIK


Figen KOREL


Cihan KAHRAMAN This is me


Harun R. UYSAL

Publication Date March 20, 2017
Application Date March 14, 2017
Acceptance Date September 5, 2016
Published in Issue Year 2017, Volume 54, Issue 1

Cite

APA Akpınar, A. , Yerlikaya, O. , Kınık, Ö. , Korel, F. , Kahraman, C. & Uysal, H. R. (2017). Farklı Süt Çeşitleri ile Üretilen İzmir Tulum Peynirlerinin Bazı Fizikokimyasal Özellikleri ve Aroma Bileşikleri . Ege Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi , 54 (1) , 27-35 . DOI: 10.20289/zfdergi.297939

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