Araştırma Makalesi
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Validity and Reliability Study of the Turkish Version of the Organizational Indifference Scale

Yıl 2021, Cilt 9, Sayı 5, 1491 - 1505, 25.10.2021
https://doi.org/10.18506/anemon.891447

Öz

The concept of organizational indifference is stated as the feeling of estrangement of employees towards the organization’s different aspects and absence of commitments in time. Organizational indifference, which has been considered among the current variables both in the field of organizational behavior and human resources recently, will provide significant contribution to the literature. The aim of this study is to adapt the Organizational Indifference Scale into Turkish and perform the validity and reliability analyses. The sample of the study comprised of 248 employees who work in the retail industry in Isparta. Within the scope of the study, it is applied to the Social and Humanity Sciences Ethics Committee of T.C. Süleyman Demirel University and the approval of the research is taken on 12.28.2020 with the number of 2020/9. As a result of confirmatory factor analysis, the model showed acceptable fit to the data. Internal consistency reliability coefficients of the scales’ dimensions were calculated between .68 and .85. The results of the item analysis indicated that the corrected item-total score correlations of the subscales varied between .33 and .68. Besides, it was determined that the adapted scale had criterion-related validity. As a result of the correlation analysis, it was found out that the sub-dimensions of the Organizational Indifference Scale had a negative relationship with affective commitment, and a positive relationship with turnover intention. Based on these findings, it was considered a valid and reliable measurement tool that can be used in the field of organizational behavior.

Kaynakça

  • Ahmadi, S., & Rafiee, A. (2015). A study on emotional intelligence strategies to reduce organizational indifference. International Journal of Management Research and Business Strategy, 4(3), 168-178.
  • Anderson, J. C., & Gerbing, D. W. (1984). The effect of sampling error on convergence, improper solutions, and goodness-of-fit indices for maximum likelihood confirmatory factor analysis. Psychometrika, 49(2), 155–173.
  • Aydoğdu, C., & Çakıcı, A. (2018), Örgütlerde kayıtsızlık davranışı üzerine bir araştırma. Sosyal Bilimler Elektronik Dergisi, 2(2), 96- 117.
  • Ayre, C., & Scally, A. J. (2014). Critical values for Lawshe’s content validity ratio: revisiting the original methods of calculation. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 47(1), 79–86.
  • Beheshtifar, M., Borhani, H., & Moghadam, M. N. (2012). Destructive role of employee silence in organizational success. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 2(11), 275- 282.
  • Brislin R.W., Lonner W.J., & Thorndike R.M. (1973). Cross-cultural research method. New York: Wiley.
  • Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2003). Sosyal bilimler için veri analizi el kitabı. Ankara: Pegem Akademi Yayıncılık.
  • Coff, R. W. (1997). Human assets and management dilemmas: Coping with hazards on the road to resource-based theory. Academy of Management Review, 22(2), 374-402.
  • Cohen, A. (2017). Organizational commitment and turnover: A meta-analysis. The Academy of Management Journal, 36(5), 1140-1157.
  • Cole, D. A. (1987). Utility of confirmatory factor analysis in test validation research. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55(4), 1019-1031.
  • Comrey, A. L., & Lee, H. B. (2013). A first course in factor analysis. 2nd Edition, New York: Psychology Press.
  • Courpasson, D., & Dany, F. (2003). Indifference or obedience? Business firms as democratic hybrids. Organization Studies, 24(8), 1231-1260.
  • Çokluk, Ö., Şekercioğlu, G. ve Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2012). Sosyal bilimler için çok değişkenli istatistik SPSS ve LİSREL uygulamaları. Ankara: Pegem Akademi.
  • Doll, W. J., Xia, W., & Torkzadeh, G. (1994). A confirmatory factor analysis of the end-user computing satisfaction instrument. MIS Quarterly, 18(4), 453-461.
  • Erkus, A. (2003). Psikometri üzerine yazılar. Ankara: Türk Psikologlar Derneği Yayınları.
  • Fard, H. D., & Eslami, A. (2010). Discovering theory of organizational indifference: A grounded theory strategy. European Journal of Scientific Research, 40(3), 450-460.
  • Fard, H. D., Salarieh, N., & Noruzi, M. R. (2011). Exploring organizational indifference: Creating and validating a measure. African Journal of Business Management, 5(31), 12381-12391.
  • Fazio, J., Gong, B., Sims, R., & Yurova, Y. (2017). The role of affective commitment in the relationship between social support and turnover intention. Management Decision, 55(3), 512- 525.
  • Hair, J. F., Black, W.C., Babin, B.J., & Anderson, R.E. (2010). Multivariate data analysis. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
  • Halbesleben, J. R., & Wheeler, A. R. (2015). To invest or not? The role of coworker support and trust in daily reciprocal gain spirals of helping behavior. Journal of Management, 41(6), 1628-1650.
  • Henning, C. (2018). Theorien der Entfremdung, Zur Einführung. Hamburg: Junius.
  • Heyns, R. W., Veroff, J., & Atkinson, J. W. (1958). A scoring manual for the affliation motive içinde J. W. Atkinson (Ed.), Motives in fantasy, action, and society (ss. 205–218). New York: Van Nostrand.
  • Hilton, T. L. (2015). Effect of burnout and organizational commitment on the turnover intention of clinical laboratory employees in Florida. (Unpublished Doctoral dissertation). Minneapolis: Walden University.
  • Hu, L., & Bentler, P.M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling. A Multidiciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1-55.
  • Jöreskog, K., & Sörbom, D. (1993). LISREL 8: Structural equation modeling with the simplis command language. Chicago, IL: Scientific Software International Inc.
  • Kaplan, H. I., & Sadock, B. J. (1991). Synopsis of psychiatry. Baltimore. Md.: Williams and Walkins.
  • Keefe, L. (2003). How to overcome organizational Indifference. Women in Business, 55(22), 27-29
  • Keefe, L. (2006). Overcome organizational indifference. Nonprofit World, 24(2), 14.
  • Klein, H. J., Molloy, J. C., & Cooper, J. T. (2009). Conceptual foundations and theoretical representations of workplace commitments. In H. J. Klein, T. E. Becker, and J. P. Meyer (Eds.), Commitment in organizations: Accumulated wisdom and new directions (pp.3-36). New York: Routledge.
  • Klenosky, D. B., Perry-Hill, R., Mullendore, N. D., & Prokopy, L. S. (2015). Distinguishing ambivalence from indifference: A study of attitudes toward land trusts among members and nonmembers. Land Use Policy, 48, 250-260.
  • Kline, R. B. (1998). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. New York: Guilford Press.
  • Koçel, T. (2017). Yönetim ve organizasyonda metodoloji ve güncel kavramlar. İstanbul Üniversitesi İşletme Fakültesi Dergisi, 46(Special Issue), 3.
  • Küçükusta, D. (2007). Konaklama işletmelerinde iş-yaşam dengesinin çalışma yaşamı kalitesi üzerindeki etkisi. (Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi), İzmir: Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü.
  • Lee, Y. H. (2019). Emotional labor, teacher burnout, and turnover intention in high-school physical education teaching. European Physical Education Review, 25(1), 236-253.
  • Maslach, C., Schaufeli, W. B., & Leiter, M. P. (2001). Job burnout. Annual Review of Psychology, 52(1), 397-422.
  • Meyer, J. P, Allen, N. J., & Smith, C.A. (1993). Commitment to organizations and occupations: Extension and test of a three-component conceptualization. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(4), 538-551.
  • Mollaabbasi, H., Rezaeemanesh, B., & Sadaghiani, J. (2013). A study on relationship between emotional intelligence and organizational indifference through the organizational commitment: A case study of an Iranian firm. Management Science Letters, 3(5), 1327-1332.
  • Nikmaram, S., Yamchi, H. G., Shojaii, S., Zahrani, M. A., & Alvani, S. M. (2012). Study on relationship between organizational silence and commitment in Iran. World Applied Sciences Journal, 17(10), 1271-1277.
  • Noelle-Neumann, E. (1974). The spiral of silence a theory of public opinion. Journal of Communication, 24(2), 43-51.
  • Özdamar, K. (2004). Paket programlar ile istatistiksel veri analizi-II, (Çok değişkenli yöntemler), 5. Baskı. Eskişehir: Kaan Kitabevi.
  • Özkalp, E. (2013). Duygular, tutumlar ve iş tatmini. Kırel, A. Ç., & Ağlargöz, O. (Ed.), Örgütsel Davranış içinde (ss. 56-87) Eskişehir: Anadolu Üniversitesi Açıköğretim Fakültesi Yayını.
  • Paulin, M., Ferguson, R. J., & Bergeron, J. (2006). Service climate and organizational commitment: The importance of customer linkages. Journal of Business Research, 59(8), 906-915.
  • Peccei, R. (2004). Human resource management and the search for the happy workplace. Rotterdam: Erasmus Research Institute of Management.
  • PERYÖN. (2018). 2017-2018 çalışan devir oranı araştırması sonuç raporu. (Erişim: 10.11.2020), https://www.peryon.org.tr/uploads/2019/4/9/PERYO%CC%88N_%C3%87al%C4%B1%C5%9Fan_Devir_Oran%C4%B1_Sonu%C3%A7_Raporu_2017-2018.pdf
  • Rafaeli, A., & Sutton, R. I. (1987). Expression of emotion as part of the work role. Academy of Management Review, 12(1), 23-37.
  • Rioux, S. M., & Penner, L. A. (2001). The causes of organizational citizenship behavior: a motivational analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(6), 1306- 1314.
  • Seyed, T. M., & Keshavarz, H. M. (2011). Employees’ organizational indifference management. The Seasonal Journal of Human Resources of NAJA, (26), 1-156.
  • Tabachnick, B. G. & Fidell, L. S. (2013). Using Multivariate Statistics, USA: Pearson.
  • Tak, B., & Aydemir Çiftçioğlu, B. A. (2009). Üç boyutlu mesleki bağlılık ölçeğinin Türkçe'de güvenilirlik ve geçerliliğinin incelenmesine yönelik bir alan araştırması. Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi İşletme Fakültesi Dergisi, 10(1), 35-54.
  • Tavşancıl, E. (2002). Tutumların Ölçülmesi ve SPSS ile Veri Analizi. Ankara: Nobel Yayıncılık.
  • Vandenberg, R.J., & C.E. Lance. (1992). Examining the causal order of job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Journal of Management, 18(1), 153–167.
  • Wayne, S. J., Shore, L. M., & Liden, R. C. (1997). Perceived organizational support and leader-member exchange: A social exchange perspective. Academy of Management Journal, 40(1), 82-111.
  • Yeun, Y. R., & Han, J. W. (2016). Effect of nurses’ organizational culture, workplace bullying and work burnout on turnover intention. International Journal of Bio-Science and Bio-Technology, 8(1), 372-380.
  • Yoo, S. J. (2010). Two types of neutrality: ambivalence versus indifference and political participation. The Journal of Politics, 72(1), 163-177.

Örgütsel Kayıtsızlık Ölçeğinin Türkçe Formunun Geçerlik ve Güvenirlik Çalışması

Yıl 2021, Cilt 9, Sayı 5, 1491 - 1505, 25.10.2021
https://doi.org/10.18506/anemon.891447

Öz

Örgütsel Kayıtsızlık kavramı, örgüt çalışanlarının farklı boyutlarda örgütlerine karşı yabancılaşması ve zamanla örgüte olan bağlılıklarının ortadan kaybolması şeklinde ifade edilebilir. Son yıllarda örgütsel davranış ve insan kaynakları alanında güncel kavramlardan birisi olarak ifade edilen örgütsel kayıtsızlığın, bir ölçme aracıyla ölçülebilmesi alan yazın açısından önemli bir kolaylık sağlayacaktır. Bu araştırmanın amacı, Örgütsel Kayıtsızlık Ölçeği’ni Türkçeye uyarlamak ve geçerlik, güvenirlik analizlerini gerçekleştirmektir. Araştırmanın örneklemi, Isparta ilinde perakende sektöründe görev yapan 248 çalışandan oluşmaktadır. Çalışma kapsamında T.C. Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi Sosyal ve Beşerî Bilimler Etik Kuruluna müracaat edilmiş, 28.12.2020 tarihinde kurulun 2020/9 sayılı kararı ile araştırmanın yapılması uygun bulunmuştur. Yapılan doğrulayıcı faktör analizi sonuçları, modelin kabul edilebilir seviyede uyum verdiğini göstermiştir. Ölçeğin boyutlarının iç tutarlık güvenirlik katsayıları .68 ile .85 arasında hesaplanmıştır. Madde analizi sonucunda alt ölçeklerin düzeltilmiş madde-toplam puan korelasyonlarının .33 ile .68 arasında değiştiği görülmüştür. Ayrıca, uyarlaması yapılan ölçeğin ölçüt bağıntılı geçerliğe sahip olduğu belirlenmiştir. Yapılan korelasyon analizi sonucunda Örgütsel Kayıtsızlık Ölçeği’nin alt boyutlarının, duygusal bağlılıkla negatif, işten ayrılma niyeti ile pozitif yönlü ilişkileri bulunmuştur. Bu bulgulara dayanarak, ölçeğin örgütsel davranış alanında kullanılabilecek, geçerli ve güvenilir bir ölçme aracı olduğu düşünülmektedir.

Kaynakça

  • Ahmadi, S., & Rafiee, A. (2015). A study on emotional intelligence strategies to reduce organizational indifference. International Journal of Management Research and Business Strategy, 4(3), 168-178.
  • Anderson, J. C., & Gerbing, D. W. (1984). The effect of sampling error on convergence, improper solutions, and goodness-of-fit indices for maximum likelihood confirmatory factor analysis. Psychometrika, 49(2), 155–173.
  • Aydoğdu, C., & Çakıcı, A. (2018), Örgütlerde kayıtsızlık davranışı üzerine bir araştırma. Sosyal Bilimler Elektronik Dergisi, 2(2), 96- 117.
  • Ayre, C., & Scally, A. J. (2014). Critical values for Lawshe’s content validity ratio: revisiting the original methods of calculation. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 47(1), 79–86.
  • Beheshtifar, M., Borhani, H., & Moghadam, M. N. (2012). Destructive role of employee silence in organizational success. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 2(11), 275- 282.
  • Brislin R.W., Lonner W.J., & Thorndike R.M. (1973). Cross-cultural research method. New York: Wiley.
  • Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2003). Sosyal bilimler için veri analizi el kitabı. Ankara: Pegem Akademi Yayıncılık.
  • Coff, R. W. (1997). Human assets and management dilemmas: Coping with hazards on the road to resource-based theory. Academy of Management Review, 22(2), 374-402.
  • Cohen, A. (2017). Organizational commitment and turnover: A meta-analysis. The Academy of Management Journal, 36(5), 1140-1157.
  • Cole, D. A. (1987). Utility of confirmatory factor analysis in test validation research. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55(4), 1019-1031.
  • Comrey, A. L., & Lee, H. B. (2013). A first course in factor analysis. 2nd Edition, New York: Psychology Press.
  • Courpasson, D., & Dany, F. (2003). Indifference or obedience? Business firms as democratic hybrids. Organization Studies, 24(8), 1231-1260.
  • Çokluk, Ö., Şekercioğlu, G. ve Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2012). Sosyal bilimler için çok değişkenli istatistik SPSS ve LİSREL uygulamaları. Ankara: Pegem Akademi.
  • Doll, W. J., Xia, W., & Torkzadeh, G. (1994). A confirmatory factor analysis of the end-user computing satisfaction instrument. MIS Quarterly, 18(4), 453-461.
  • Erkus, A. (2003). Psikometri üzerine yazılar. Ankara: Türk Psikologlar Derneği Yayınları.
  • Fard, H. D., & Eslami, A. (2010). Discovering theory of organizational indifference: A grounded theory strategy. European Journal of Scientific Research, 40(3), 450-460.
  • Fard, H. D., Salarieh, N., & Noruzi, M. R. (2011). Exploring organizational indifference: Creating and validating a measure. African Journal of Business Management, 5(31), 12381-12391.
  • Fazio, J., Gong, B., Sims, R., & Yurova, Y. (2017). The role of affective commitment in the relationship between social support and turnover intention. Management Decision, 55(3), 512- 525.
  • Hair, J. F., Black, W.C., Babin, B.J., & Anderson, R.E. (2010). Multivariate data analysis. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
  • Halbesleben, J. R., & Wheeler, A. R. (2015). To invest or not? The role of coworker support and trust in daily reciprocal gain spirals of helping behavior. Journal of Management, 41(6), 1628-1650.
  • Henning, C. (2018). Theorien der Entfremdung, Zur Einführung. Hamburg: Junius.
  • Heyns, R. W., Veroff, J., & Atkinson, J. W. (1958). A scoring manual for the affliation motive içinde J. W. Atkinson (Ed.), Motives in fantasy, action, and society (ss. 205–218). New York: Van Nostrand.
  • Hilton, T. L. (2015). Effect of burnout and organizational commitment on the turnover intention of clinical laboratory employees in Florida. (Unpublished Doctoral dissertation). Minneapolis: Walden University.
  • Hu, L., & Bentler, P.M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling. A Multidiciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1-55.
  • Jöreskog, K., & Sörbom, D. (1993). LISREL 8: Structural equation modeling with the simplis command language. Chicago, IL: Scientific Software International Inc.
  • Kaplan, H. I., & Sadock, B. J. (1991). Synopsis of psychiatry. Baltimore. Md.: Williams and Walkins.
  • Keefe, L. (2003). How to overcome organizational Indifference. Women in Business, 55(22), 27-29
  • Keefe, L. (2006). Overcome organizational indifference. Nonprofit World, 24(2), 14.
  • Klein, H. J., Molloy, J. C., & Cooper, J. T. (2009). Conceptual foundations and theoretical representations of workplace commitments. In H. J. Klein, T. E. Becker, and J. P. Meyer (Eds.), Commitment in organizations: Accumulated wisdom and new directions (pp.3-36). New York: Routledge.
  • Klenosky, D. B., Perry-Hill, R., Mullendore, N. D., & Prokopy, L. S. (2015). Distinguishing ambivalence from indifference: A study of attitudes toward land trusts among members and nonmembers. Land Use Policy, 48, 250-260.
  • Kline, R. B. (1998). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. New York: Guilford Press.
  • Koçel, T. (2017). Yönetim ve organizasyonda metodoloji ve güncel kavramlar. İstanbul Üniversitesi İşletme Fakültesi Dergisi, 46(Special Issue), 3.
  • Küçükusta, D. (2007). Konaklama işletmelerinde iş-yaşam dengesinin çalışma yaşamı kalitesi üzerindeki etkisi. (Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi), İzmir: Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü.
  • Lee, Y. H. (2019). Emotional labor, teacher burnout, and turnover intention in high-school physical education teaching. European Physical Education Review, 25(1), 236-253.
  • Maslach, C., Schaufeli, W. B., & Leiter, M. P. (2001). Job burnout. Annual Review of Psychology, 52(1), 397-422.
  • Meyer, J. P, Allen, N. J., & Smith, C.A. (1993). Commitment to organizations and occupations: Extension and test of a three-component conceptualization. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(4), 538-551.
  • Mollaabbasi, H., Rezaeemanesh, B., & Sadaghiani, J. (2013). A study on relationship between emotional intelligence and organizational indifference through the organizational commitment: A case study of an Iranian firm. Management Science Letters, 3(5), 1327-1332.
  • Nikmaram, S., Yamchi, H. G., Shojaii, S., Zahrani, M. A., & Alvani, S. M. (2012). Study on relationship between organizational silence and commitment in Iran. World Applied Sciences Journal, 17(10), 1271-1277.
  • Noelle-Neumann, E. (1974). The spiral of silence a theory of public opinion. Journal of Communication, 24(2), 43-51.
  • Özdamar, K. (2004). Paket programlar ile istatistiksel veri analizi-II, (Çok değişkenli yöntemler), 5. Baskı. Eskişehir: Kaan Kitabevi.
  • Özkalp, E. (2013). Duygular, tutumlar ve iş tatmini. Kırel, A. Ç., & Ağlargöz, O. (Ed.), Örgütsel Davranış içinde (ss. 56-87) Eskişehir: Anadolu Üniversitesi Açıköğretim Fakültesi Yayını.
  • Paulin, M., Ferguson, R. J., & Bergeron, J. (2006). Service climate and organizational commitment: The importance of customer linkages. Journal of Business Research, 59(8), 906-915.
  • Peccei, R. (2004). Human resource management and the search for the happy workplace. Rotterdam: Erasmus Research Institute of Management.
  • PERYÖN. (2018). 2017-2018 çalışan devir oranı araştırması sonuç raporu. (Erişim: 10.11.2020), https://www.peryon.org.tr/uploads/2019/4/9/PERYO%CC%88N_%C3%87al%C4%B1%C5%9Fan_Devir_Oran%C4%B1_Sonu%C3%A7_Raporu_2017-2018.pdf
  • Rafaeli, A., & Sutton, R. I. (1987). Expression of emotion as part of the work role. Academy of Management Review, 12(1), 23-37.
  • Rioux, S. M., & Penner, L. A. (2001). The causes of organizational citizenship behavior: a motivational analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(6), 1306- 1314.
  • Seyed, T. M., & Keshavarz, H. M. (2011). Employees’ organizational indifference management. The Seasonal Journal of Human Resources of NAJA, (26), 1-156.
  • Tabachnick, B. G. & Fidell, L. S. (2013). Using Multivariate Statistics, USA: Pearson.
  • Tak, B., & Aydemir Çiftçioğlu, B. A. (2009). Üç boyutlu mesleki bağlılık ölçeğinin Türkçe'de güvenilirlik ve geçerliliğinin incelenmesine yönelik bir alan araştırması. Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi İşletme Fakültesi Dergisi, 10(1), 35-54.
  • Tavşancıl, E. (2002). Tutumların Ölçülmesi ve SPSS ile Veri Analizi. Ankara: Nobel Yayıncılık.
  • Vandenberg, R.J., & C.E. Lance. (1992). Examining the causal order of job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Journal of Management, 18(1), 153–167.
  • Wayne, S. J., Shore, L. M., & Liden, R. C. (1997). Perceived organizational support and leader-member exchange: A social exchange perspective. Academy of Management Journal, 40(1), 82-111.
  • Yeun, Y. R., & Han, J. W. (2016). Effect of nurses’ organizational culture, workplace bullying and work burnout on turnover intention. International Journal of Bio-Science and Bio-Technology, 8(1), 372-380.
  • Yoo, S. J. (2010). Two types of neutrality: ambivalence versus indifference and political participation. The Journal of Politics, 72(1), 163-177.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Sosyal
Bölüm Araştırma Makalesi
Yazarlar

Hasan Hüseyin UZUNBACAK
SÜLEYMAN DEMİREL ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-3297-1659
Türkiye


Tuğba ERHAN (Sorumlu Yazar)
Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi
0000-0002-5697-490X
Türkiye


Tahsin AKÇAKANAT
SÜLEYMAN DEMİREL ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0001-9414-6868
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 25 Ekim 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 9, Sayı 5

Kaynak Göster

APA Uzunbacak, H. H. , Erhan, T. & Akçakanat, T. (2021). Örgütsel Kayıtsızlık Ölçeğinin Türkçe Formunun Geçerlik ve Güvenirlik Çalışması . Anemon Muş Alparslan Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi , 9 (5) , 1491-1505 . DOI: 10.18506/anemon.891447