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Processed meat products and food additives

Yıl 2019, Cilt 1, Sayı 1, 44 - 53, 30.06.2019

Öz

With the rise in demand for ready-to-eat food, the side effects of the additives used in food production have been a source of concern for sensitive consumers. Although they are considered to be safe when used in the permitted limits, some of the additives might be risk for health. In this review, commonly used additives, which are cochineal, ascorbic acid, di-, tri- and polyphosphates, nitrates and nitrites, in processed meat products were evaluated. Processed meat products have been classified as Group 1 (carcinogenic for humans) by World Health Organisation because they increase risk of colorectal cancer. In fact, nitrites and nitrates used as preservatives; could be linked to stomach, colon and bladder cancers as well as DNA and chromosome damages. In addition, nitrates and nitrites may trigger headaches. Cochineal may have adverse effects on learning and behavior, additionally may trigger allergic reactions. Consuming high amounts of phosphate salts can lead to problems in patients with chronic renal failure. Considering unfavourable effects of food additives on health, it is concluded that to decrease consumpting of processed meat, they should be consumed freshly; food additives having no health risks should be chosen instead of risky ones.

Kaynakça

  • Acero, S., Tabar, A. I., Alvarez, M. J., Garcia, B. E., Olaguibel, J. M., & Moneo, I. (1998). Occupational asthma and food allergy due to carmine. Allergy: European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 53(9), 897–901. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1398-9995.1998.tb03998.x
  • Aschebrook-Kilfoy, B., Shu, X.-O., Gao, Y.-T., Ji, B.-T., Yang, G., Li, H. L., … Ward, M. H. (2013). Thyroid cancer risk and dietary nitrate and nitrite intake in the Shanghai women’s health study. International Journal of Cancer, 132(4), 897–904. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.27659
  • Bahadoran, Z., Mirmiran, P., Ghasemi, A., Kabir, A., Azizi, F., & Hadaegh, F. (2015). Is dietary nitrate/nitrite exposure a risk factor for development of thyroid abnormality? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Nitric Oxide, 47, 65–76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.niox.2015.04.002
  • DellaValle, C. T., Daniel, C. R., Aschebrook-Kilfoy, B., Hollenbeck, A. R., Cross, A. J., Sinha, R., & Ward, M. H. (2013). Dietary intake of nitrate and nitrite and risk of renal cell carcinoma in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. British Journal of Cancer, 108(1), 205–212. https://doi.org/10.1038/bjc.2012.522
  • Etemadi, A., Sinha, R., Ward, M. H., Graubard, B. I., Inoue-Choi, M., Dawsey, S. M., & Abnet, C. C. (2017). Mortality from different causes associated with meat, heme iron, nitrates, and nitrites in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study: population based cohort study. BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.), 357, j1957. https://doi.org/10.1136/BMJ.J1957
  • FAO. (1993). Carmines. Food and Nutrition Paper, Compendium of Food Additive Specifications, p. 21.
  • Ferrucci, L. M., Sinha, R., Ward, M. H., Graubard, B. I., Hollenbeck, A. R., Kilfoy, B. A., … Cross, A. J. (2010). Meat and components of meat and the risk of bladder cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Cancer, 116(18), 4345–53. https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.25463
  • Furst, A. (2002). Can nutrition affect chemical toxicity? Int J Toxicol, 21(5), 419–424.
  • Gonzalez, A., Hyde, E., Sangwan, N., Gilbert, J. A., Viirre, E., & Knight, R. (2016). Migraines Are Correlated with Higher Levels of Nitrate-, Nitrite-, and Nitric Oxide-Reducing Oral Microbes in the American Gut Project Cohort. MSystems, 1(5). https://doi.org/10.1128/mSystems.00105-16
  • Greenhawt. MJ., B. J. (2009). Carmine dye and cochineal extract: hidden allergens no more. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol, 103(1), 73–75.
  • Gülseren, D., Hapa, A., Ersoy-Evans, S., Elçin, G., & Karaduman, A. (2017). Is there a role of food additives in recurrent aphthous stomatitis? A prospective study with patch testing. International Journal of Dermatology, 56(3), 302–306. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijd.13515
  • IARC. (2015). IARC Monographs evaluate consumption of red meat and processed meat. Retrieved from https://www.iarc.fr/en/media-centre/pr/2015/pdfs/pr240_E.pdfInoue-Choi, M., Jones, R. R., Anderson, K. E., Cantor, K. P., Cerhan, J. R., Krasner, S., … Ward, M. H. (2015).
  • Nitrate and nitrite ingestion and risk of ovarian cancer among postmenopausal women in Iowa. International Journal of Cancer, 137(1), 173–182. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.29365
  • JECFA. (n.d.). Phosphoric acid, phosphates and polyphosphates. Retrieved from http://www.inchem.org/documents/jecfa/jecmono/v48aje11.htm
  • Karimzadeh, L., Koohdani, F., Siassi, F., Mahmoudi, M., Moslemi, D., & Safari, F. (2012). Relation between nitrate and nitrite food habits with lung cancer. Journal of Experimental Therapeutics & Oncology, 10(2), 107–12. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23350350
  • Kemmochi, S., Shimamoto, K., Shiraki, A., Onda, N., Hasumi, K., Suzuki, K., … Shibutani, M. (2012). Promoting effects of carminic acid-enriched cochineal extracts on capsular invasive thyroid carcinomas through targeting activation of angiogenesis in rats. The Journal of Toxicological Sciences, 37(3), 475–82. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22687987
  • Miller, P. E., Lazarus, P., Lesko, S. M., Cross, A. J., Sinha, R., Laio, J., … Hartman, T. J. (2013). Meat-Related Compounds and Colorectal Cancer Risk by Anatomical Subsite. Nutrition and Cancer, 65(2), 202–226. https://doi.org/10.1080/01635581.2013.756534
  • Millichap JG, Y. M. (2003). The diet factor in pediatric and adolescent migraine. Pediatr Neurol, 28(1), 9–15.
  • Miyauchi M, Nakamura H, Furukawa F, Son HY, Nishikawa A, H. M. (2002). Promoting effects of combined antioxidant and sodium nitrite treatment on forestomach carcinogenesis in rats after initiation with N-methyl-N’-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Cancer Lett, 178(1), 19–24.
  • Nitrate, I. (2010). Ingested nitrate and nitrite. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 94, 45–110.
  • Okazaki K, Ishii Y, Kitamura Y, Maruyama S, Umemura T, Miyauchi M, Yamagishi M, Imazawa T, Nishikawa A, Yoshimura Y, Nakazawa H, H. M. (2006). Dose-dependent promotion of rat forestomach carcinogenesis by combined treatment with sodium nitrite and ascorbic acid after initiation with N-methyl-N’-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine: possible contribution of nitric oxide-associated oxidative DNA damage. Cancer Sci, 97(3), 175–182.
  • Pecquet, C. (2013). Allergic reactions to insect secretions. European Journal of Dermatology, 23(6), 767–773. https://doi.org/10.1684/ejd.2013.2186
  • Preston-Martin S, Yu MC, Benton B, H. B. (1982). N-Nitroso compounds and childhood brain tumors: a case-control study. Cancer Res, 42(12), 5240–5245.
  • Sebraneka JG, B. J. (2007). Cured meat products without direct addition of nitrate or nitrite: what are the issues? Meat Sci, 77(1), 136–147.
  • Sodium nitrite. (2005). Retrieved from http://www.inchem.org/documents/sids/sids/7632000.pdf
  • Song, P., Wu, L., & Guan, W. (2015). Dietary Nitrates, Nitrites, and Nitrosamines Intake and the Risk of Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis. Nutrients, 7(12), 9872–9895. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7125505
  • Tanaka, T. (1995). Reproductive and neurobehavioral effects of cochineal administered to mice in the diet. Toxicol Ind Health, 11(1), 1–12.
  • Türk Gıda Kodeksi Gıda Katkı Maddeleri Yönetmeliği. (2013). Retrieved May 31, 2018, from http://www.mevzuat.gov.tr/Metin.Aspx?MevzuatKod=7.5.18532&MevzuatIliski=0&sourceXmlSearch=katkı
  • Yoshida Y, Hirose M, Takaba K, Kimura J, I. N. (1994). Induction and promotion of forestomach tumors by sodium nitrite in combination with ascorbic acid or sodium ascorbate in rats with or without N-methyl-N’-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine pre-treatment. Int J Cancer, 56(1), 124–128.

İşlenmiş Et Ürünleri ve Gıda Katkı Maddeleri

Yıl 2019, Cilt 1, Sayı 1, 44 - 53, 30.06.2019

Öz

Hazır gıdalara rağbetin artmasıyla birlikte gıda üretiminde kullanılan katkı maddelerinin sağlığa olumsuz etkileri duyarlı tüketicilerce endişe kaynağı olmuştur. Her ne kadar izin verilen sınırlarda kullanıldığı zaman güvenli olduğu kabul edilse de katkı maddelerinin bir kısmı az da olsa sağlık riski taşıyabilmektedirler. Bu derlemede işlenmiş et ürünlerinde yaygın olarak kullanılan katkı maddeleri incelenmiş olup koşineal, askorbik asit, di-, tri- ve polifosfatlar ile nitrat ve nitritler değerlendirilmiştir. Dünya Sağlık Örgütü kolorektal kansere yakalanma riskini arttırdığından dolayı işlenmiş et ürünlerini Grup 1 (insanlar için karsinojenik) sınıfına almıştır. Nitekim koruyucu olarak kullanılan nitrat ve nitritler; mide, kolon ve mesane gibi çeşitli organ kanserleri ile DNA ve kromozom hasarları ile ilişkilendirilmektedir. Ayrıca nitrat ve nitritler baş ağrısını tetikleyebilir. Koşinealin öğrenme ve davranışlar üzerine olumsuz etkileri olabileceği gibi alerjik reaksiyonları tetikleyebilmektedir. Fosfat tuzlarının yüksek miktarda alınması özellikle kronik böbrek yetmezliği gibi hastalığı olanlarda sorunlara yol açabilmektedir. Sonuç olarak; sağlığa olan olumsuz etkiler göz önüne alındığında etin işlenmiş etten ziyade işlenmemiş taze olarak tüketilmesinin, işlenmiş et üretiminde ise sağlık riski taşımayan veya olabildiğince düşük olan katkı maddelerinin tercih edilmesinin uygun olduğu kanaatine varılmıştır.  

Kaynakça

  • Acero, S., Tabar, A. I., Alvarez, M. J., Garcia, B. E., Olaguibel, J. M., & Moneo, I. (1998). Occupational asthma and food allergy due to carmine. Allergy: European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 53(9), 897–901. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1398-9995.1998.tb03998.x
  • Aschebrook-Kilfoy, B., Shu, X.-O., Gao, Y.-T., Ji, B.-T., Yang, G., Li, H. L., … Ward, M. H. (2013). Thyroid cancer risk and dietary nitrate and nitrite intake in the Shanghai women’s health study. International Journal of Cancer, 132(4), 897–904. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.27659
  • Bahadoran, Z., Mirmiran, P., Ghasemi, A., Kabir, A., Azizi, F., & Hadaegh, F. (2015). Is dietary nitrate/nitrite exposure a risk factor for development of thyroid abnormality? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Nitric Oxide, 47, 65–76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.niox.2015.04.002
  • DellaValle, C. T., Daniel, C. R., Aschebrook-Kilfoy, B., Hollenbeck, A. R., Cross, A. J., Sinha, R., & Ward, M. H. (2013). Dietary intake of nitrate and nitrite and risk of renal cell carcinoma in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. British Journal of Cancer, 108(1), 205–212. https://doi.org/10.1038/bjc.2012.522
  • Etemadi, A., Sinha, R., Ward, M. H., Graubard, B. I., Inoue-Choi, M., Dawsey, S. M., & Abnet, C. C. (2017). Mortality from different causes associated with meat, heme iron, nitrates, and nitrites in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study: population based cohort study. BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.), 357, j1957. https://doi.org/10.1136/BMJ.J1957
  • FAO. (1993). Carmines. Food and Nutrition Paper, Compendium of Food Additive Specifications, p. 21.
  • Ferrucci, L. M., Sinha, R., Ward, M. H., Graubard, B. I., Hollenbeck, A. R., Kilfoy, B. A., … Cross, A. J. (2010). Meat and components of meat and the risk of bladder cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Cancer, 116(18), 4345–53. https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.25463
  • Furst, A. (2002). Can nutrition affect chemical toxicity? Int J Toxicol, 21(5), 419–424.
  • Gonzalez, A., Hyde, E., Sangwan, N., Gilbert, J. A., Viirre, E., & Knight, R. (2016). Migraines Are Correlated with Higher Levels of Nitrate-, Nitrite-, and Nitric Oxide-Reducing Oral Microbes in the American Gut Project Cohort. MSystems, 1(5). https://doi.org/10.1128/mSystems.00105-16
  • Greenhawt. MJ., B. J. (2009). Carmine dye and cochineal extract: hidden allergens no more. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol, 103(1), 73–75.
  • Gülseren, D., Hapa, A., Ersoy-Evans, S., Elçin, G., & Karaduman, A. (2017). Is there a role of food additives in recurrent aphthous stomatitis? A prospective study with patch testing. International Journal of Dermatology, 56(3), 302–306. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijd.13515
  • IARC. (2015). IARC Monographs evaluate consumption of red meat and processed meat. Retrieved from https://www.iarc.fr/en/media-centre/pr/2015/pdfs/pr240_E.pdfInoue-Choi, M., Jones, R. R., Anderson, K. E., Cantor, K. P., Cerhan, J. R., Krasner, S., … Ward, M. H. (2015).
  • Nitrate and nitrite ingestion and risk of ovarian cancer among postmenopausal women in Iowa. International Journal of Cancer, 137(1), 173–182. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.29365
  • JECFA. (n.d.). Phosphoric acid, phosphates and polyphosphates. Retrieved from http://www.inchem.org/documents/jecfa/jecmono/v48aje11.htm
  • Karimzadeh, L., Koohdani, F., Siassi, F., Mahmoudi, M., Moslemi, D., & Safari, F. (2012). Relation between nitrate and nitrite food habits with lung cancer. Journal of Experimental Therapeutics & Oncology, 10(2), 107–12. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23350350
  • Kemmochi, S., Shimamoto, K., Shiraki, A., Onda, N., Hasumi, K., Suzuki, K., … Shibutani, M. (2012). Promoting effects of carminic acid-enriched cochineal extracts on capsular invasive thyroid carcinomas through targeting activation of angiogenesis in rats. The Journal of Toxicological Sciences, 37(3), 475–82. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22687987
  • Miller, P. E., Lazarus, P., Lesko, S. M., Cross, A. J., Sinha, R., Laio, J., … Hartman, T. J. (2013). Meat-Related Compounds and Colorectal Cancer Risk by Anatomical Subsite. Nutrition and Cancer, 65(2), 202–226. https://doi.org/10.1080/01635581.2013.756534
  • Millichap JG, Y. M. (2003). The diet factor in pediatric and adolescent migraine. Pediatr Neurol, 28(1), 9–15.
  • Miyauchi M, Nakamura H, Furukawa F, Son HY, Nishikawa A, H. M. (2002). Promoting effects of combined antioxidant and sodium nitrite treatment on forestomach carcinogenesis in rats after initiation with N-methyl-N’-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Cancer Lett, 178(1), 19–24.
  • Nitrate, I. (2010). Ingested nitrate and nitrite. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 94, 45–110.
  • Okazaki K, Ishii Y, Kitamura Y, Maruyama S, Umemura T, Miyauchi M, Yamagishi M, Imazawa T, Nishikawa A, Yoshimura Y, Nakazawa H, H. M. (2006). Dose-dependent promotion of rat forestomach carcinogenesis by combined treatment with sodium nitrite and ascorbic acid after initiation with N-methyl-N’-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine: possible contribution of nitric oxide-associated oxidative DNA damage. Cancer Sci, 97(3), 175–182.
  • Pecquet, C. (2013). Allergic reactions to insect secretions. European Journal of Dermatology, 23(6), 767–773. https://doi.org/10.1684/ejd.2013.2186
  • Preston-Martin S, Yu MC, Benton B, H. B. (1982). N-Nitroso compounds and childhood brain tumors: a case-control study. Cancer Res, 42(12), 5240–5245.
  • Sebraneka JG, B. J. (2007). Cured meat products without direct addition of nitrate or nitrite: what are the issues? Meat Sci, 77(1), 136–147.
  • Sodium nitrite. (2005). Retrieved from http://www.inchem.org/documents/sids/sids/7632000.pdf
  • Song, P., Wu, L., & Guan, W. (2015). Dietary Nitrates, Nitrites, and Nitrosamines Intake and the Risk of Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis. Nutrients, 7(12), 9872–9895. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7125505
  • Tanaka, T. (1995). Reproductive and neurobehavioral effects of cochineal administered to mice in the diet. Toxicol Ind Health, 11(1), 1–12.
  • Türk Gıda Kodeksi Gıda Katkı Maddeleri Yönetmeliği. (2013). Retrieved May 31, 2018, from http://www.mevzuat.gov.tr/Metin.Aspx?MevzuatKod=7.5.18532&MevzuatIliski=0&sourceXmlSearch=katkı
  • Yoshida Y, Hirose M, Takaba K, Kimura J, I. N. (1994). Induction and promotion of forestomach tumors by sodium nitrite in combination with ascorbic acid or sodium ascorbate in rats with or without N-methyl-N’-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine pre-treatment. Int J Cancer, 56(1), 124–128.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Sağlık Bilimleri ve Hizmetleri
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Fatih GÜLTEKİN> (Sorumlu Yazar)
SAĞLIK BİLİMLERİ ÜNİVERSİTESİ, TIP FAKÜLTESİ, TEMEL TIP BİLİMLERİ BÖLÜMÜ, TIBBİ BİYOKİMYA ANABİLİM DALI
0000-0003-2888-3215
Türkiye


Sümeyye AKIN>
SAĞLIK BİLİMLERİ ÜNİVERSİTESİ, TIP FAKÜLTESİ, TEMEL TIP BİLİMLERİ BÖLÜMÜ, TIBBİ BİYOKİMYA ANABİLİM DALI
0000-0002-4773-0161
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Haziran 2019
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2019, Cilt 1, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @derleme { apjhls431903, journal = {Academic Platform Journal of Halal Lifestyle}, eissn = {2687-2374}, address = {Babalık Mh. Kemerli Cd,. Demirci İş Merk.B Blok, No: 7/705 Selçuklu-Konya}, publisher = {Akademik Perspektif Derneği}, year = {2019}, volume = {1}, number = {1}, pages = {44 - 53}, title = {İşlenmiş Et Ürünleri ve Gıda Katkı Maddeleri}, key = {cite}, author = {Gültekin, Fatih and Akın, Sümeyye} }
APA Gültekin, F. & Akın, S. (2019). İşlenmiş Et Ürünleri ve Gıda Katkı Maddeleri . Academic Platform Journal of Halal Lifestyle , 1 (1) , 44-53 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/apjhls/issue/46548/431903
MLA Gültekin, F. , Akın, S. "İşlenmiş Et Ürünleri ve Gıda Katkı Maddeleri" . Academic Platform Journal of Halal Lifestyle 1 (2019 ): 44-53 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/apjhls/issue/46548/431903>
Chicago Gültekin, F. , Akın, S. "İşlenmiş Et Ürünleri ve Gıda Katkı Maddeleri". Academic Platform Journal of Halal Lifestyle 1 (2019 ): 44-53
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - İşlenmiş Et Ürünleri ve Gıda Katkı Maddeleri AU - FatihGültekin, SümeyyeAkın Y1 - 2019 PY - 2019 N1 - DO - T2 - Academic Platform Journal of Halal Lifestyle JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 44 EP - 53 VL - 1 IS - 1 SN - -2687-2374 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2019 ER -
EndNote %0 Akademik Platform Helal Yaşam Dergisi İşlenmiş Et Ürünleri ve Gıda Katkı Maddeleri %A Fatih Gültekin , Sümeyye Akın %T İşlenmiş Et Ürünleri ve Gıda Katkı Maddeleri %D 2019 %J Academic Platform Journal of Halal Lifestyle %P -2687-2374 %V 1 %N 1 %R %U
ISNAD Gültekin, Fatih , Akın, Sümeyye . "İşlenmiş Et Ürünleri ve Gıda Katkı Maddeleri". Academic Platform Journal of Halal Lifestyle 1 / 1 (Haziran 2019): 44-53 .
AMA Gültekin F. , Akın S. İşlenmiş Et Ürünleri ve Gıda Katkı Maddeleri. AP Helal Yaşam. 2019; 1(1): 44-53.
Vancouver Gültekin F. , Akın S. İşlenmiş Et Ürünleri ve Gıda Katkı Maddeleri. Academic Platform Journal of Halal Lifestyle. 2019; 1(1): 44-53.
IEEE F. Gültekin ve S. Akın , "İşlenmiş Et Ürünleri ve Gıda Katkı Maddeleri", Academic Platform Journal of Halal Lifestyle, c. 1, sayı. 1, ss. 44-53, Haz. 2019

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