Derleme
PDF EndNote BibTex RIS Kaynak Göster

DYADIC OR MONADIC? A REVIEW ON PERSONALITY REFLECTIONS OF BILINGUALS

Yıl 2022, Cilt 4, Sayı 1, 19 - 36, 30.06.2022

Öz

The purpose of this study is to review the current literature which produced evidence on split personality of bilinguals. In this research paradigm, split-personality does not refer to any psychological disorder, rather it denotes a personality feature of bi- or multilinguals. Although there is a plethora of research on bilingualism and bilinguals, data on split personality of bilinguals are scant. From the beginning of the 20th Century, the question of whether bilinguals have two personalities or not has been investigated on the basis of their language and cultural frame shift. We reviewed 13 studies that are directly related to split personality of bilinguals. These studies are discussed with respect to their purpose, methodology and major findings. Hence, we aimed to provide insights for the reader to have an understanding about the process of split-brain studies and the major findings that revealed how bilinguals reflect different personality traits depending on the language and culture they are interacting and residing. Further implications were provided for the researchers who seek answers in this area.

Kaynakça

  • Bakić, A. & Škifić, S. (2017). The relationship between bilingualism and identity in expressing emotions and thoughts. Íkala, Revista de Lenguaje y Cultura, 22(1), 33–54. http://dx.doi.org/10.17533/udea.ikala.v22n01a03.
  • Barac, R. & Bialystok, E. (2011). Cognitive development of bilingual children. Language Teaching, 44(1), 36–54. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444810000339.
  • Barrick, M.,R. & Mount, M., K. (1991). The big five personality dimensions and job performance: A meta‐analysis. Personnel Psychology, 44(1), 1–26. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1991.tb00688.x.
  • Benet-Martínez, V. & Haritatos, J. (2005). Bicultural identity integration (BII): Components and psychosocial antecedents. Journal of Personality, 73(4), 1015–1050. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.2005.00337.x.
  • Bloomfield, L. (1935) Language. London: Allen and Unwin.
  • Boyle, G., J. (2008). Critique of the five-factor model of personality. In G. J. Boyle, G. Matthews & D. H. Saklofske (eds.), The SAGE handbook of personality theory and assessment, Vol. 1. Personality theories and models, pp. 295–312. Sage Publications. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781849200462.n14.
  • Butcher, J., N. (ed.). (2009). Oxford handbook of personality assessment. Oxford University Press.
  • De Feyter, T., Caers, R., Vigna, C. & Berings, D. (2012). Unravelling the impact of the Big Five personality traits on academic performance: The moderating and mediating effects of self-efficacy and academic motivation. Learning and Individual Differences, 22(4), 439–448. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2012.03.013.
  • Chen, S., X. & Bond, M., H. (2010). Two languages, two personalities? Examining language effects on the expression of personality in a bilingual context. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36(11), 1514–1528. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167210385360.
  • Cramer, P. (2004). Storytelling, narrative, and the thematic apperception test. Guilford Press.
  • Costa, P., T., Jr., Fozard, J., L. & McCrae, R., R. (1977). Personological interpretation of factors from the strong vocational interest blank scales. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 10(2), 231–243. https://doi.org/10.1016/0001-8791(77)90060-4.
  • Costa, P., T., Jr. & McCrae, R., R. (1992). Four ways five factors are basic. Personality and Individual Differences, 13(6), 653–665. https://doi.org/10.1016/0191-8869(92)90236-I.
  • Costa, P., T., Jr., McCrae, R., R. & Kay, G., G. (1995). Persons, places, and personality: career assessment using the revised NEO personality inventory. Journal of Career Assessment, 3(2), 123–139. https://doi.org/10.1177/106907279500300202.
  • Dewaele, J., M. & Nakano, S. (2012). Multilinguals’ perceptions of feeling different when switching languages. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 34(2), 107–120. https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2012.712133.
  • Ervin, S., M. (1964). Language and TAT content in bilinguals. Abnormal and Social Psychology, 68(5), 500–507. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0044803.
  • Hattrup, K. (2003). Review of the California psychological inventory, (3rd ed.). In the fifteenth mental measurements yearbook. Retrieved from OVID Mental Measurements Yearbook database.
  • Hull, P., V. (1996). Bilingualism: Some personality and cultural issues. In D. I. Slobin, J. Gerhardt, A. Kyratzis & J. Guo (eds.), Social interaction, social context, and language: Essays in honour of Susan Ervin-Tripp (pp. 419–434). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Groth-Marnat, G. (2009). Handbook of psychological assessment (5th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and sons, Inc.
  • Gough, H., G. (1990). The California Psychological Inventory. In C. E. Watkins, Jr. & V. L. Campbell (eds.), Vocational psychology. Testing in counselling practice (pp. 37–62). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
  • Gough, H., G. (1995). Career Assessment and the California Psychological Inventory. Journal of Career Assessment 3(2), 101–122. https://doi.org/10.1177/106907279500300201.
  • Grosjean, F. (2008). Studying bilinguals. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Gurven, M., Rueden, C., Massenkoff, M., Kaplan, H. & Vie, M.,L. (2013). How universal is the big five? Testing the five-factor model of personality variation among forager–farmers in the Bolivian Amazon. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 104(2), 354 –370. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0030841.
  • LaFromboise, T., Coleman, H., L. & Gerton, J. (1993). Psychological impact of biculturalism: Evidence and theory. Psychological Bulletin, 114(3), 395–412. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.114.3.395.
  • Keiser R., E. & Prather, E., N. (1990). What is the TAT? A review of ten years of research. J Pers Assess, 55(3-4), 800–803. https://doi.org/10.1080/00223891.1990.9674114.
  • Koven, M.,E.,J. (1998). Two languages in the self/The self in two languages: French-Portuguese bilinguals’ verbal enactments and experiences of self in narrative discourse. Journal of the Society for Psychological Anthropology, 26(4), 410–455. https://doi.org/10.1525/eth.1998.26.4.410.
  • Krueger, R., F. & Eaton, N., R. (2010). Personality traits and the classification of mental disorders: Toward a more complete integration in DSM–5 and an empirical model of psychopathology. Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment, 1(2), 97–118. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0018990.
  • Kulik, L. (2002). The impact of social background on gender-role ideology. Journal of Family Issues,23, (1), 53-73. https://doi.org/10.1177/0192513X02023001003.
  • Laufer, W., S., Skoog, D. K. & Day, J., M. (1982). Personality and criminality: A review of the California Psychological Inventory. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 38(3), 562–573. https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-4679(198207)38:3<562::AID-JCLP2270380315>3.0.CO;2-D.
  • Lilienfeld, S., O., Wood, J., M. & Garb, H., N. (2000). The scientific status of projective techniques. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 1(2), 27–66. https://doi.org/10.1111/1529-1006.002.
  • Luna, D., Ringberg, T., & Peracchio, L., A. (2008). One individual, two identities: Frame switching among biculturals. Journal of Consumer Research, 35(2), 279–293. https://doi.org/10.1086/586914.
  • Macnamara, J. (1967a). The bilingual’s linguistic performance. Journal of Social Issues, 23(2), 58–77. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1967.tb00576.x.
  • McCrae, R. R., Yik, M. S. M., Trapnell, P. D., Bond, M. H. & Paulhus, D. L. (1998). Interpreting personality profiles across cultures: Bilingual, acculturation, and peer rating studies of Chinese undergraduates. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74(4), 1041–1055. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-3514.74.4.1041.
  • Megargee, E., I. (1972). The California Psychological Inventory Handbook. Jossey-Bass, Inc. Nodoushan, M., A., -929S. & Laborda, J., G. (2014). The bilingual self or selves? International Journal of Language Studies, 8(3), 107–116. https://doi.org/10.13140/2.1.2463.8086.
  • Oliver, J., P. & Srivastava, S. (1999). The Big-Five trait taxonomy: History, measurement, and theoretical perspectives. Handbook of personality: Theory and research (2nd ed.). Guilford Press.
  • Pavlenko, A. (2006). Bilingual selves. Bilingual minds (pp. 1–33). Multilingual Matters Ltd. Poropat, A. (2002). The relationship between attributional style, gender and the Five-Factor Model of personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 33(7), 1185–1201. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(02)00008-9.
  • Ramírez-Esparza, N. & García-Sierra, A. (1982). The bilingual brain: Language, culture, and identity. In Life with Two Languages (pp. 35–56). Harvard University Press.
  • Ramírez-Esparza N., Goslinga, S., D., Benet-Martínez, V., Potter, J., P. & Pennebaker, J., W. (2006). Do bilinguals have two personalities? A special case of cultural frame switching. Journal of Research in Personality, 40(2), 99–120. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199796694.013.012.
  • Ross, M., Xun, W., Q., E., & Wilson, A., E. (2002). Language and bicultural self. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28(8), 1040–1050. https://doi.org/ 10.1177/01461672022811003.
  • Simonson, I., Briley, D. A. & Morris, M., W. (2005). Cultural chameleons: Biculturals, conformity motives, and decision making. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 15(4), 351–362. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327663jcp1504_9.
  • Torsten R., D., L. & Peracchio, L., A. (2009). One individual, two identities: Frame switching among biculturals. Journal of Consumer Research, 35(2), 279–293. https://doi.org/10.1086/586914.
  • Tursina, P. (2017). What do you think? Do bilinguals have different personalities?: TAT (Thematic Apperception Test). Serambi Akademica, 5(1), 95–99.
  • Veltkamp, G., M., Recio, G., Jacobs, A., M. & Conrad M. (2013). Is Personality Modulated by Language? International Journal of Bilingualism, 17(4), 496–504. https://doi.org/10.1177/1367006912438894.
  • Weinrich, U. (1953). Languages in contact. Linguistic Circle of New York.
  • Wilson, A., E., Ross, M. & Elaine Xun, W., Q. (2002). Language and the bicultural self. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28(8), 1040–1150. https://doi.org/10.1177/01461672022811003.

Yıl 2022, Cilt 4, Sayı 1, 19 - 36, 30.06.2022

Öz

Kaynakça

  • Bakić, A. & Škifić, S. (2017). The relationship between bilingualism and identity in expressing emotions and thoughts. Íkala, Revista de Lenguaje y Cultura, 22(1), 33–54. http://dx.doi.org/10.17533/udea.ikala.v22n01a03.
  • Barac, R. & Bialystok, E. (2011). Cognitive development of bilingual children. Language Teaching, 44(1), 36–54. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444810000339.
  • Barrick, M.,R. & Mount, M., K. (1991). The big five personality dimensions and job performance: A meta‐analysis. Personnel Psychology, 44(1), 1–26. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1991.tb00688.x.
  • Benet-Martínez, V. & Haritatos, J. (2005). Bicultural identity integration (BII): Components and psychosocial antecedents. Journal of Personality, 73(4), 1015–1050. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.2005.00337.x.
  • Bloomfield, L. (1935) Language. London: Allen and Unwin.
  • Boyle, G., J. (2008). Critique of the five-factor model of personality. In G. J. Boyle, G. Matthews & D. H. Saklofske (eds.), The SAGE handbook of personality theory and assessment, Vol. 1. Personality theories and models, pp. 295–312. Sage Publications. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781849200462.n14.
  • Butcher, J., N. (ed.). (2009). Oxford handbook of personality assessment. Oxford University Press.
  • De Feyter, T., Caers, R., Vigna, C. & Berings, D. (2012). Unravelling the impact of the Big Five personality traits on academic performance: The moderating and mediating effects of self-efficacy and academic motivation. Learning and Individual Differences, 22(4), 439–448. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2012.03.013.
  • Chen, S., X. & Bond, M., H. (2010). Two languages, two personalities? Examining language effects on the expression of personality in a bilingual context. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36(11), 1514–1528. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167210385360.
  • Cramer, P. (2004). Storytelling, narrative, and the thematic apperception test. Guilford Press.
  • Costa, P., T., Jr., Fozard, J., L. & McCrae, R., R. (1977). Personological interpretation of factors from the strong vocational interest blank scales. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 10(2), 231–243. https://doi.org/10.1016/0001-8791(77)90060-4.
  • Costa, P., T., Jr. & McCrae, R., R. (1992). Four ways five factors are basic. Personality and Individual Differences, 13(6), 653–665. https://doi.org/10.1016/0191-8869(92)90236-I.
  • Costa, P., T., Jr., McCrae, R., R. & Kay, G., G. (1995). Persons, places, and personality: career assessment using the revised NEO personality inventory. Journal of Career Assessment, 3(2), 123–139. https://doi.org/10.1177/106907279500300202.
  • Dewaele, J., M. & Nakano, S. (2012). Multilinguals’ perceptions of feeling different when switching languages. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 34(2), 107–120. https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2012.712133.
  • Ervin, S., M. (1964). Language and TAT content in bilinguals. Abnormal and Social Psychology, 68(5), 500–507. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0044803.
  • Hattrup, K. (2003). Review of the California psychological inventory, (3rd ed.). In the fifteenth mental measurements yearbook. Retrieved from OVID Mental Measurements Yearbook database.
  • Hull, P., V. (1996). Bilingualism: Some personality and cultural issues. In D. I. Slobin, J. Gerhardt, A. Kyratzis & J. Guo (eds.), Social interaction, social context, and language: Essays in honour of Susan Ervin-Tripp (pp. 419–434). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Groth-Marnat, G. (2009). Handbook of psychological assessment (5th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and sons, Inc.
  • Gough, H., G. (1990). The California Psychological Inventory. In C. E. Watkins, Jr. & V. L. Campbell (eds.), Vocational psychology. Testing in counselling practice (pp. 37–62). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
  • Gough, H., G. (1995). Career Assessment and the California Psychological Inventory. Journal of Career Assessment 3(2), 101–122. https://doi.org/10.1177/106907279500300201.
  • Grosjean, F. (2008). Studying bilinguals. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Gurven, M., Rueden, C., Massenkoff, M., Kaplan, H. & Vie, M.,L. (2013). How universal is the big five? Testing the five-factor model of personality variation among forager–farmers in the Bolivian Amazon. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 104(2), 354 –370. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0030841.
  • LaFromboise, T., Coleman, H., L. & Gerton, J. (1993). Psychological impact of biculturalism: Evidence and theory. Psychological Bulletin, 114(3), 395–412. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.114.3.395.
  • Keiser R., E. & Prather, E., N. (1990). What is the TAT? A review of ten years of research. J Pers Assess, 55(3-4), 800–803. https://doi.org/10.1080/00223891.1990.9674114.
  • Koven, M.,E.,J. (1998). Two languages in the self/The self in two languages: French-Portuguese bilinguals’ verbal enactments and experiences of self in narrative discourse. Journal of the Society for Psychological Anthropology, 26(4), 410–455. https://doi.org/10.1525/eth.1998.26.4.410.
  • Krueger, R., F. & Eaton, N., R. (2010). Personality traits and the classification of mental disorders: Toward a more complete integration in DSM–5 and an empirical model of psychopathology. Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment, 1(2), 97–118. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0018990.
  • Kulik, L. (2002). The impact of social background on gender-role ideology. Journal of Family Issues,23, (1), 53-73. https://doi.org/10.1177/0192513X02023001003.
  • Laufer, W., S., Skoog, D. K. & Day, J., M. (1982). Personality and criminality: A review of the California Psychological Inventory. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 38(3), 562–573. https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-4679(198207)38:3<562::AID-JCLP2270380315>3.0.CO;2-D.
  • Lilienfeld, S., O., Wood, J., M. & Garb, H., N. (2000). The scientific status of projective techniques. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 1(2), 27–66. https://doi.org/10.1111/1529-1006.002.
  • Luna, D., Ringberg, T., & Peracchio, L., A. (2008). One individual, two identities: Frame switching among biculturals. Journal of Consumer Research, 35(2), 279–293. https://doi.org/10.1086/586914.
  • Macnamara, J. (1967a). The bilingual’s linguistic performance. Journal of Social Issues, 23(2), 58–77. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1967.tb00576.x.
  • McCrae, R. R., Yik, M. S. M., Trapnell, P. D., Bond, M. H. & Paulhus, D. L. (1998). Interpreting personality profiles across cultures: Bilingual, acculturation, and peer rating studies of Chinese undergraduates. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74(4), 1041–1055. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-3514.74.4.1041.
  • Megargee, E., I. (1972). The California Psychological Inventory Handbook. Jossey-Bass, Inc. Nodoushan, M., A., -929S. & Laborda, J., G. (2014). The bilingual self or selves? International Journal of Language Studies, 8(3), 107–116. https://doi.org/10.13140/2.1.2463.8086.
  • Oliver, J., P. & Srivastava, S. (1999). The Big-Five trait taxonomy: History, measurement, and theoretical perspectives. Handbook of personality: Theory and research (2nd ed.). Guilford Press.
  • Pavlenko, A. (2006). Bilingual selves. Bilingual minds (pp. 1–33). Multilingual Matters Ltd. Poropat, A. (2002). The relationship between attributional style, gender and the Five-Factor Model of personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 33(7), 1185–1201. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(02)00008-9.
  • Ramírez-Esparza, N. & García-Sierra, A. (1982). The bilingual brain: Language, culture, and identity. In Life with Two Languages (pp. 35–56). Harvard University Press.
  • Ramírez-Esparza N., Goslinga, S., D., Benet-Martínez, V., Potter, J., P. & Pennebaker, J., W. (2006). Do bilinguals have two personalities? A special case of cultural frame switching. Journal of Research in Personality, 40(2), 99–120. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199796694.013.012.
  • Ross, M., Xun, W., Q., E., & Wilson, A., E. (2002). Language and bicultural self. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28(8), 1040–1050. https://doi.org/ 10.1177/01461672022811003.
  • Simonson, I., Briley, D. A. & Morris, M., W. (2005). Cultural chameleons: Biculturals, conformity motives, and decision making. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 15(4), 351–362. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327663jcp1504_9.
  • Torsten R., D., L. & Peracchio, L., A. (2009). One individual, two identities: Frame switching among biculturals. Journal of Consumer Research, 35(2), 279–293. https://doi.org/10.1086/586914.
  • Tursina, P. (2017). What do you think? Do bilinguals have different personalities?: TAT (Thematic Apperception Test). Serambi Akademica, 5(1), 95–99.
  • Veltkamp, G., M., Recio, G., Jacobs, A., M. & Conrad M. (2013). Is Personality Modulated by Language? International Journal of Bilingualism, 17(4), 496–504. https://doi.org/10.1177/1367006912438894.
  • Weinrich, U. (1953). Languages in contact. Linguistic Circle of New York.
  • Wilson, A., E., Ross, M. & Elaine Xun, W., Q. (2002). Language and the bicultural self. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28(8), 1040–1150. https://doi.org/10.1177/01461672022811003.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Eğitim, Bilimsel Disiplinler
Bölüm Derleme Makaleleri
Yazarlar

Harun ÇİFTCİ> (Sorumlu Yazar)
Isparta Uygulamalı Bilimler Üniversitesi
0000-0003-1444-641X
Türkiye


Eda ÜSTÜNEL>
MUGLA UNIVERSITY
0000-0003-2137-1671
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Haziran 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 4, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

APA Çiftci, H. & Üstünel, E. (2022). DYADIC OR MONADIC? A REVIEW ON PERSONALITY REFLECTIONS OF BILINGUALS . International Journal of Current Approaches in Language, Education and Social Sciences , 4 (1) , 19-36 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/caless/issue/69005/1036435

Uluslararası Dil, Eğitim ve Sosyal Bilimlerde Güncel Yaklaşımlar Dergisi (CALESS)