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The Relations between Reading Comprehension and Reading Fluency: Their Reciprocal Roles as an Indicator and Predictor

Yıl 2019, Cilt 9, Sayı 2, 67 - 81, 09.10.2019

Öz

In the current research, we aimed to explore the relations between reading comprehension and reading fluency and their connections with each other as an indicator and a predictor. For this overall aim, a total of 100 students from the seventh-grade level were enrolled. This research took place in the fall semester, 2015, in Turkey’s Denizli province. The participants from all grade levels were willing and available to take part in the present study. Informed consent letters were obtained from all of the participants and their parents or guardians. The participants were relatively homogenous and of middle socioeconomic (SES) status. They ranged in age from 13 through 15 years. For the measures of fluency, components were taken from students’ oral reading of the same texts including narrative and expository according to grade levels. After then, the students’ reading comprehension levels were assessed. Every comprehension test for the grade levels included a narrative text and an expository text, and 12 questions were prepared for every text, six of which were literal and another five of which were inferential. The path analyses were used to identify the relations between reading fluency and reading comprehension. According to the results of the research, some recommendations were given. 

Kaynakça

  • Akyol, H., Yildirim, K., Ates., Cetinkaya, C., & Rasinski, T. (2014). Reading assessment. Ankara: Pegem Publishing.
  • Alster, E. H. (1997). The effects of extended time on algebra test scores for college students with and without learning disabilities. Journal of learning Disabilities, 30, 222–227.
  • Baker, S.K., Smolkowski, K., Katz, R., Fien, H., Seeley, J.R., Kame’enui, E., & Beck, C. T. (2008). Reading fluency as a predictor of reading proficiency in low-performing, high-poverty schools, School Psychology Review, 37(1), 18–37.
  • Bridgeman, B., Trapani, C., & Curley, E. (2004). Impact of fewer questions per section on STI scores. Journal of Educational Measurement, 41, 291–310.
  • Cain, K., Oakhill, J.V., Barnes, M. A., & Bryant, P. E. (2004). Children’s reading comprehension ability: Working memory, verbal ability, and component skills, Journal of Educational Psychology, 96, 31–42.
  • Caldwell, J.S. (2008). Reading assessment: A Primer for teachers and coaches. The Guilford Press.
  • Cortina, J. M. (1993). What is coefficient alpha? An examination of theory and applications. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 98–104.
  • Dickens, R., H., & Meisinger, E., B. (2016). Examining the effects of skill level and reading modality on reading comprehension, Reading Psychology, 37(2), 318-337, DOI: 10.1080/02702711.2015.1055869
  • Duncan, L.G., McGeown, S. P., Grifths, Y. M., Stothard, S. E., & Dobai, A. (2016). Adolescent reading skill and engagement with digital and traditional literacies as predictors of reading comprehension. British Journal of Psychology, 107(2) 209-238.
  • Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Hosp, M. K., & Jenkins, J. R. (2001). Oral reading fluency as an indicator of reading competence: A theoretical, empirical, and historical analysis. Scientific Studies of Reading, 5(3), 239-256.
  • Grabe, W. (2004). Research On Teaching Reading, Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 24, 44-69.
  • Grasparil, T.H., & Hernandez, D.A. (2015). Predictors of Latino English learners’ reading comprehension proficiency. Journal of Educational Research and Practice, 5(1) 35–57.
  • Guerin, A., & Murphy, B. (2015). Repeated reading as a method to ımprove reading fluency for struggling adolescent readers, Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 58(7), 551–560.
  • Hudson, R. F., Pullen, P. C., Lane, H. B., & Torgesen, J. K.(2009). The complex nature of reading fluency: a multidimensional view. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 25(1), 4-32.
  • Jenkins, J. R., Fuchs, L. S., Van Den Broek, P., Espin, C., & Deno, S. L. (2003). Accuracy and fluency in list and context reading of skilled and RD groups: Absolute and relative performance levels. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 18, 237–245.
  • Klauda, S.L., & Guthrie, J. T. (2008). Relationships of three components of reading fluency to reading comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100, 310-321
  • Kuder, G. F., & Richardson, M. W. (1937). The theory of the estimation of test reliability. Psychometrika, 2, 151–160.
  • Kuhn, M. R., & Schwanenflugel, P. J. (Eds.) (2008). Fluency in the Classroom. New York/London: The Guilford Press.
  • Kuhn, M. R., Schwanenflugel, P. J., & Meisinger, E. B. (2010). Align theory and assessment of reading fluency: Automaticity, prosody, and definitions of fluency. Reading Research Quarterly, 45, 230-251.
  • Nichols, W. D., Rupley, W. H., & Rasinski, T. (2009). Fluency in learning to read for meaning: Going beyond repeated readings. Literacy Research and Instruction, 48(1), 1-13.
  • Paige, D. D., Rasinski, T. V., & Magpuri-Lavell, T. (2012). Is fluent, expressive reading important for high school readers? Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 56(1), 67–76.
  • Paris, S.G. (2005). Reinterpreting the development of reading skills, Reading Research Quarterly, 40(2), 184–202.
  • Pearce, L.R., & Gayle, R. (2009). Oral reading fluency as a predictor of reading comprehension with American Indian and white elementary students. School Psychology Review, 38(3), 419–427.
  • Petscher, Y., & Kim, Y.S. (2011). The utility and accuracy of oral reading fluency score types in predicting reading comprehension, Journal of School Psychology, 49, 107–129.
  • Pikulski, J. J., & Chard, D. J. (2005). Fluency: Bridge between decoding and reading comprehension. Reading Teacher, 58, 510–519.
  • Press.Cañizo, M.A., Suárez, P., & Cuetos, C. F. (2015). The role of reading fluency in children’s text comprehension. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 1-8.
  • Pretorius, E.J., & Spaull, N. (2016). Exploring relationships between oral reading fluency and reading comprehension amongst English second language readers in South Africa, Read Writ, 29, 1449–1471.
  • Rasinski, T. V. (2004a). Creating fluent readers. Educational Leadership, 61, 46–51.
  • Rasinski, T. V. (2004b). Assessing reading fluency. Honolulu, HI: Pacific Resources for Education and Learning.
  • Rasinski, T., Homan, S., & Biggs, M. (2009). Teaching reading fluency to struggling readers: Method, materials, and evidence. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 25(2-3), 192-204.
  • Rasinski, T.V. (2014). Fluency matters. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 7(1), 3-12.
  • Roehrig, A.D., Petscher, Y., Nettles, S.M., Hudson, R.F., & Torgesen, J.K. (2008). Accuracy of the DIBELS oral reading fluency measure for predicting third grade reading comprehension outcomes, Journal of School Psychology, 46, 343–366.
  • Schwanenflugel, P., J., & Kuhn, M. (2015). Reading fluency. In P. Afflerbach (Ed.), Handbook of Individual Differences in Reading: Reader, Text, and Context. New York: Routledge.
  • Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. D. (2007). Using multivariate statistics. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
  • Ulu, M. (2016). A structural Equation model to explain the effect of fluent reading, literal comprehension and inferential comprehension levels of elementary school 4th grade students on success in problem solving. Education and Science, 41(186), 93-117.
  • Veenendaal, N. J., Groen, M. A., & Verhoeven, L. (2014). The role of speech prosody and text reading prosody in children’s reading comprehension, British Journal of Educational Psychology, 84, 521–536.
  • Veenendaal, N. J., Groen, M. A., & Verhoeven, L. (2015). What oral text reading fluency can reveal about reading comprehension, Journal of Research in Reading, 38(3), 213-225.
  • Veenendaal, N. J., Groen, M. A., & Verhoeven, L. (2016). The contribution of segmental and suprasegmental phonology to reading comprehension. Reading Research Quarterly, 51(1), 55–66.
  • Yildirim, K., & Rasinski, T. (2014). Reading fluency beyond English: Investigations into reading fluency in Turkish elementary students. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 7, 97-06.
  • Yildiz, M., Yildirim, K., Ates, S., & Cetinkaya, C. (2009). An evaluation of the oral reading fluency of 4th graders with respect to prosodic characteristic. International Journal of Human Science, 6, 353–360.
  • Yildiz, M., Yildirim, K., Ates, S., Fitzgerald, S., Rasinski, T., & Zimmerman, B. (2014). Components skills underlying reading fluency and their relations with reading comprehension in fifth-grade Turkish students. International Journal of School & Educational Psychology, 2, 35-44.

Yıl 2019, Cilt 9, Sayı 2, 67 - 81, 09.10.2019

Öz

Kaynakça

  • Akyol, H., Yildirim, K., Ates., Cetinkaya, C., & Rasinski, T. (2014). Reading assessment. Ankara: Pegem Publishing.
  • Alster, E. H. (1997). The effects of extended time on algebra test scores for college students with and without learning disabilities. Journal of learning Disabilities, 30, 222–227.
  • Baker, S.K., Smolkowski, K., Katz, R., Fien, H., Seeley, J.R., Kame’enui, E., & Beck, C. T. (2008). Reading fluency as a predictor of reading proficiency in low-performing, high-poverty schools, School Psychology Review, 37(1), 18–37.
  • Bridgeman, B., Trapani, C., & Curley, E. (2004). Impact of fewer questions per section on STI scores. Journal of Educational Measurement, 41, 291–310.
  • Cain, K., Oakhill, J.V., Barnes, M. A., & Bryant, P. E. (2004). Children’s reading comprehension ability: Working memory, verbal ability, and component skills, Journal of Educational Psychology, 96, 31–42.
  • Caldwell, J.S. (2008). Reading assessment: A Primer for teachers and coaches. The Guilford Press.
  • Cortina, J. M. (1993). What is coefficient alpha? An examination of theory and applications. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 98–104.
  • Dickens, R., H., & Meisinger, E., B. (2016). Examining the effects of skill level and reading modality on reading comprehension, Reading Psychology, 37(2), 318-337, DOI: 10.1080/02702711.2015.1055869
  • Duncan, L.G., McGeown, S. P., Grifths, Y. M., Stothard, S. E., & Dobai, A. (2016). Adolescent reading skill and engagement with digital and traditional literacies as predictors of reading comprehension. British Journal of Psychology, 107(2) 209-238.
  • Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Hosp, M. K., & Jenkins, J. R. (2001). Oral reading fluency as an indicator of reading competence: A theoretical, empirical, and historical analysis. Scientific Studies of Reading, 5(3), 239-256.
  • Grabe, W. (2004). Research On Teaching Reading, Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 24, 44-69.
  • Grasparil, T.H., & Hernandez, D.A. (2015). Predictors of Latino English learners’ reading comprehension proficiency. Journal of Educational Research and Practice, 5(1) 35–57.
  • Guerin, A., & Murphy, B. (2015). Repeated reading as a method to ımprove reading fluency for struggling adolescent readers, Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 58(7), 551–560.
  • Hudson, R. F., Pullen, P. C., Lane, H. B., & Torgesen, J. K.(2009). The complex nature of reading fluency: a multidimensional view. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 25(1), 4-32.
  • Jenkins, J. R., Fuchs, L. S., Van Den Broek, P., Espin, C., & Deno, S. L. (2003). Accuracy and fluency in list and context reading of skilled and RD groups: Absolute and relative performance levels. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 18, 237–245.
  • Klauda, S.L., & Guthrie, J. T. (2008). Relationships of three components of reading fluency to reading comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100, 310-321
  • Kuder, G. F., & Richardson, M. W. (1937). The theory of the estimation of test reliability. Psychometrika, 2, 151–160.
  • Kuhn, M. R., & Schwanenflugel, P. J. (Eds.) (2008). Fluency in the Classroom. New York/London: The Guilford Press.
  • Kuhn, M. R., Schwanenflugel, P. J., & Meisinger, E. B. (2010). Align theory and assessment of reading fluency: Automaticity, prosody, and definitions of fluency. Reading Research Quarterly, 45, 230-251.
  • Nichols, W. D., Rupley, W. H., & Rasinski, T. (2009). Fluency in learning to read for meaning: Going beyond repeated readings. Literacy Research and Instruction, 48(1), 1-13.
  • Paige, D. D., Rasinski, T. V., & Magpuri-Lavell, T. (2012). Is fluent, expressive reading important for high school readers? Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 56(1), 67–76.
  • Paris, S.G. (2005). Reinterpreting the development of reading skills, Reading Research Quarterly, 40(2), 184–202.
  • Pearce, L.R., & Gayle, R. (2009). Oral reading fluency as a predictor of reading comprehension with American Indian and white elementary students. School Psychology Review, 38(3), 419–427.
  • Petscher, Y., & Kim, Y.S. (2011). The utility and accuracy of oral reading fluency score types in predicting reading comprehension, Journal of School Psychology, 49, 107–129.
  • Pikulski, J. J., & Chard, D. J. (2005). Fluency: Bridge between decoding and reading comprehension. Reading Teacher, 58, 510–519.
  • Press.Cañizo, M.A., Suárez, P., & Cuetos, C. F. (2015). The role of reading fluency in children’s text comprehension. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 1-8.
  • Pretorius, E.J., & Spaull, N. (2016). Exploring relationships between oral reading fluency and reading comprehension amongst English second language readers in South Africa, Read Writ, 29, 1449–1471.
  • Rasinski, T. V. (2004a). Creating fluent readers. Educational Leadership, 61, 46–51.
  • Rasinski, T. V. (2004b). Assessing reading fluency. Honolulu, HI: Pacific Resources for Education and Learning.
  • Rasinski, T., Homan, S., & Biggs, M. (2009). Teaching reading fluency to struggling readers: Method, materials, and evidence. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 25(2-3), 192-204.
  • Rasinski, T.V. (2014). Fluency matters. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 7(1), 3-12.
  • Roehrig, A.D., Petscher, Y., Nettles, S.M., Hudson, R.F., & Torgesen, J.K. (2008). Accuracy of the DIBELS oral reading fluency measure for predicting third grade reading comprehension outcomes, Journal of School Psychology, 46, 343–366.
  • Schwanenflugel, P., J., & Kuhn, M. (2015). Reading fluency. In P. Afflerbach (Ed.), Handbook of Individual Differences in Reading: Reader, Text, and Context. New York: Routledge.
  • Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. D. (2007). Using multivariate statistics. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
  • Ulu, M. (2016). A structural Equation model to explain the effect of fluent reading, literal comprehension and inferential comprehension levels of elementary school 4th grade students on success in problem solving. Education and Science, 41(186), 93-117.
  • Veenendaal, N. J., Groen, M. A., & Verhoeven, L. (2014). The role of speech prosody and text reading prosody in children’s reading comprehension, British Journal of Educational Psychology, 84, 521–536.
  • Veenendaal, N. J., Groen, M. A., & Verhoeven, L. (2015). What oral text reading fluency can reveal about reading comprehension, Journal of Research in Reading, 38(3), 213-225.
  • Veenendaal, N. J., Groen, M. A., & Verhoeven, L. (2016). The contribution of segmental and suprasegmental phonology to reading comprehension. Reading Research Quarterly, 51(1), 55–66.
  • Yildirim, K., & Rasinski, T. (2014). Reading fluency beyond English: Investigations into reading fluency in Turkish elementary students. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 7, 97-06.
  • Yildiz, M., Yildirim, K., Ates, S., & Cetinkaya, C. (2009). An evaluation of the oral reading fluency of 4th graders with respect to prosodic characteristic. International Journal of Human Science, 6, 353–360.
  • Yildiz, M., Yildirim, K., Ates, S., Fitzgerald, S., Rasinski, T., & Zimmerman, B. (2014). Components skills underlying reading fluency and their relations with reading comprehension in fifth-grade Turkish students. International Journal of School & Educational Psychology, 2, 35-44.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Eğitim, Bilimsel Disiplinler
Bölüm Araştırma Makalesi
Yazarlar

Kasim YILDIRIM
0000-0003-1406-709X
Türkiye


Seyit ATEŞ
0000-0002-4498-0376


Fatih Çetin ÇETİNKAYA
0000-0002-9843-6747


Dudu KAYA TOSUN

Yayımlanma Tarihi 9 Ekim 2019
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2019, Cilt 9, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { ebader623217, journal = {Eğitim Bilimleri Araştırmaları Dergisi}, issn = {}, eissn = {2146-5266}, address = {ebadeditor@gmail.com}, publisher = {Kürşad YILMAZ}, year = {2019}, volume = {9}, pages = {67 - 81}, doi = {}, title = {The Relations between Reading Comprehension and Reading Fluency: Their Reciprocal Roles as an Indicator and Predictor}, key = {cite}, author = {Yıldırım, Kasim and Ateş, Seyit and Çetinkaya, Fatih Çetin and Kaya Tosun, Dudu} }
APA Yıldırım, K. , Ateş, S. , Çetinkaya, F. Ç. & Kaya Tosun, D. (2019). The Relations between Reading Comprehension and Reading Fluency: Their Reciprocal Roles as an Indicator and Predictor . Eğitim Bilimleri Araştırmaları Dergisi , 9 (2) , 67-81 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/ebader/issue/49386/623217
MLA Yıldırım, K. , Ateş, S. , Çetinkaya, F. Ç. , Kaya Tosun, D. "The Relations between Reading Comprehension and Reading Fluency: Their Reciprocal Roles as an Indicator and Predictor" . Eğitim Bilimleri Araştırmaları Dergisi 9 (2019 ): 67-81 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/ebader/issue/49386/623217>
Chicago Yıldırım, K. , Ateş, S. , Çetinkaya, F. Ç. , Kaya Tosun, D. "The Relations between Reading Comprehension and Reading Fluency: Their Reciprocal Roles as an Indicator and Predictor". Eğitim Bilimleri Araştırmaları Dergisi 9 (2019 ): 67-81
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - The Relations between Reading Comprehension and Reading Fluency: Their Reciprocal Roles as an Indicator and Predictor AU - Kasim Yıldırım , Seyit Ateş , Fatih Çetin Çetinkaya , Dudu Kaya Tosun Y1 - 2019 PY - 2019 N1 - DO - T2 - Eğitim Bilimleri Araştırmaları Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 67 EP - 81 VL - 9 IS - 2 SN - -2146-5266 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2019 ER -
EndNote %0 Eğitim Bilimleri Araştırmaları Dergisi The Relations between Reading Comprehension and Reading Fluency: Their Reciprocal Roles as an Indicator and Predictor %A Kasim Yıldırım , Seyit Ateş , Fatih Çetin Çetinkaya , Dudu Kaya Tosun %T The Relations between Reading Comprehension and Reading Fluency: Their Reciprocal Roles as an Indicator and Predictor %D 2019 %J Eğitim Bilimleri Araştırmaları Dergisi %P -2146-5266 %V 9 %N 2 %R %U
ISNAD Yıldırım, Kasim , Ateş, Seyit , Çetinkaya, Fatih Çetin , Kaya Tosun, Dudu . "The Relations between Reading Comprehension and Reading Fluency: Their Reciprocal Roles as an Indicator and Predictor". Eğitim Bilimleri Araştırmaları Dergisi 9 / 2 (Ekim 2019): 67-81 .
AMA Yıldırım K. , Ateş S. , Çetinkaya F. Ç. , Kaya Tosun D. The Relations between Reading Comprehension and Reading Fluency: Their Reciprocal Roles as an Indicator and Predictor. EBAD - JESR. 2019; 9(2): 67-81.
Vancouver Yıldırım K. , Ateş S. , Çetinkaya F. Ç. , Kaya Tosun D. The Relations between Reading Comprehension and Reading Fluency: Their Reciprocal Roles as an Indicator and Predictor. Eğitim Bilimleri Araştırmaları Dergisi. 2019; 9(2): 67-81.
IEEE K. Yıldırım , S. Ateş , F. Ç. Çetinkaya ve D. Kaya Tosun , "The Relations between Reading Comprehension and Reading Fluency: Their Reciprocal Roles as an Indicator and Predictor", Eğitim Bilimleri Araştırmaları Dergisi, c. 9, sayı. 2, ss. 67-81, Eki. 2019