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Kokumi tat algısı üzerine bir değerlendirme

Yıl 2022, Sayı: 27, 13 - 19, 14.02.2022

Öz

Özet


Amaç: Japonca bir kelime olan kokumi, “zengin tat” veya “lezzetli” anlamına gelmektedir. Altıncı tat olarak adlandırılsa da genel olarak lezzet arttırıcı özellik göstermektedir. 1980'lerde kokumi bileşiklerini Japon bir şirket izole etmiştir. Tanımlanabilir bir etkiye sahip olmasına rağmen, kokuminin belirsiz bir tanımı vardır. Tat bileşeni olarak, bilim adamlarının tek bir molekülle elde edilmediği için, tam olarak tespit etmekte zorlandıkları bir bileşendir. Fermente gıdalarda doğal olarak bulunan glutamil peptitleri tarafından aktive edilmektedir. Ayrıca bira, ekmek ve tavuk çorbası gibi yiyeceklerde de doğal olarak ortaya çıkabilir. Yeniliklere ve yeni tatlara yönelen birçok gıda üreticisi için bu tat ilgi çekici hale gelmiştir. Bu makalenin amacı; kokumi hakkında bilgilerin derlenmesi ve gelecek vaat eden lezzet olarak görülen kokumi ile tattan vazgeçmeden sağlıklı yemekler yaratma amacında olan araştırmacılara ışık tutmaktır.

Sonuç: Kokumi üzerinde yapılacak Ar-Ge çalışmaları ile gıda üreticilerinin; tüketicilerin gerçekten keyif alacağı tada sahip, sağlıklı gıda seçenekleri oluşturabileceği düşünülmektedir.

Kaynakça

  • Ajinomoto Group (2021). Kokumi substances https://www.ajinomoto.com/ innovation/action/kokumi-substances (Erişildi: 28.10.2021)
  • Amino, Y., Nakazawa, M., Kaneko, M., Miyaki, T., Miyamura, N., Maruyama, Y. and Eto, Y. (2016). Structure–CaSR–activity relation of kokumi γ-glutamyl peptides. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 64(8), 1181-1189.
  • Bramen, L. (2010). The Kokumi Sensation https://www.smithsonianmag.com/arts-culture/the-kokumi-sensation-78634272/ (Erişildi: 22.10.2021)
  • Carpetti, L. (2021). What Is Kokumi And Where Can You Find It? https://www.mashed.com/410549/what-is-kokumi-and-where-can-you-find-it/ (Erişildi: 27.10.2021).
  • Chen, Y. P., Wang, M., Blank, I., Xu, J. and Chung, H. Y. (2021). Saltiness-Enhancing Peptides Isolated from the Chinese Commercial Fermented Soybean Curds with Potential Applications in Salt Reduction. Journal Of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 69(35), 10272–10280.
  • Çınar, H. (2019). Sarımsaklı Yoğurt: Kokumi Tad Duyusunun Peşinde https://hulusicinar.wordpress.com/2020/04/21/sarimsakli-yogurt-kokumi-tad-duyusunun-pesinde/ (Erişildi: 22.10.2021).
  • Devenyns, J. (2019). Kokumi: The sensation that makes tasting better. https://www.fooddive.com/news/kokumi-the-sensation-that-makes-tasting-better/553761/ (Erişildi: 23.10.2021).
  • Dunkel, A., Köster, J. and Hofmann, T. (2007). Molecular and sensory characterization of γ-glutamyl peptides as key contributors to the kokumi taste of edible beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 55(16), 6712-6719.
  • Gaillard, D. and Kinnamon, S. C. (2019). New evidence for fat as a primary taste quality. Acta Physiol. (Oxf. Engl). 226, e13246. https://doi.org/10.1111/apha.13246 .
  • Hartley, I. E., Liem, D. G. and Keast, R. (2019). Umami as an “alimentary” taste. A new perspective on taste classification. Nutrients https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010182.
  • TS ISO 8587:2006, (2006). Sensory Analysis – Methodology – Ranking, International Organization for Standardization, Geneva .
  • Jones, D. P., Coates, R. J., Flagg, E. W., Eley, J. W., Block, G., Greenberg, R. S., Gunter, E. W. and Jackson, B. (1992). Glutathione in foods listed in the National Cancer Institute's Health Habits and History Food Frequency Questionnaire. Nutrition and cancer, 17(1), 57–75.
  • Kuroda, M. and Miyamura, N. (2015). Mechanism of the perception of “kokumi” substances and the sensory characteristics of the “kokumi” peptide, γ-Glu-Val-Gly. Flavour, 4(1), 1-3.
  • Laffitte, A., Gibbs, M., Hernangomez de Alvaro, C., Addison, J., Lonsdale, Z. N., Giribaldi, M. G., Rossignoli, A., Vennegeerts, T., Winnig, M., Klebansky, B., Skiles, J., Logan, D. W. and McGrane, S. J. (2021). Kokumi taste perception is functional in a model carnivore, the domestic cat (Felis catus). Scientific reports, 11(1), 10527.
  • Leijon, S. C., Chaudhari, N. and Roper, S. D. (2019). Mouse trigeminal neurons respond to kokumi substances. In Koku in Food Science and Physiology (pp. 171-187). Springer, Singapore.
  • Li, Q., Zhang, L. and Lametsch, R. (2020). Current progress in kokumi-active peptides, evaluation and preparation methods: a review. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition, 1–12. Advance online publication.
  • Maruyama, Y., Yasuda, R., Kuroda, M. and Eto, Y. (2012). Kokumi substances, enhancers of basic tastes, induce responses in calcium-sensing receptor expressing taste cells. PLoS One, 7(4), e34489.
  • Moore, K. L. and Dalley, A. F. (2018). Clinically oriented anatomy. Wolters kluwer india Pvt Ltd.
  • Mouritsen, O. and Styrbæk, K. (2017). Mouthfeel: how texture makes taste. Columbia University Press.
  • Ohsu, T., Amino, Y., Nagasaki, H., Yamanaka, T., Takeshita, S., Hatanaka, T. and Eto, Y. (2010). Involvement of the calcium-sensing receptor in human taste perception. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 285(2), 1016-1022.
  • Pires, M. A., Pastrana, L. M., Fuciños, P., Abreu, C. S. and Oliveira, S. M. (2020). Sensorial Perception of astringency: Oral mechanisms and current analysis methods. Foods (Basel, Switzerland) https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9081124 .
  • Pirkwieser, P., Behrens, M. and Somoza, V. (2020). Metallic sensation-just an off-flavor or a biologically relevant sensing pathway?. J. Agric. Food Chem. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.0c06463.
  • Rhyu, M. R., Song, A. Y., Kim, E. Y., Son, H. J., Kim, Y., Mummalaneni, S., Qian, J., Grider, J. R. and Lyall, V. (2020). Kokumi Taste Active Peptides Modulate Salt and Umami Taste. Nutrients, 12(4), 1198.
  • Stephens, T. (2019). The influences of kokumi on emotions and satisfaction. The University of Maine.
  • Supplement Ansiklopedisi. (2016). Glutathione (Glutatyon) Nedir ve ne işe yarar? https://supplementansiklopedisi.com/glutathione-glutatyon-nedir/ (Erişildi: 23.10.2021)
  • Toelstede, S., Dunkel, A. and Hofmann, T. (2009). A series of kokumi peptides impart the long-lasting mouthfulness of matured Gouda cheese. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 57(4), 1440-1448.
  • Toelstede, S. and Hofmann, T. (2009). Kokumi-active glutamyl peptides in cheeses and their biogeneration by Penicillium roquefortii. Journal of Agricultural And Food Chemistry, 57(9), 3738-3748.
  • Ueda, Y., Sakaguchi, M., Hirayama, K., Miyajima, R. and Kimizuka, A. (1990). Characteristic flavor constituents in water extract of garlic. Agricultural and Biological Chemistry, 54(1), 163-169.
  • Ueda, Y., Tsubuku, T. and Miyajima, R. (1994). Composition of sulfur-containing components in onion and their flavor characters. Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry, 58(1), 108-110.
  • Ueda, Y., Yonemitsu, M., Tsubuku, T., Sakaguchi, M. and Miyajima, R. (1997). Flavor characteristics of glutathione in raw and cooked foodstuffs. Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry, 61(12), 1977-1980.
  • Vasilaki, A., Panagiotopoulou, E., Koupantsis, T., Katsanidis, E. and Mourtzinos, I. (2021). Recent insights in flavor-enhancers: Definition, mechanism of action, taste-enhancing ingredients, analytical techniques and the potential of utilization. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition, 1–17. Advance online publication.
  • Yang, J., Huang, Y., Cui, C., Dong, H., Zeng, X. and Bai, W. (2021). Umami-enhancing effect of typical kokumi-active γ-glutamyl peptides evaluated via sensory analysis and molecular modeling approaches. Food chemistry, 338, 128018.

An evaluation of kokumi taste perception

Yıl 2022, Sayı: 27, 13 - 19, 14.02.2022

Öz

Abstract

Objective: The Japanese word kokumi means “rich taste” or “delicious”. Although it is called the sixth taste, it generally shows flavor enhancing properties. In the 1980s, a Japanese flavor company isolated kokumi compounds. Although it has an identifiable effect, kokumi has an ambiguous definition. As a flavor component, it is a component that scientists have difficulty in identifying precisely because it is not obtained with a single molecule. It is a sense activated by glutamyl peptides naturally found in fermented foods. It can also occur naturally in foods such as beer, bread, and chicken soup. This taste has become interesting for many food manufacturers who turn to innovations and new flavors. The aim of this article is to compile information about kokumi and to shed light on researchers who aim to create healthy meals without giving up taste with kokumi, which is seen as a promising flavor. For this purpose, a literature review was conducted.

Conclusion: It is thought that food product developers will be able to create healthy food options with great taste that consumers will really enjoy, with R & D studies on kokumi.

Kaynakça

  • Ajinomoto Group (2021). Kokumi substances https://www.ajinomoto.com/ innovation/action/kokumi-substances (Erişildi: 28.10.2021)
  • Amino, Y., Nakazawa, M., Kaneko, M., Miyaki, T., Miyamura, N., Maruyama, Y. and Eto, Y. (2016). Structure–CaSR–activity relation of kokumi γ-glutamyl peptides. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 64(8), 1181-1189.
  • Bramen, L. (2010). The Kokumi Sensation https://www.smithsonianmag.com/arts-culture/the-kokumi-sensation-78634272/ (Erişildi: 22.10.2021)
  • Carpetti, L. (2021). What Is Kokumi And Where Can You Find It? https://www.mashed.com/410549/what-is-kokumi-and-where-can-you-find-it/ (Erişildi: 27.10.2021).
  • Chen, Y. P., Wang, M., Blank, I., Xu, J. and Chung, H. Y. (2021). Saltiness-Enhancing Peptides Isolated from the Chinese Commercial Fermented Soybean Curds with Potential Applications in Salt Reduction. Journal Of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 69(35), 10272–10280.
  • Çınar, H. (2019). Sarımsaklı Yoğurt: Kokumi Tad Duyusunun Peşinde https://hulusicinar.wordpress.com/2020/04/21/sarimsakli-yogurt-kokumi-tad-duyusunun-pesinde/ (Erişildi: 22.10.2021).
  • Devenyns, J. (2019). Kokumi: The sensation that makes tasting better. https://www.fooddive.com/news/kokumi-the-sensation-that-makes-tasting-better/553761/ (Erişildi: 23.10.2021).
  • Dunkel, A., Köster, J. and Hofmann, T. (2007). Molecular and sensory characterization of γ-glutamyl peptides as key contributors to the kokumi taste of edible beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 55(16), 6712-6719.
  • Gaillard, D. and Kinnamon, S. C. (2019). New evidence for fat as a primary taste quality. Acta Physiol. (Oxf. Engl). 226, e13246. https://doi.org/10.1111/apha.13246 .
  • Hartley, I. E., Liem, D. G. and Keast, R. (2019). Umami as an “alimentary” taste. A new perspective on taste classification. Nutrients https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010182.
  • TS ISO 8587:2006, (2006). Sensory Analysis – Methodology – Ranking, International Organization for Standardization, Geneva .
  • Jones, D. P., Coates, R. J., Flagg, E. W., Eley, J. W., Block, G., Greenberg, R. S., Gunter, E. W. and Jackson, B. (1992). Glutathione in foods listed in the National Cancer Institute's Health Habits and History Food Frequency Questionnaire. Nutrition and cancer, 17(1), 57–75.
  • Kuroda, M. and Miyamura, N. (2015). Mechanism of the perception of “kokumi” substances and the sensory characteristics of the “kokumi” peptide, γ-Glu-Val-Gly. Flavour, 4(1), 1-3.
  • Laffitte, A., Gibbs, M., Hernangomez de Alvaro, C., Addison, J., Lonsdale, Z. N., Giribaldi, M. G., Rossignoli, A., Vennegeerts, T., Winnig, M., Klebansky, B., Skiles, J., Logan, D. W. and McGrane, S. J. (2021). Kokumi taste perception is functional in a model carnivore, the domestic cat (Felis catus). Scientific reports, 11(1), 10527.
  • Leijon, S. C., Chaudhari, N. and Roper, S. D. (2019). Mouse trigeminal neurons respond to kokumi substances. In Koku in Food Science and Physiology (pp. 171-187). Springer, Singapore.
  • Li, Q., Zhang, L. and Lametsch, R. (2020). Current progress in kokumi-active peptides, evaluation and preparation methods: a review. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition, 1–12. Advance online publication.
  • Maruyama, Y., Yasuda, R., Kuroda, M. and Eto, Y. (2012). Kokumi substances, enhancers of basic tastes, induce responses in calcium-sensing receptor expressing taste cells. PLoS One, 7(4), e34489.
  • Moore, K. L. and Dalley, A. F. (2018). Clinically oriented anatomy. Wolters kluwer india Pvt Ltd.
  • Mouritsen, O. and Styrbæk, K. (2017). Mouthfeel: how texture makes taste. Columbia University Press.
  • Ohsu, T., Amino, Y., Nagasaki, H., Yamanaka, T., Takeshita, S., Hatanaka, T. and Eto, Y. (2010). Involvement of the calcium-sensing receptor in human taste perception. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 285(2), 1016-1022.
  • Pires, M. A., Pastrana, L. M., Fuciños, P., Abreu, C. S. and Oliveira, S. M. (2020). Sensorial Perception of astringency: Oral mechanisms and current analysis methods. Foods (Basel, Switzerland) https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9081124 .
  • Pirkwieser, P., Behrens, M. and Somoza, V. (2020). Metallic sensation-just an off-flavor or a biologically relevant sensing pathway?. J. Agric. Food Chem. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.0c06463.
  • Rhyu, M. R., Song, A. Y., Kim, E. Y., Son, H. J., Kim, Y., Mummalaneni, S., Qian, J., Grider, J. R. and Lyall, V. (2020). Kokumi Taste Active Peptides Modulate Salt and Umami Taste. Nutrients, 12(4), 1198.
  • Stephens, T. (2019). The influences of kokumi on emotions and satisfaction. The University of Maine.
  • Supplement Ansiklopedisi. (2016). Glutathione (Glutatyon) Nedir ve ne işe yarar? https://supplementansiklopedisi.com/glutathione-glutatyon-nedir/ (Erişildi: 23.10.2021)
  • Toelstede, S., Dunkel, A. and Hofmann, T. (2009). A series of kokumi peptides impart the long-lasting mouthfulness of matured Gouda cheese. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 57(4), 1440-1448.
  • Toelstede, S. and Hofmann, T. (2009). Kokumi-active glutamyl peptides in cheeses and their biogeneration by Penicillium roquefortii. Journal of Agricultural And Food Chemistry, 57(9), 3738-3748.
  • Ueda, Y., Sakaguchi, M., Hirayama, K., Miyajima, R. and Kimizuka, A. (1990). Characteristic flavor constituents in water extract of garlic. Agricultural and Biological Chemistry, 54(1), 163-169.
  • Ueda, Y., Tsubuku, T. and Miyajima, R. (1994). Composition of sulfur-containing components in onion and their flavor characters. Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry, 58(1), 108-110.
  • Ueda, Y., Yonemitsu, M., Tsubuku, T., Sakaguchi, M. and Miyajima, R. (1997). Flavor characteristics of glutathione in raw and cooked foodstuffs. Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry, 61(12), 1977-1980.
  • Vasilaki, A., Panagiotopoulou, E., Koupantsis, T., Katsanidis, E. and Mourtzinos, I. (2021). Recent insights in flavor-enhancers: Definition, mechanism of action, taste-enhancing ingredients, analytical techniques and the potential of utilization. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition, 1–17. Advance online publication.
  • Yang, J., Huang, Y., Cui, C., Dong, H., Zeng, X. and Bai, W. (2021). Umami-enhancing effect of typical kokumi-active γ-glutamyl peptides evaluated via sensory analysis and molecular modeling approaches. Food chemistry, 338, 128018.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Bölüm Gıda ve Yem Bilimi-Teknolojisi Dergisi
Yazarlar

İlkay YILMAZ 0000-0001-5938-3112

Nuray ALTUNTAŞ Bu kişi benim 0000-0002-4635-0343

Yayımlanma Tarihi 14 Şubat 2022
Yayımlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022 Sayı: 27

Kaynak Göster

APA YILMAZ, İ., & ALTUNTAŞ, N. (2022). Kokumi tat algısı üzerine bir değerlendirme. Gıda Ve Yem Bilimi Teknolojisi Dergisi(27), 13-19.