Yıl 2019, Cilt 6 , Sayı 4, Sayfalar 539 - 554 2020-01-05

Psychometric Properties of the School Liking and Avoidance Questionnaire in a Turkish Preschool Sample

İmray Nur [1] , Yaşare Aktaş Arnas [2]

In this study, the replicability of the factor structure of The School Liking and Avoidance Questionnaire for Turkish preschool children and the psychometric properties of the scale were investigated. The SLAQ consists of 14 items and is used to assess children's emotional and behavioral participation in school based on children's perceptions. 345 children aged 5-6 years were included in the study. The findings of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, to assess the validity of the scale in Turkish culture, have identified two distinct but related factors: school liking and school avoidance. This result is consistent with the original scale and the adaptation studies in different cultures. However, there were no significant correlations between children and teacher reports on school liking and school avoidance subdimensions. Cronbach's Alpha and test-retest ratios for subdimensions showed adequate psychometric properties. This data support the Turkish version of the SLAQ as a valid and reliable tool, similar to the original version.
school adjustment, preschool, school liking and avoidance questionnaire, scale adaptation
  • Ackerman, B. P., Brown, E. D., & Izard, C. E. (2004). The relations between contextual risk, earned income, and the school adjustment of children from economically disadvantaged families. Developmental Psychology,40, 204-216. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.40.2.204
  • Al-Hendawi, M. (2010). The predictive relationship between temperament, school adjustment, and academic achievement: A 2-year longitudinal study of children at-risk. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from https://scholarscompass.vcu.edu/etd/2276/
  • Anguiano, R. P. V. (2004). Families and schools: The effect of parental involvement on high school completion. Journal of Family Issues, 25(1), 61 - 85. doi: 10.1177/0192513X03256805
  • Baker, J. A., Grant, S., & Morlock, L. (2008). The teacher-student relationship as a developmental context for children with internalizing or externalizing behavior problems. School Psychology Quarterly, 23(1), 3-15. doi: 10.1037/1045-3830.23.1.3
  • Birch, S. H., & Ladd, G. W. (1997). The teacher-child relationship and children’s early school adjustment. Journal of School Psychology, 35, 61-79. doi: 10.1016/S0022-4405(96)00029-5
  • Buhs, E. S., Ladd, G. W., & Herald, S. L. (2006). Peer exclusion victimization: Processes that mediate the relation between peer group rejection and children’s classroom engagement and achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98, 1-13. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.98.1.1
  • Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2002). Factor analysis: Basic concepts and using to development scale. Educational Administration in Theory & Practice, 32, 470-483.
  • Carson, R. L., & Templin, T. J. (2007). Emotion regulation and teacher burnout: Who says that the management of emotional expression doesn’t matter? Paper presented at the American Education Research Association Annual Convention, Chicago.
  • Chen, X., Rubin, K. H., & Li, B. (1995). Depressed mood in Chinese children: Relations with school performance and family environment. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63, 938–947. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.63.6.938
  • Claes, B. (2010). Transition to kindergarten: The impact of preschool on kindergarten adjustment. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from https://aura.alfred.edu/bitstream/ handle/10829/2666/Claes%2C%20Bethany%202010.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
  • Clemans, K. H., Musci, R. J., Leoutsakos, J. M. S., & Ialongo, N. S. (2014). Teacher, parent, and peer reports of early aggression as screening measures for long-term maladaptive outcomes: Who provides the most useful information? Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 82(2), 236-247. doi: 10.1037/a0035918
  • Copeman-Petig, A. M. (2015). The transition to kindergarten: factors associated with a positive adjustment. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from https://lib.dr.iastate.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=5804&context=etd
  • Daly, M., Forster, A., Murphy, R., Sweeney, A., Brennan P., & Maxwell, M. (2007). Children’s voices in the Framework for Early Learning –A portraiture study. The OMEP Ireland Journal of Early Childhood Studies, 1, 57-71.
  • Doumen, S., Koomen, H. M. Y., Buyse, E., Wouters, S., & Verschueren, K. (2012). Teacher and observer views on student–teacher relationships: Convergence across kindergarten and relations with student engagement. Journal of School Psychology, 50, 61-76. doi: 10.1016/j.jsp.2011.08.004
  • Downer, J. T., Goble, P., Myers, S. S., & Pianta, R. C. (2016). Teacher-child racial/ethnic match within pre-kindergartenclassrooms and children’s early school adjustment. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 37, 26–38. doi: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2016.02.007
  • Duncan, G. J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2000). Family poverty, welfare reform, and child development. Child Development, 71, 188–196. doi: 10.1111/1467-8624.00133
  • Einarsdottir, J. (2005). We can decide what to play! Children’s perception of quality in an Icelandic play school. Early Education and Development, 16(4), 469-488. doi: 10.1207/s15566935eed1604_7
  • Engle, J. M., Mcelwain, N. L., & Lasky, N. (2011). Presence and quality of kindergarten children's friendships: Concurrent and longitudinal associations with child adjustment in the early school years. Infant and Child Development, 20(4), 365-386. doi: 10.1002/icd.706
  • Fantuzzo, J. W., Bulotsky, R., McDermott, P., Mosca, S., & Lutz, M. N. (2003). A multivariate analysis of emotional and behavioral adjustment and preschool educational outcomes. School Psychology Review, 32(2), 185-203.
  • Fredericks, J. A., Blumenfeld, P., Friedel, J., & Paris, A. (2005). School engagement. In K. A. Moore & L. Lippman (Eds.), Conceptualizing and measuring indicators of positive development: What do children need to flourish (pp. 305-321). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Press.
  • Gallagher, E. (2015). Teacher-student conflict and student aggression in kindergarten. Retrieved from http://steinhardt.nyu.edu/opus/issues /2014/spring/gallagher
  • Goldberg, C. A. (2006). Transitioning to preschool: The role of withdrawn behavioral subtypes and the teacher-child relationship in early school adjustment. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/openview/da885ed4effc3bdcef591db6c937fa5f/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=18750&diss=y
  • Gülay, H. (2011). 5-6 yaş grubu çocuklarda okula uyum ve akran ilişkileri [School adjustment and peer relatıonships of 5-6 years old children]. Electronic Journal of Social Sciences, 10(36), 1-10.
  • Gülay, H., & Erten, H. (2011). Okul öncesi dönem çocuklarının akran kabullerinin okula uyum değişkenleri üzerindeki yordayıcı etkisi [Predicting effect of play behaviors of preschool children on peer relationships]. E-International Journal of Educational Research, 2(1), 81-92.
  • Gülay-Ögelman, H., Önder, A., Seçer, Z., & Erten, H. (2013). Anne tutumlarının 5-6 yaş çocuklarının sosyal becerilerini ve okula uyumlarını yordayıcı etkisi [The predictor effect of attitudes of mothers on the social skills and school adaptation of their 5–6-year-old children]. Selcuk University Social Sciences Institute Journal, 29, 143–152.
  • Hall, L., Hume, C., & Tazzyman, S. (2016). Five degrees of happiness: Effective smileyface Likert Scales for evaluating with children. In Proceedings of theThe 15th International Conference on Interaction Design and Children - IDC ’16, 311–321. https://doi.org/10.1145/2930674.2930719
  • Hamre, B. K., & Pianta, R. C. (2001). Early teacher-child relationships and the trajectory of children's school outcomes through eighth grade. Child Development, 72(2), 625-638.
  • Hanna, E., Risden, K., Czerwinski, M., & Alexander, K., J. (1999). The role of usability research in designing children's computer products. In A. Druin (Ed.), The design of children's technology (pp. 4-26). San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann.
  • Harrison, L. J. (2004). Do children’s perceptions of themselves, their teachers, and school accord with their teachers’ ratings of their adjustment to school? Paper presented to the Australian Association for Research in Educationnational Conference, Melbourne, Nov 29 –Dec 2.
  • Harter, S., & Pike, R. (1984). The pictorial scale of perceived competence and social acceptance. Child Development, 55, 1969-1982. doi: 10.2307/1129772
  • Hartup, W. W., & Stevens, N. (1997). Friendships and adaptation in the life course. Psychological Bulletin, 12, 355-370. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.121.3.355
  • Hauser-Cram, P., Durand, T. M., & Warfield, M. E. (2007). Early feelings about school and lateracademic outcomes of children with special needs living in poverty. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 22(2), 161-172. doi: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2007.02.001
  • Honma, Y., & Uchiyama, I. (2014). Emotional engagement and school adjustment in late childhood: The relationship between school liking and school belonging in Japan. Psychological Reports 114(2), 496-508. doi: 10.2466/21.10.PR0.114k19w7
  • Howes, C. (1996). The earliest friendships. In W. M. Bukowski, A. F. Newcomb & W. W. Hartup (Eds.), The Company they keep: Friendships in childhood and adolescence (pp. 66-86). New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Howes, C., Rubin, K. H., Ross, H. S., & French, D. C. (1988). Peer interaction of young children. Monographs of the Society for Researchin Child Development, 53(1), 1-92. doi:10.2307/1166062
  • Howes, C., Phillipsen, L. C., & Peisner-Feinberg, E. (2000). The consistency of perceived teacher–child relationshipsbetween preschool and kindergarten. Journal of School Psychology, 38, 113-132. doi: 10.1016/S0022-4405(99)00044-8
  • Jennings, P. A., & Greenberg, M. T. (2009). The prosocial classroom: Teacher social and emotional competence in relation to student and classroom outcomes. Review of Educational Research, 79, 491-525. doi: 10.3102/0034654308325693
  • Kaya, Ö. S., & Akgün, E. (2016). The study of school adjustment of preschool children in the point of some variables. Elementary Education Online, 15(4), 1311-1324. doi: 10.17051/io.2016.51992
  • Kesner, J. E. (2000). Teacher characteristics and the quality of child–teacher relationships. Journal of School Psychology, 28, 133-149. doi: 10.1016/S0022-4405(99)00043-6
  • Kline, R. B. (2005). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (2nd Ed.). New York. Guilford Press.
  • Kragh-Muller, G., & Isbell, R. (2011). Children’s perspectives on their everyday lives in childcare in two cultures: Denmark and the United States. Early Childhood Education Journal, 39, 17–27. doi: 10.1007/s10643-010-0434-9
  • Ladd, G. W. (1990). Having friends, keeping friends, making friends, and being liked by peers in the classroom: Predictors of children’s early school adjustment. Child Development, 61, 1081-1100. doi: 10.2307/1130877
  • Ladd, G. W. (1996). Shifting ecologies during the 5–7 yearperiod: Predicting children’s adjustment during thetransition to grade school. In A. Sameroff & M. Haith (Eds.), The five to seven-year shift (pp. 363–386). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Ladd, G. W. (2006). Peer rejection, aggressive or withdrawn behavior, and psychological maladjustment from ages 5 to 12: An examination of four predictive models. Child Development, 77(4), 822-846. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2006.00905.x
  • Ladd, G. W., Buhs, E. S., & Seid, M. (2000). Children's initial sentiments about kindergarten: Isschool liking an antecedent of early classroom participation and achievement? Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 46(2), 255-279.
  • Ladd, G. W., Buhs, E. S., & Troop, W. (2002). Children’s interpersonal skills and relationships in school settings: Adaptive significance and implications for school-based prevention and programs. In P. K. Smith & C. Hart (Eds.), Blackwell handbook of childhood social development (pp. 394-415). Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
  • Ladd, G. W., & Burgess, K. B. (2001). Do relational risks and protective factors moderate the linkages between childhood aggression and early psychological and school adjustment? Child Development, 72, 1579-1601. doi: 10.1111/1467-8624.00366
  • Ladd, G. W., & Dinella, L. M. (2009). Continuity and change in early school engagement: Predictive of children's achievement trajectories from first to eighth grade? Journal of Educational Psychology, 101(1), 190-206. doi: 10.1037/a0013153
  • Ladd, G. W., Herald, S. L., & Kochel, K. P. (2006). School readiness: Are there social prerequisites? Early Education and Development, 17(1), 115 - 150. doi: 10.1207/s15566935eed1701_6
  • Ladd, G. W., Kochenderfer, B. J., & Coleman, C. C. (1996). Friendship quality as a predictor of young children’s early school adjustment. Child Development, 67, 1103-1118. doi: 10.2307/1131882
  • Ladd, G. W., & Price, J. M. (1987). Predicting children’s social and school adjustment following the transition from preschool to kindergarten. Child Development, 58, 1168-1189. doi: 10.2307/1130613
  • Lengua, L. J., Wolchik, S. A., Sandier, I. N., & West, S. G. (2000). The additive and interactive effects of parenting and temperament in predicting problems of children of divorce. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 29, 232-244. doi: 10.1207/S15374424jccp2902_9
  • Lewis, A., & Lindsay, G. (2000). Emerging issues. Researching children’s perspectives, Buckingham, Philadelphia: Open University Press.
  • LoCasale-Crouch, J., Mashburn, A. J., Downer, J. T., & Pianta, R. C. (2008). Pre-kindergarten teachers’ use of transition practices and children’s adjustment to kindergarten. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 23, 124-139. doi: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2007.06.001
  • Maguire, M. C., & Dunn, J. (1997). Friendships in early childhood, and social understanding. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 21(4), 669-686. Doi: 10.1080/016502597384613
  • Mantzicopoulos, P., French, B. F., & Maller, S. J. (2004). Factor structure of the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance. With two pre-elementary samples. Child Development, 75(4), 1214-1228. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2004.00734.x
  • Merrell, K. W. (1994). Preschool and kindergarten behavior scales. Test manual. Brandon: Clinical Psychology Publishing Company.
  • Merrell, K. W. (2003). Preschool and kindergarten behavior scales. Examiner’s manual. (2nd ed.). Pro-ed.and International Publesher.
  • Morris, A. S., Silk, J. S., Steinberg, L., Sessa, F. M., Avenevoli, S., & Essex, M. J. (2002). Temperamental vulnerability and negative parenting as interacting predictors of child adjustment. Journal of Marriage and Family, 64, 461-471. doi: 10.1111/j.1741-3737.2002.00461.x
  • Morrison, F. J., Ponitz, C. C., & McClelland, M. M. (2010). Self-regulation and academic achievement in the transition to school. In S. D. Calkins & M. A. Bell (Eds.), Human brain development. child development at the intersection of emotion and cognition (pp. 203-224). Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association.
  • Murray, C., Murray, K. M., & Waas, G. A. (2008). Child and teacher reports of teacherstudent relationships: Concordance of perspectives and associations with school adjustment in urban kindergarten classrooms. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 29, 49-61. doi: 10.1016/j.appdev.2007.10.006
  • Myers, S. S. (2007). Contextual and dispositional influences on low-income children’s school adjustment. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from https://scholarworks.uno.edu/ cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1558&context=td
  • Nur, İ., Aktaş-Arnas, Y., Abbak, B. S., & Kale, M. (2018). Mother-child and teacher-child relationships and their associations with school adjustment in pre-school. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 18, 201–220. doi: 10.12738/estp.2018.1.0608
  • O’Connor, E., & McCartney, K. (2007). Examining teacher-child relationships and achievement as part of an ecological model of development. American EducationalResearch Journal, 44(2), 340-369. doi: 10.3102/0002831207302172
  • Olson, S. L., & Rosenblum, K. (1998). Preschool antecedents of internalizing problems in children. Early Education and Development, 9, 117 - 129. doi: 10.1207/s15566935eed0902_1
  • Önder, A., & Gülay, H. (2010). 5-6 yaş çocukları için okula uyum öğretmen değerlendirme ölçeğinin güvenirlik ve geçerlik çalışması [Reliability and Validity of the Teacher Rating Scale of School Adjustment for 5-6 Years of Children]. International Online Journal of Educational Sciences, 1(2), 204-224.
  • Özbey, S. (2009). Study of the validity and reliabilty of the Preschool and Kindergarten Behaviour Scales (PKBS-2) and to examine affect of the promoter education program. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey.
  • Pears, K. C., Kim, H. K., Capaldi, D. K., David, C. R., & Fisher P. A. (2012). Father–child transmission of school adjustment: A prospective inter generational study. Developmental Psychology 49, 792-803. doi: 10.1037/a0028543
  • Pianta, R., La Paro, K., Payne, C., Cox, M., & Bradley, R. (2002). The relation of kindergarten classroom environment to teacher, family, and school characteristics and child outcomes. Elementary School Journal, 102(3), 225-238. doi: 10.1086/499701
  • Pianta, R. C., & McCoy, S. J. (1997). The first day of school: The predictive validity of early school screening. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 18, 1–22. doi: 10.1016/S0193-3973(97)90011-3
  • Pianta, R. C., & Steinberg, M. S. (1992). Teacher-child relationships and the process of adjusting to school. In R. C. Pianta (Ed.), New directions for child development, No. 57. Beyond the parent: The role of other adults in children'slives (pp. 61-80). San Francisco, CA, US: Jossry-Bass Inc.
  • Pianta, R. C., & Stuhlman, M. W. (2004). Teacher-child relationships and children’s success in the first years of school. School Psychology Review, 33(3), 444-458.
  • Reynolds, A. J. (1991). Early schooling of children at risk. American Educational Research Journal, 28(2), 392-422. doi: 10.2307/1162946
  • Reynolds-Keefer, L., Johnson, R., Dickenson, T., & McFadden, L. (2009). Validity issues in the use of pictorial Likert scales. Studies in Learning, Evaluation Innovationand Development, 6, 15-24. doi: 10.1177/00131649921969811
  • Rimm-Kaufman, S. E., Pianta, R. C., & Cox, M. J. (2000). Teachers’ judgments of problems in the transition to kindergarten. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 15, 147-166. doi: 10.1016/S0885-2006(00)00049-1
  • Robinson, C. D. (2013). Associations among preschool classroom climate, children's social interpersonal skills, and early elementary school adjustment in children at-risk for school failure. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana.
  • Sadık, F. (2002). Disiplin yaklaşımları [Disciplinary Approaches]. In Y. Aktaş Arnas, & F. Sadık (Eds.). Okul öncesinde sınıf yönetimi [Classroom management in pre-school] (pp.163-197). Ankara: Pegem Yayınevi.
  • Saft, E. W., & Pianta, R. C. (2001). Teachers' perceptions of their relationships with students: Effects of child age, gender, and ethnicity of teachers and children. School Psychology Quarterly, 16, 125-141. doi: 10.1521/scpq.
  • Sasser, T. R., Bierman, K. L., & Heinrichs, B. (2015). Executive functioning and school adjustment: The mediational role of pre-kindergarten learning-related behaviors. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 30, 70–79. doi: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2014.09.001
  • Schulting, A. B., Malone, P. S., & Dodge, K. A. (2005). The effect of school-based kindergarten transition policies and practices on child academic outcomes. Developmental Psychology, 41(6), 860-871. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.41.6.860
  • Sette, S., Hipson, W. E., Zava, F., Baumgartner, E., baiocco, R., & Coplan, R. J. (2018). Linking shynss with social and school adjustment in early childhood: The moderating role of inhibitory control. Early Education & Development [Special Issue-Moving Forward in the Study of Temperament and Early Education Outcomes: Mediating and Mederating Factors], 5, 675-690. doi: 10.1080/10409289.2017.1422230
  • Sette, S., Hipson, W. E., Zava, F., Baumgartner, E., & Coplan, R. J. (2018). Linking shyness with social and school adjust-ment in early childhood: The moderating role of inhibitory control. Early Education and Development, 29, 675–690.
  • Smith, J. (2011). Measuring School Engagement: A Longitudinal Evaluation of the School Liking and Avoidance Questionnaire from Kindergarten through Sixth Grade. (Master’s thesis). Retrieved from https://repository.asu.edu/items/9309
  • Tomada, G., Schneider, B., de Domini, P., Greenman, P., & Fonzi, A. (2005). Friendship as a predictor of adjustment following a transition to formal academic instruction and evaluation. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 29(3), 14-322. doi: 10.1177/01650250544000099
  • Vassilopoulos, S. P., Brouzos, A., & Koutsianou, A. (2018). Outcomes of a universal social and emotional learning (SEL) group for facilitating first-grade students’ school adjustment. International Journal of School & Educational Psychology, 6(3), 1-14. doi: 10.1080/21683603.2017.1327830
  • Williams, K. E., Nicholson, J. M., Walker, S., & Berthelsen, D. (2016). Early childhood profiles of sleep problems and self-regulation predict later school adjustment. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 86(2), 331-50. doi: 10.1111/bjep.12109
  • Yoleri, S. (2014). The effects of age, gender, and temperament traits on school adjustment for preschool children. International Journal of Educational Research, 5(2), 54-66. doi: 10.19160/e-ijer.55208
  • Yoleri, S. (2015). Preschool children's school adjustment: indicators of behaviour problems, gender, and peer victimisation. Education 3 - 13, 43(6), 630 - 640. doi: 10.1080/03004279.2013.848915
  • Zhang, L. (2016). Social and school-related correlates of shyness and unsociability in Chinese adolescents. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from https://repository.asu.edu/attachments/176487/content/Zhang_asu_0010E_16482.pdf
  • Zhang, J. J., Smith, D. W., Lam, E. T. C., Brimer, J., & Rodriquez, A. (2002). Development of an evaluation scale to measure participant perceptions of after-school enrichment programs. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, 6, 167-186. doi: 10.1207/S15327841MPEE0603_2
Birincil Dil en
Konular Eğitim, Bilimsel Disiplinler
Yayımlanma Tarihi December
Bölüm Makaleler

Yazar: İmray Nur (Sorumlu Yazar)
Ülke: Turkey

Yazar: Yaşare Aktaş Arnas
Ülke: Turkey


Yayımlanma Tarihi : 5 Ocak 2020

APA Nur, İ , Aktaş Arnas, Y . (2020). Psychometric Properties of the School Liking and Avoidance Questionnaire in a Turkish Preschool Sample. International Journal of Assessment Tools in Education , 6 (4) , 539-554 . DOI: 10.21449/ijate.571664