Yıl 2019, Cilt 20 , Sayı 1, Sayfalar 136 - 151 2019-04-30

Cultures in the Foreign Language Curriculum: Instructors’ Views at a State University
Yabancı Dil Müfredatındaki Kültürler: Bir Devlet Üniversitesinde Eğitmenlerin Görüşleri

Burak Tomak [1] , Abdullah Cendel Karaman [2]


This study investigates how the concept of ‘culture’ is situated within the curriculum of a school of foreign languages by instructors at a state university in Western Turkey. Data were collected in two phases. First, all instructors at the research site were invited to complete a survey exploring how teachers viewed the place of culture in the curriculum and their practice and the choices they made in order to develop their own cultural awareness. After reviewing the responses of the participants (N=85), we categorized the patterns in three groups. Those with high utilization levels of culture were coded “HUC”; the ones with moderate utilization levels of culture were labelled “MUC” and those with low utilization levels of culture were named “LUC”. Based on a purposeful stratified sampling procedure, up to 4 participants were selected from each of these clusters and interviewed (n=10). The qualitative analysis of the interview data revealed that the instructors faced challenges related to self-development and integrating culture(s) in teaching. These were associated with the structure of the curriculum and pressures caused by the push to focus on too much content in limited time in the classroom. While some instructors referred to concepts associated with target culture(s) more, others predominantly stated that they incorporated local cultural elements (Turkish) in their instruction. The results underscore the need for the restructuring of the curriculum and in-service teacher education focusing on the place of culture(s) in foreign language classes. The knowledge generated in this research report is relevant for teachers, administrators, and researchers interested in language teaching and teacher education. Through participation in the study and review of the disseminated results, instructors in this setting reported having experienced reflective thinking on the issue.

Bu çalışma, ‘kültür’ kavramının, Batı Türkiye’deki bir devlet üniversitesindeki eğitmenler tarafından bir Yabancı Diller Yüksekokulu müfredatına nasıl yerleştirildiğini araştırmaktadır. Veriler iki aşamada toplandı. İlk olarak, araştırma alanındaki tüm eğitmenlerin, öğretmenlerin müfredatta kültürün yerini ve uygulamalarını ve kendi kültürel farkındalıklarını geliştirmek için yaptıkları seçimleri nasıl gördüklerini araştıran bir anketi doldurmaları istendi. Katılımcıların cevaplarını incelendikten sonra (N = 85) katılımcılar üç gruba ayrıldı. Kültürü yüksek oranda kullananlar “HUC” olarak kodlandı; orta düzeyde kültür seviyesine sahip olanlara “MUC”, düşük oranda kültürel bilgi kullananlara “LUC” adı verilmiştir. Amaçlı bir tabakalı örnekleme prosedürüne dayanarak, bu kümelerin her birinden en çok 4 kişi olacak şekilde katılımcı seçildi ve mülakat yapıldı (n = 10). Görüşme verilerinin nitel analizi, öğretmenlerin kendini geliştirme ve kültür (ler) i öğretime entegre etme ile ilgili zorluklarla karşılaştığını ortaya koydu. Bunlar, müfredatın yapısı ve sınıfta sınırlı bir süre içinde çok fazla içeriğe odaklanmanın neden olduğu baskılarla ilişkiliydi. Bazı eğitmenler hedef kültür (ler) ile ilgili kavramlara daha çok atıfta bulunurken, diğerleri ağırlıklı olarak eğitimlerine yerel kültürel unsurları (Türkçe) eklediklerini ifade etmişlerdir. Sonuçlar, yabancı dil derslerinde kültür (ler) in yerine odaklanan müfredat ve hizmet içi öğretmenlik eğitiminin yeniden yapılandırılmasına duyulan ihtiyacı vurgulamaktadır. Bu araştırma raporunda üretilen bilgiler öğretmenler, yöneticiler ve dil öğretimi ve öğretmen eğitimi ile ilgilenen araştırmacılar ile ilgilidir. Çalışmaya katılım ve yayılan sonuçların gözden geçirilmesi yoluyla, bu ortamdaki eğitmenler konuyla ilgili yansıtıcı düşünceye sahip olduklarını bildirdi.

  • Adaskou, K., Britten, D., & Fahsi, B. (1990). Design decisions on cultural content of a secondary course for Morocco, ELT Journal, 44(1), 3-10.Alptekin, C. (1992). Target-language culture in EFL materials. ELT Journal, 47 (2), 136-143.American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages. (1996). Standards for foreign language learning in the 21st century. Yonkers, NY: Author.Atay, D. (2005). Reflections on the Cultural Dimension of Language Teaching. Language and Intercultural Communication, 5, 223-237.Bates, D. G., & Plog, F. (1991). Human adaptive strategies. New York: McGraw-Hill.Bayyurt, Y. (2006). Non-native English language teachers’ perspective on culture in English as a Foreign Language classrooms, Teacher Development, 10(2), 233-247.Byram, M. (1997). The intercultural dimension in “language learning for European citizenship.” In M. Byram & G. Zarate (Eds.), The sociocultural and intercultural dimension of language learning and teaching (pp. 17–20). Strasbourg, France: Council of Europe Publishing.Byram, M., & Fleming, M. (Eds.) (1998). Language Learning from an Intercultural Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Byrd, D. R., Hlas, A. C., Watzke, J., & Valencia, M. F. M. (2011). An examination of culture knowledge: A Study of L2 L2 teachers’ and teacher educators’ beliefs and practices. Foreign Language Annals, 49(1), 4-39.Canagarajah, A. S. (1999). Resisting linguistic imperialism in English teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Castro, P., Sercu, L., & M´endez Garc´ıa, M. C. (2004). Integrating language-and-culture teaching: An investigation of Spanish teachers’ perceptions of the objectives of foreign language education. Intercultural Education, 15, 91-104.Creswell, J. W., Plano Clark, V. L., Gutman, M. L., & Handson, W. E. (2003). Advanced Mixed Methods Research Designs. In A. Tashakkori and C. Teddlie (Eds.), Handbook of Mixed Methods in Social and Behavioral Research. Thousand (pp. 209-240). Oaks, CA: Sage.Çamlıbel, Z. C. (1998). EFL Teachers’ Opinions on Teaching the Target Language Culture: A Survey Study in Turkey. Unpublished M.A. Thesis, Bogaziçi University.Dörnyei, Z. (2007). Mixed Method Research: purpose and design. Research Methods in Applied Linguistics: Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Methodologies (pp. 164-175). Oxford University Press.Gall, M. D., Gall, J. P., & Borg, W. R. (2003). Collecting Research Data with Surveys and Interviews. Educational Research (pp. 221-252). Boston: Pearson.Gaston, J. (1992). Cultural Awareness Teaching Techniques. Brattleboro, VA: Pro Lingua Associates.Geertz, C. (1973). The interpretations of cultures: Selected essays. New York: Basic Books.Guilherme, M. (2002). Critical citizens for an intercultural world: Foreign language education as cultural politics. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.Harklau, L. (1999). Representing culture in the ESL writing classroom. In E. Hinkel (Ed.), Culture in second language teaching and learning (pp. 109– 130). Cambridge: Cambridge University PressKaraman, A. C., & Tochon, F. V. (2007). International student teaching in world language education: Critical criteria for global teacherhood. Critical Inquiry in Language Studies, 4(2-3), 237-264. Kelman, J. (1996). Strategies of a Monolingual Teacher in a Bilingual Classroom. TESOL Journal, 5(3), 14-17.Kramsch, C. (1993). Context and Culture in Language Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Kramsch, C. (2005). Foreign languages between knowledge and power. Applied Linguistics, 26, 545-567.Kramsch, C. (1998). Language and culture. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Krasner, I. (1999). The role of culture in language teaching. Dialog on Language Instruction, 13(1-2), 79-88.Kubota, R. (1999). Japanese culture constructed by discourses: Implications for applied linguistics research and ELT. TESOL Quarterly, 33, 9-35.Kubota, R. (2003). Unfinished knowledge: The story of Barbara. College ESL, 10, 11-21.Kumaravadivelu, B. (2008). Cultural globalization and language education. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Luk, J. C. M., & Lin, A. M. Y. (2007). Classroom interactions as cross-cultural encounters. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Menard-Warwick, J. (2009). Co-Constructing Representations of Culture in ESL and EFL Classrooms: Discursive Faultlines in Chile and California. The Modern Language Journal, 93, 30-45.Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.McKay, S. K. (2004) Western culture and the teaching of English as an International Language (EIL). English Language Teaching Forum 42(2), 10-15.Nault, D. (2006). Going Global: Rethinking Culture Teaching in ELT Contexts. Language, Culture and Curriculum, 19(3), 314-328.Peshkin, A. (2000). The nature of interpretation in qualitative research. Educational Reseacher, 29(9), 5-9.Peterson, E., & Coltrane, B. (2003). Culture in Second Language Teaching. ERIC Digest, 1-6.Ryan, P. M. (2003). Foreign language teachers and their role as mediators of language-and-culture: A study in Mexico. Estudios de Ling¨uistica Aplicada, 37, 99-118.Schumann, J. (1978). The Acculturation Model for Second Language Acquisition. In R. Gingras (Ed.), Second-Language Acquisition and Foreign Language Teaching (pp. 27-50). Arlington, VA: Center for Applied Linguistics.Sercu, L. (2006). The foreign language and intercultural competence teacher: The acquisition of a new professional identity. Intercultural Education, 17, 55-72.Street, B. V. (1993). Culture is a verb. In D. Graddol et al. (Eds.), Language and culture (pp. 23- 42). U.K.: BAAL and Multilingual Matters.Tochon, F. V., & Karaman, A. C. (2009). Critical reasoning for social justice: moral encounters with the paradoxes of intercultural education. Intercultural Education, 20(2), 135-149.Wasser, J. D., & Bresler, L. (1996). Working in the interpretive zone: Conceptualized Collaboration in qualitative research teams. Educational Researcher, 25(5). p.13.Yoshida, K. (1996). Intercultural communication as Interpersonal communication. In G. Van Troyer, S. Cornwell and H. Morikawa (Eds.), JALT 95: Curriculum and Evaluation (pp. 96-108). Tokyo, JALT.
Birincil Dil en
Konular Sosyal
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Yazar: Burak Tomak (Sorumlu Yazar)
Kurum: Marmara Üniversitesi | Marmara University
Ülke: Turkey


Yazar: Abdullah Cendel Karaman
Kurum: Middle East Technical University, Turkey
Ülke: Turkey


Tarihler

Yayımlanma Tarihi : 30 Nisan 2019

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { inuefd420407, journal = {İnönü Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi}, issn = {1300-2899}, eissn = {2149-9683}, address = {}, publisher = {İnönü Üniversitesi}, year = {2019}, volume = {20}, pages = {136 - 151}, doi = {10.17679/inuefd.420407}, title = {Cultures in the Foreign Language Curriculum: Instructors’ Views at a State University}, key = {cite}, author = {Tomak, Burak and Karaman, Abdullah Cendel} }
APA Tomak, B , Karaman, A . (2019). Cultures in the Foreign Language Curriculum: Instructors’ Views at a State University. İnönü Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi , 20 (1) , 136-151 . DOI: 10.17679/inuefd.420407
MLA Tomak, B , Karaman, A . "Cultures in the Foreign Language Curriculum: Instructors’ Views at a State University". İnönü Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi 20 (2019 ): 136-151 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/inuefd/issue/43648/420407>
Chicago Tomak, B , Karaman, A . "Cultures in the Foreign Language Curriculum: Instructors’ Views at a State University". İnönü Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi 20 (2019 ): 136-151
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Cultures in the Foreign Language Curriculum: Instructors’ Views at a State University AU - Burak Tomak , Abdullah Cendel Karaman Y1 - 2019 PY - 2019 N1 - doi: 10.17679/inuefd.420407 DO - 10.17679/inuefd.420407 T2 - İnönü Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 136 EP - 151 VL - 20 IS - 1 SN - 1300-2899-2149-9683 M3 - doi: 10.17679/inuefd.420407 UR - https://doi.org/10.17679/inuefd.420407 Y2 - 2019 ER -
EndNote %0 İnönü Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi Cultures in the Foreign Language Curriculum: Instructors’ Views at a State University %A Burak Tomak , Abdullah Cendel Karaman %T Cultures in the Foreign Language Curriculum: Instructors’ Views at a State University %D 2019 %J İnönü Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi %P 1300-2899-2149-9683 %V 20 %N 1 %R doi: 10.17679/inuefd.420407 %U 10.17679/inuefd.420407
ISNAD Tomak, Burak , Karaman, Abdullah Cendel . "Cultures in the Foreign Language Curriculum: Instructors’ Views at a State University". İnönü Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi 20 / 1 (Nisan 2019): 136-151 . https://doi.org/10.17679/inuefd.420407
AMA Tomak B , Karaman A . Cultures in the Foreign Language Curriculum: Instructors’ Views at a State University. inuefd. 2019; 20(1): 136-151.
Vancouver Tomak B , Karaman A . Cultures in the Foreign Language Curriculum: Instructors’ Views at a State University. İnönü Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi. 2019; 20(1): 151-136.