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Fortification of Yoghurt with Xanthan Gum Biosynthesized from Grape Juice Pomace: Physicochemical, Textural and Sensory Characterization

Yıl 2023, Cilt: 20 Sayı: 2, 452 - 460, 22.05.2023
https://doi.org/10.33462/jotaf.1252469

Öz

The impact of adding xanthan gum (0.05, 0.1 and 0.2%) biosynthesized from grape juice pomace on the physicochemical characteristics (pH, titratable acidity, total solid, water holding capacity and syneresis) of set-type yoghurt was examined during 21 days of storage period at 4 oC in this study. Textural, color (L*, a* and b*) and sensory attributes (appearance, color, texture, taste and odor) were also assessed in samples with and without biosynthesized xanthan gum. The textural properties and water-holding capacity of the yoghurt were significantly (p<0.05) improved with the increase of the xanthan gum concentration. Accordingly, 0.2% of xanthan supplementation resulted in the best texture of yoghurt and obtained an average firmness of 411.52 g. The pH decrease trend was more pronounced in samples containing more than 0.1% xanthan on the first day of storage. The susceptibility to syneresis of yoghurt samples increased with the addition of xanthan gum however, there was no significant difference (p>0.05) between the samples at the end of storage, except for the sample with 0.2% xanthan gum. The addition of the highest concentration of xanthan gum increased the a* and b* values while decreasing the L* value (p<0.05). There was no significant difference (p> 0.05) between BX0.1% and BX0.2%, the samples with the lowest L* value. The addition of biosynthesized xanthan had no significant effect (p> 0.05) on the total solid, protein and ash content of yoğurt. Besides, the biosynthesized xanthan gum had no negative impacts on the sensory characteristics of yoghurt, except for the appearance. The findings indicated that biosynthesized xanthan may be a desirable additive since it enhances the physical characteristics of yoghurt without affecting its nutritional value or sensory properties.

Kaynakça

  • Andiç, S., Boran, G. and Tunçtürk, Y. (2013). Effects of carboxyl methyl cellulose and edible cow gelatin on physico-chemical, textural and sensory properties of yoghurt. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 15(2): 245–251.
  • AOAC (2000). Official methods of analysis (17th ed.). (Washington, DC, USA).
  • Apaydın, D., Demirci, A. S., Palabiyik, I., Mirik, M. and Gümüş, T. (2019). Technological properties of xanthan gums obtained from waste bread using as a carbon source and performance in pudding as model food. Journal of Tekirdag Agricultural Faculty, 16: 402–411.
  • Aziznia, S., Khosrowshahi, A., Madadlou, A. and Rahimi, J. (2008). Whey protein concentrate and gum tragacanth as fat replacers in nonfat yogurt: Chemical, physical, and microstructural properties. Journal of Dairy Science, 91(7): 2545–2552.
  • Bhat, I. M., Wani, S.M., Mir, S. A. and Masoodi, F. A. (2022). Advances in xanthan gum production, modificationsand its applications. Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, 42: 102328.
  • Bulca, S., Dumanoğlu, B. and Ӧzdemir, Ӧ. C. (2019). A study on mixing camel milk with cow, sheep and goat milk in different proportions in yoghurt production. Turkish Journal of Agriculture - Food Science and Technology 7 (12): 2095–2102.
  • Demirci, A. S., Palabiyik, I., Apaydın, D., Mirik, M. and Gumus, T. (2019). Xanthan gum biosynthesis using Xanthomonas isolates from waste bread: Process optimization and fermentation kinetics. LWT, 101: 40–47.
  • El-Sayed, E., El-Gawad, I.A., Murad, H. and Salah, S. (2002). Utilization of laboratory produced xanthan gum in the manufacture of yogurt and soy yogurt. European Food Research and Technology, 215: 298–304.
  • Eser, İ. H. and İnanç, A. L. (2022). Production of Anatolian water buffalo butter using different methods. Journal of Tekirdag Agricultural Faculty, 19(1): 215–226.
  • García-Pérez, F. J., Lario, Y., Fernández-López, J., Sayas, E., Pérez-Alvarez, J. A. and Sendra, E. (2005). Effect of orange fiber addition on yogurt color during fermentation and cold storage. Color Research and Application, 30: 457–463.
  • Ghasempour, Z., Javanmard, N., Langroodi, A. M., Alizadeh-Sani, M., Ehsani, A. and Kia, E. M. (2020). Development of probiotic yogurt containing red beet extract and basil seed gum; techno-functional, microbial and sensorial characterization. Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, 29: 101785.
  • Hemar, Y., Tamehana, M., Munro, P. A. and Singh, H. (2001). Viscosity, microstructure and phase behavior of aqueous mixtures of commercial milk protein products and xanthan gum. Food Hydrocolloids, 15(4–6): 565–574.
  • Hill, R., Guarner, F., Reid, G., Gibson, R., Daniel, J., Merenstein Pot, B., Morelli, L., Berni, R., Flint, H. J., Salminen, S. J., Calder, P. and Sanders, M. (2014). The International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics consensus statement on the scope and appropriate use of the term probiotic. Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology, 11: 506–514.
  • Lee, W. J. and Lucey, J. A. (2010). Formation and physical properties of yogurt. Asian- Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 23: 1127–1136.
  • Li, P., Li, T., Zeng, Y., Li, X., Jiang, X., Wang, Y., Xie, T. and Zhang, Y. (2016). Biosynthesis of xanthan gum by Xanthomonas campestris LRELP-1 using kitchen waste as the sole substrate. Carbohydrate Polymers, 151: 684–691.
  • Mohsin, A., Ni, H., Luo, Y., Wei, Y., Tian, X., Guan, W., Ali, M., Khan, I. M., Niazi, S., Rehman, S., Zhuang, Y. and Gup, M. (2019). Qualitative improvement of camel milk date yoghurt by addition of biosynthesized xanthan from orange waste. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 108: 61–68.
  • Mousavi, M., Heshmati, A., Garmakhany, A. D., Vahidinia, A. and Taheri, M. (2019). Optimization of the viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus and physico-chemical, textural and sensorial characteristics of flaxseed-enriched stirred probiotic yogurt by using response surface methodology. LWT, 102: 80–88.
  • Nguyen, P. T., Kravchuk, O., Bhandari, B. and Prakash, S. (2017). Effect of different hydrocolloids on texture, rheology, tribology and sensory perception of texture and mouthfeel of low-fat pot-set yoghurt. Food Hydrocolloids, 72: 90–104.
  • Sanchez, C., Zuniga-Lopez, R., Schmitt, C., Despond, S. and Hardy, J. (2000). Microstructure of acideinduced skim milkelocust bean gumexanthan gels. International Dairy Journal, 10(3): 199–212.
  • Şen, E., Demirci, A. S. and Palabiyik, I. (2022). Xanthan gum characterization and production kinetics from pomace of Vitis vinifera. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 46: e17098.
  • Soukoulis, C., Panagiotidis, P., Koureli, R. and Tzia, C. (2007). Industrial yogurt manufacture: Monitoring of fermentation process and improvement of final product quality. Journal of Dairy Science, 90(6): 2641–2654.
  • Tiwari, S., Kavitake, D., Devi, P. B. and Shetty, P. H. (2021). Bacterial exopolysaccharides for improvement of technological, functional and rheological properties of yoghurt. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 183: 1585–1595.
  • Vareltzis, P., Adamopoulos, K., Stavrakakis, E., Stefanakis, A. and Goula, A. M. (2016). Approaches to minimise yoghurt syneresis in simulated tzatziki sauce preparation. International Journal of Dairy Technology, 69: 191–199.
  • Yang, T., Wu, K., Wang, F., Liang, X., Liu, Q., Li, G. and Li, Q. (2014). Effect of exopolysaccharides from lactic acid bacteria on the texture andmicrostructure of buffalo yoghurt. International Dairy Journal, 34: 252–256.

Fortification of Yoghurt with Xanthan Gum Biosynthesized from Grape Juice Pomace: Physicochemical, Textural and Sensory Characterization

Yıl 2023, Cilt: 20 Sayı: 2, 452 - 460, 22.05.2023
https://doi.org/10.33462/jotaf.1252469

Öz

Bu çalışmada, üzüm suyu posasından biyosentezlenen ksantan gam (%0.05, 0.1 ve 0.2) ilavesinin set tipi yoğurdun 4°C'de 21 günlük depolama süresi boyunca fizikokimyasal özellikleri (pH, titre edilebilir asitlik, toplam katı, su tutma kapasitesi ve sineresiz) üzerindeki etkisi incelenmiştir. Biyosentezlenmiş ksantan gam içeren ve içermeyen numunelerde tekstürel, renk (L *, a * ve b *) ve duyusal özellikler (görünüş, renk, tekstür, tat ve koku) de değerlendirilmeye tabi tutulmuştur. Yoğurdun tekstürel özellikleri ve su tutma kapasitesi, ksantan gam konsantrasyonunun artması ile beraber önemli ölçüde (p<0.05) iyileşmiştir. Buna göre, yoğurtta en iyi tekstür ortalama 411.52 g sertlik değeri olarak %0.2 oranında ksantan ilavesi ile elde edilmiştir. Depolamanın ilk gününde %0.1'den fazla ksantan içeren numunelerde pH düşüş eğilimi daha belirgin olmuştur. Yoğurt örneklerinin sineresiz duyarlılığı ksantan gam ilavesiyle artmış ancak depolama sonunda %0.2 ksantan gam içeren örnek dışında örnekler arasında önemli bir fark görülmemiştir (p>0.05). Ksantan gamın en yüksek konsantrasyonda eklenmesi yoğurdun L * değerini düşürürken a * ve b * değerlerinin yükselmesine neden olmuştur (p<0.05). En düşük L * değerine sahip örnekler olan BX0.1% ve BX0.2% arasında önemli farklılık olmadığı belirlenmiştir (p>0.05). Biyosentezlenmiş ksantan ilavesinin yoğurdun toplam katı madde, protein ve kül içeriği üzerinde önemli bir etkisi olmamıştır (p>0.05). Ayrıca biyosentezlenmiş ksantan gamın yoğurdun duyusal özellikleri üzerinde görünüm dışında herhangi bir olumsuz etkisi olmadığı belirlenmiştir. Elde edilen bulgular, biyosentezlenmiş ksantan ilavesinin yoğurdun besin değerini veya duyusal özelliklerini etkilemeden fiziksel özelliklerini geliştirdiği için arzu edilen bir katkı maddesi olabileceğini göstermiştir.

Kaynakça

  • Andiç, S., Boran, G. and Tunçtürk, Y. (2013). Effects of carboxyl methyl cellulose and edible cow gelatin on physico-chemical, textural and sensory properties of yoghurt. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 15(2): 245–251.
  • AOAC (2000). Official methods of analysis (17th ed.). (Washington, DC, USA).
  • Apaydın, D., Demirci, A. S., Palabiyik, I., Mirik, M. and Gümüş, T. (2019). Technological properties of xanthan gums obtained from waste bread using as a carbon source and performance in pudding as model food. Journal of Tekirdag Agricultural Faculty, 16: 402–411.
  • Aziznia, S., Khosrowshahi, A., Madadlou, A. and Rahimi, J. (2008). Whey protein concentrate and gum tragacanth as fat replacers in nonfat yogurt: Chemical, physical, and microstructural properties. Journal of Dairy Science, 91(7): 2545–2552.
  • Bhat, I. M., Wani, S.M., Mir, S. A. and Masoodi, F. A. (2022). Advances in xanthan gum production, modificationsand its applications. Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, 42: 102328.
  • Bulca, S., Dumanoğlu, B. and Ӧzdemir, Ӧ. C. (2019). A study on mixing camel milk with cow, sheep and goat milk in different proportions in yoghurt production. Turkish Journal of Agriculture - Food Science and Technology 7 (12): 2095–2102.
  • Demirci, A. S., Palabiyik, I., Apaydın, D., Mirik, M. and Gumus, T. (2019). Xanthan gum biosynthesis using Xanthomonas isolates from waste bread: Process optimization and fermentation kinetics. LWT, 101: 40–47.
  • El-Sayed, E., El-Gawad, I.A., Murad, H. and Salah, S. (2002). Utilization of laboratory produced xanthan gum in the manufacture of yogurt and soy yogurt. European Food Research and Technology, 215: 298–304.
  • Eser, İ. H. and İnanç, A. L. (2022). Production of Anatolian water buffalo butter using different methods. Journal of Tekirdag Agricultural Faculty, 19(1): 215–226.
  • García-Pérez, F. J., Lario, Y., Fernández-López, J., Sayas, E., Pérez-Alvarez, J. A. and Sendra, E. (2005). Effect of orange fiber addition on yogurt color during fermentation and cold storage. Color Research and Application, 30: 457–463.
  • Ghasempour, Z., Javanmard, N., Langroodi, A. M., Alizadeh-Sani, M., Ehsani, A. and Kia, E. M. (2020). Development of probiotic yogurt containing red beet extract and basil seed gum; techno-functional, microbial and sensorial characterization. Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, 29: 101785.
  • Hemar, Y., Tamehana, M., Munro, P. A. and Singh, H. (2001). Viscosity, microstructure and phase behavior of aqueous mixtures of commercial milk protein products and xanthan gum. Food Hydrocolloids, 15(4–6): 565–574.
  • Hill, R., Guarner, F., Reid, G., Gibson, R., Daniel, J., Merenstein Pot, B., Morelli, L., Berni, R., Flint, H. J., Salminen, S. J., Calder, P. and Sanders, M. (2014). The International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics consensus statement on the scope and appropriate use of the term probiotic. Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology, 11: 506–514.
  • Lee, W. J. and Lucey, J. A. (2010). Formation and physical properties of yogurt. Asian- Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 23: 1127–1136.
  • Li, P., Li, T., Zeng, Y., Li, X., Jiang, X., Wang, Y., Xie, T. and Zhang, Y. (2016). Biosynthesis of xanthan gum by Xanthomonas campestris LRELP-1 using kitchen waste as the sole substrate. Carbohydrate Polymers, 151: 684–691.
  • Mohsin, A., Ni, H., Luo, Y., Wei, Y., Tian, X., Guan, W., Ali, M., Khan, I. M., Niazi, S., Rehman, S., Zhuang, Y. and Gup, M. (2019). Qualitative improvement of camel milk date yoghurt by addition of biosynthesized xanthan from orange waste. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 108: 61–68.
  • Mousavi, M., Heshmati, A., Garmakhany, A. D., Vahidinia, A. and Taheri, M. (2019). Optimization of the viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus and physico-chemical, textural and sensorial characteristics of flaxseed-enriched stirred probiotic yogurt by using response surface methodology. LWT, 102: 80–88.
  • Nguyen, P. T., Kravchuk, O., Bhandari, B. and Prakash, S. (2017). Effect of different hydrocolloids on texture, rheology, tribology and sensory perception of texture and mouthfeel of low-fat pot-set yoghurt. Food Hydrocolloids, 72: 90–104.
  • Sanchez, C., Zuniga-Lopez, R., Schmitt, C., Despond, S. and Hardy, J. (2000). Microstructure of acideinduced skim milkelocust bean gumexanthan gels. International Dairy Journal, 10(3): 199–212.
  • Şen, E., Demirci, A. S. and Palabiyik, I. (2022). Xanthan gum characterization and production kinetics from pomace of Vitis vinifera. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 46: e17098.
  • Soukoulis, C., Panagiotidis, P., Koureli, R. and Tzia, C. (2007). Industrial yogurt manufacture: Monitoring of fermentation process and improvement of final product quality. Journal of Dairy Science, 90(6): 2641–2654.
  • Tiwari, S., Kavitake, D., Devi, P. B. and Shetty, P. H. (2021). Bacterial exopolysaccharides for improvement of technological, functional and rheological properties of yoghurt. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 183: 1585–1595.
  • Vareltzis, P., Adamopoulos, K., Stavrakakis, E., Stefanakis, A. and Goula, A. M. (2016). Approaches to minimise yoghurt syneresis in simulated tzatziki sauce preparation. International Journal of Dairy Technology, 69: 191–199.
  • Yang, T., Wu, K., Wang, F., Liang, X., Liu, Q., Li, G. and Li, Q. (2014). Effect of exopolysaccharides from lactic acid bacteria on the texture andmicrostructure of buffalo yoghurt. International Dairy Journal, 34: 252–256.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Ahmet Şükrü DEMİRCİ 0000-0001-5252-8307

Başak GÜRBÜZ 0000-0002-7690-7640

Erken Görünüm Tarihi 8 Mayıs 2023
Yayımlanma Tarihi 22 Mayıs 2023
Gönderilme Tarihi 17 Şubat 2023
Kabul Tarihi 2 Nisan 2023
Yayımlandığı Sayı Yıl 2023 Cilt: 20 Sayı: 2

Kaynak Göster

APA DEMİRCİ, A. Ş., & GÜRBÜZ, B. (2023). Fortification of Yoghurt with Xanthan Gum Biosynthesized from Grape Juice Pomace: Physicochemical, Textural and Sensory Characterization. Tekirdağ Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi, 20(2), 452-460. https://doi.org/10.33462/jotaf.1252469
AMA DEMİRCİ AŞ, GÜRBÜZ B. Fortification of Yoghurt with Xanthan Gum Biosynthesized from Grape Juice Pomace: Physicochemical, Textural and Sensory Characterization. JOTAF. Mayıs 2023;20(2):452-460. doi:10.33462/jotaf.1252469
Chicago DEMİRCİ, Ahmet Şükrü, ve Başak GÜRBÜZ. “Fortification of Yoghurt With Xanthan Gum Biosynthesized from Grape Juice Pomace: Physicochemical, Textural and Sensory Characterization”. Tekirdağ Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi 20, sy. 2 (Mayıs 2023): 452-60. https://doi.org/10.33462/jotaf.1252469.
EndNote DEMİRCİ AŞ, GÜRBÜZ B (01 Mayıs 2023) Fortification of Yoghurt with Xanthan Gum Biosynthesized from Grape Juice Pomace: Physicochemical, Textural and Sensory Characterization. Tekirdağ Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi 20 2 452–460.
IEEE A. Ş. DEMİRCİ ve B. GÜRBÜZ, “Fortification of Yoghurt with Xanthan Gum Biosynthesized from Grape Juice Pomace: Physicochemical, Textural and Sensory Characterization”, JOTAF, c. 20, sy. 2, ss. 452–460, 2023, doi: 10.33462/jotaf.1252469.
ISNAD DEMİRCİ, Ahmet Şükrü - GÜRBÜZ, Başak. “Fortification of Yoghurt With Xanthan Gum Biosynthesized from Grape Juice Pomace: Physicochemical, Textural and Sensory Characterization”. Tekirdağ Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi 20/2 (Mayıs 2023), 452-460. https://doi.org/10.33462/jotaf.1252469.
JAMA DEMİRCİ AŞ, GÜRBÜZ B. Fortification of Yoghurt with Xanthan Gum Biosynthesized from Grape Juice Pomace: Physicochemical, Textural and Sensory Characterization. JOTAF. 2023;20:452–460.
MLA DEMİRCİ, Ahmet Şükrü ve Başak GÜRBÜZ. “Fortification of Yoghurt With Xanthan Gum Biosynthesized from Grape Juice Pomace: Physicochemical, Textural and Sensory Characterization”. Tekirdağ Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi, c. 20, sy. 2, 2023, ss. 452-60, doi:10.33462/jotaf.1252469.
Vancouver DEMİRCİ AŞ, GÜRBÜZ B. Fortification of Yoghurt with Xanthan Gum Biosynthesized from Grape Juice Pomace: Physicochemical, Textural and Sensory Characterization. JOTAF. 2023;20(2):452-60.