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Üniversite Kampüs Kantinlerindeki Gıdaların Mikrobiyolojik Kalitesinin ve Gıda Çalışanlarının El Hijyen Durumlarının Değerlendirilmesi

Yıl 2018, Cilt 11, Sayı 4, 363 - 373, 15.12.2018
https://doi.org/10.30607/kvj.427007

Öz

Bu çalışmada, Afyon Kocatepe Üniversitesi Ahmet Necdet Sezer Kampüsü’nde gıda satışı yapan 6 adet kantinden yaz ve kış aylarında olmak üzere 2’şer kez örnekler alındı. Çalışma kapsamında çalışanların parmaklarından, dilimleme tahtalarından, bıçak saplarından ve değişik gıdalardan örnekler alınarak Aerob Mezofil Bakteri, S. aureus, Enterobactericeae, total koliform, Escherichia coli, sülfit indirgeyen anerob bakteriler, Listeria monocytogenes ve Salmonella spp., açısından analiz edildi. İncelenen 100 adet gıda örneğinin %91’inde toplam Aerob Mezofil Bakteri (AMB) ≥103 kob/g, %21’inde Enterobactericeae, %64’ünde koliform bakteri, %14’ünde E. coli, %25’inde S.aureus ≥102 kob/g düzeylerinde bulundu. Gıda örneklerinin (tavuk şiş) 1’inden Salmonella spp., %3’ünden L. ivanovii, %5’inden L. seeligeri, %4’ünden L. welshimeri identifiye edilirken, sülfit indirgeyen anaerob bakteri ve L. monocytogenes saptanmadı. Bıçak örneklerinin %77.5’inde AMB ≥103 kob/g, %35’inde Enterobactericeae,  %52.5’sinde koliform, %12.5’inde E. coli, %17.5’inde S.aureus, ≥102 kob/g düzeylerinde identifiye edildi. Yüzey örneklerinin ise; %55’inde AMB ≥103 kob/g, %29.6’sında Enterobactericeae, %37’sinde koliform bakteri, %11’inde E. coli, %14.8’inde S.aureus ≥102 kob/g düzeylerinde tespit edildi. Gıda çalışanlarının el örneklerinin mikroorganizma kontaminasyon düzeyleri sırasıyla;  örneklerin %6.6’sında Enterobactericeae ≥2.5 kob/cm2, %8.8’inde ≥1.0 kob/cm2; % 4.4’ünde koliform bakteri ≥2.5 kob/cm2 ve % 15.5’inde ≥1.0 kob/cm2; %14.7’sinde E. coli ≥1.0 kob/cm2; %15.5’inde S. aureus ≥2.5 kob/cm2 ve %15.5’inde ≥1.0 kob/cm2 olarak belirlendi. El örneklerinden saptanan bu değerlerin literatürde belirlenen hedef değerlerin (<2.5 kob/cm2) üzerinde olduğu belirlendi.     

Kaynakça

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  • Afoakwa EO. Enhancing the quality of school feeding programme in Ghana. The Global Child Nutrition Forum 2005 Baltimore, Maryland, USA. (Available at:http://works.bepress.com/emmanueloheneafoakwa/40).
  • Ansari-Lari M, Soodbakhsh S, Lakzadeh L. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of workers on food hygienic practices in meat processing plants in Fars, Iran. Food Control. 2010; 21: 260-263.
  • Aycicek H, Aydogan H, Küçükkaraaslan A, Baysallar M, Baoustaoflu AC. Assessment of the bacterial contamination on hands of hospital food handlers. Food Control. 2004; 15: 253-259.
  • Bas M, Ersun AS, Kıvanç G. The evaluation of food hygiene knowledge, attitudes, and practices of food handlers’ in food businesses in Turkey. Food Control. 2006; 17(4): 317-322.
  • Bolton DJ, Meally A, Blair IS, McDowell DA, Cowan C. Food safety knowledge of head chefs and catering managers in Ireland, Food Control. 2008; 19(3): 291-300.
  • Borch E, Arinder P. Bacteriological safety issues in red meat and ready-to-eat meat products as well as control measures. Meat Science. 2002; 62: 381-390.Burch NL, Sawyer CA. Food handling in convenience stores: the impact of personnel knowledge on facility sanitation. Journal of Environmental Health. 1991; 54(3): 23-27.
  • Burch NL, Sawyer CA. Food handling in convenience stores: the impact of personnel knowledge on facility sanitation. Journal of Environmental Health. 1991; 54(3): 23-27.
  • Çakıroglu FP, Uçar A. Employees’ perception of hygiene in the catering industry in Ankara, Turkey. Food Control. 2008; 19(1): 9-15.
  • Capunzo M, Cavallo P, Boccia G, Brunetti L, Buonomo R, Mazza G. Food hygiene on merchant ships: the importance of food handlers’ training. Food Control. 2005; 16: 183-188.
  • Chaibenjawong P, Foster SJ. Desiccation tolerance in Staphylococcus aureus, Archives of Microbiology. 2011; 193(2): 125-135.
  • Chen Y, Jackson, KM, Chea FP, Schaffer DW. Quantification and variability analysis of bacterial cross contamination rates in common food service tasks. Journal of Food Protection. 2001; 64(1): 72-80.
  • Christison CA, Lindsay D, von Holy A. Mictobiological survey of ready-to-eat foods and associated preparation surfaces in retail delicatessens, Johannesburg, South Africa. Food Control 2008; 19: 727-733.
  • Colombari V, Mayer M, Laicini ZM, Mamizuka E, Franco B, Destro MT, Landgraf M. Foodborne Outbreak Caused by Staphylococcus aureus: Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of Strains of Food and Human Sources. Journal of Food Protection. 2007; 70(2): 489-493.
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  • Egan MB, Raats MM, Grubb SM, Eves A, Lumbers ML, Dean MS, Adams MR.. A review of food safety and food hygiene training studies in the commercial sector. Food Control. 2007; 18(10): 1180-1190.
  • Ehiri JE, Morris GP. Hygiene training and education of food handlers: does it work? Journal of Ecology of Food and Nutrition. 1996; 35: 243-251.Elson R, Burgess F, Little CL, Mitchell R.T. Microbiological examination of ready-to-eat cold sliced meats and pâté from catering and retail premises in the UK. Journal of Applied Microbiology. 2004; 96: 499-509.
  • European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The Community Summary Report on trends and sources of zoonoses, zoonotic agents and food-borne outbreaks in the European Union in 2008. The EFSA Journal. 2010; 1: 1410-1496.
  • FDA/USDA. Food and Drug Administration/United States Department of Agriculture. Quantitative assessment of relative risk to public health from foodborne Listeria monocytogenes among selected categories of ready to eat foods. 2003; available from http://www.foodsafety.gov/~dms/lmr2-toc.html.
  • Gelatti LC, Bonamigo RR, Becker AP, d’Azevedo PA. Staphylococcus aureus resistentes à meticilina: disseminação emergentena comunidade. Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia. 2009; 84: 501-516.
  • Gillespie I, Little CL, Mitchell R. Microbiological examination of cold ready-to-eat sliced meats from catering establishments in the United Kingdom. Journal of Applied Microbiology. 2000; 88: 467-474.
  • Green LR, Radke V, Mason R, Bushnell L, Reimann DW, Mack JC. Factors related to food worker hand hygiene practice. Journal of Food Protection. 2007; 70: 661-666.
  • Gomes-Neves E, Araújo AC, Ramos E, Cardoso CS. Food handling: comparative analysis of general knowledge and practice in three relevant groups in Portugal. Food Control. 2007; 18(6): 707-712.
  • Howes M, Mcewen S, Griffiths M, Harris L. Food handler certification by home study: measuring changes in knowledge and behavior. Dairy Food Environmental Sanitation. 1996; 16: 737-744.
  • International Organization for Standardization (ISO 6579). Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs-horizontal method for the detection of Salmonella spp. International Standard 2002; Geneva, Switzerland.
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  • International Organization for Standardization (ISO 11290-1/A1). International Organization for Standardization. 2004; Geneva, Switzerland.
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  • Jevsnik M, Hlebec V, Raspor P. Food safety knowledge and practices among food handlers in Slovenia. Food Control. 2008; 19(12): 1107-1118. Jianu C, Chiş C. Study on the hygiene knowledge of food handlers working in small and medium-sized companies in western Romania. Food Control. 2012; 26: 151-156.
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  • Juuma PA. Hand hygiene: simple and complex. International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2005; 9: 3-14.
  • Kusumaningrum HD, Van Putten MM, Rombouts FM, Beumer RR. Efects of antibacterial dishwashing liquid on foodborne pathogens and competitive microorganisms in kitchen sponges. Journal of Food Protection. 2002; 65: 61-65.
  • Ko WH. The relationship among food safety knowledge, attitudes and self-reported HACCP practices in restaurant employees. Food Control. 2013; 29(1): 192-197.
  • Little CL, De Louvois J. The microbiological examination of butchery products and butchers premises in the United Kingdom. Journal of Applied Microbiology. 1998; 85(1): 177-186.
  • Little CL. The microbiological quality of readyto-eat dried and fermented meat and meat products. International Journal of Environmental Health Research. 1998; 8(4): 277-284.
  • Lues JFR, Van Tonder I. The occurrence of indicator bacteria on hands and aprons of food handlers in the delicatessen sections of a retail Group. Food Control. 2007; 8: 326-332.
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  • Martins RB, Hogg T, Otero JG. Food handlers’ knowledge on food hygiene: the case of a catering company in Portugal. Food Control. 2012; 23: 84-190.
  • Marzono MA, Balzaretti CM. Protecting child health by preventing school-related foodborne illnesses: microbiological risk assessment of hygiene practices, drinking water and ready-to-eat foods in Italian kindergartens and schools. Food Control. 2013; 34(2013): 560-567.
  • McIntyre L, Vallaster L, Wilcott L, Henderson SB, Kosatsky T. Evaluation of food safety knowledge, attitudes and self-reported hand washing practices in foodsafe trained and untrained food handlers in British Columbia, Canada. Food Control. 2013; 30(1): 150-156.
  • Meldrum RJ, Mannion PT, Garside J. Microbiological quality of ready-to-eat food served in schools in Wales, United Kingdom. Journal of Food Protection. 2009; 72(1): 197-201.
  • Millard G, Rockliff S. Microbiological quality of sushi. 2003; available from: http://www.health.act.gov.au/c/health?a=da&did=10060511&pid=1094601516.
  • Montville R, Chen Y, Schaffner D. Gloves barriers to bacterial cross-contamination between hands to food. Journal of Food Protection. 2010; 64: 845-849.
  • Moore G, Griffith CA. Comparison of surface sampling methods for detecting coliforms on food contact surfaces. Food Microbiology. 2002; 19: 65-73.
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Evaluation of Hand Hygiene Situation of Food Handlers and Microbiological Quality of Retailed Some Foods in University Campus Canteen#

Yıl 2018, Cilt 11, Sayı 4, 363 - 373, 15.12.2018
https://doi.org/10.30607/kvj.427007

Öz

In this study, samples sailed six canteens were taken 2 times including the summer and winter in the Afyon Kocatepe University Ahmet Necdet Sezer Campus. Scope of work the fingers of workers, slicing boards, from the knife handle and various food samples were analyzed for mesophilic aerobic bacteria, S. aureus, Enterobactericeae, total coliform, E. coli, sulphite-reducing anaerobe bacteria L. monocytogenes and Salmonella. Contamination levels of 100 food samples were detected respectively; 91% of samples ≥103 cfu/g TMAB, %21 Enterobactericeae ≥102 cfu/g, 64% coliforms ≥102 cfu/g, 14% E. coli ≥102 cfu/g and 25% S. aureus ≥102 cfu/g. Salmonella spp. was detected only one samples (chicken skewer). While 3% L. ivanovii, 5% L. seeligeri, 4% L. welshimeri were isolated from all of the food samples, sulphite-reducing anaerobe bacteria and L. monocytogenes was not detected. The levels of microorganisms were found from the knife samples respectively; TMAB ≥103 cfu/g (77.5%); Enterobactericeae ≥102 cfu/g (35%); coliforms ≥102 cfu/g (52.5%); E. coli ≥102 cfu/g (12.5%); S. aureus ≥102 cfu/g (17.5% ). Surface samples were found contaminated with TMAB ≥103 cfu/g (55%); Enterobactericeae ≥102 cfu/g (9.6%); coliforms ≥102 cfu/g (37%); E. coli ≥102 cfu/g (11%);  S. aureus ≥102 cfu/g (14.8%). None of the samples were not detected sulphite-reducing anaerobe bacteria, L. monocytogenes and Salmonella. Contamination levels of hand samples were detected respectively; Enterobactericeae ≥2.5 kob/cm2 (6.6%) and ≥1.0 kob/cm2 (8.8%)of samples; coliforms ≥2.5 kob/cm2 (4.4%) and ≥1.0 kob/cm2 (15.5%); E. coli ≥1.0 kob/cm2 (14.7%); S. aureus ≥2.5 kob/cm2 and ≥1.0 kob/cm2 (15.5%). It was concluded that these values determined from the hand samples were concluded above the target values (<2.5 cfu / cm2) in the literature.

Kaynakça

  • Abdul-Mutalib NA, Abdul-Rashid MF, Mustafa S, Amin-Nordin S, Hamat RA, Osman M. Knowledge, attitude and practises regarding food hygiene and sanitation of food handlers in Kuala Pilah, Malaysia. Food Control. 2012; 27: 289-293.
  • Afoakwa EO. Enhancing the quality of school feeding programme in Ghana. The Global Child Nutrition Forum 2005 Baltimore, Maryland, USA. (Available at:http://works.bepress.com/emmanueloheneafoakwa/40).
  • Ansari-Lari M, Soodbakhsh S, Lakzadeh L. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of workers on food hygienic practices in meat processing plants in Fars, Iran. Food Control. 2010; 21: 260-263.
  • Aycicek H, Aydogan H, Küçükkaraaslan A, Baysallar M, Baoustaoflu AC. Assessment of the bacterial contamination on hands of hospital food handlers. Food Control. 2004; 15: 253-259.
  • Bas M, Ersun AS, Kıvanç G. The evaluation of food hygiene knowledge, attitudes, and practices of food handlers’ in food businesses in Turkey. Food Control. 2006; 17(4): 317-322.
  • Bolton DJ, Meally A, Blair IS, McDowell DA, Cowan C. Food safety knowledge of head chefs and catering managers in Ireland, Food Control. 2008; 19(3): 291-300.
  • Borch E, Arinder P. Bacteriological safety issues in red meat and ready-to-eat meat products as well as control measures. Meat Science. 2002; 62: 381-390.Burch NL, Sawyer CA. Food handling in convenience stores: the impact of personnel knowledge on facility sanitation. Journal of Environmental Health. 1991; 54(3): 23-27.
  • Burch NL, Sawyer CA. Food handling in convenience stores: the impact of personnel knowledge on facility sanitation. Journal of Environmental Health. 1991; 54(3): 23-27.
  • Çakıroglu FP, Uçar A. Employees’ perception of hygiene in the catering industry in Ankara, Turkey. Food Control. 2008; 19(1): 9-15.
  • Capunzo M, Cavallo P, Boccia G, Brunetti L, Buonomo R, Mazza G. Food hygiene on merchant ships: the importance of food handlers’ training. Food Control. 2005; 16: 183-188.
  • Chaibenjawong P, Foster SJ. Desiccation tolerance in Staphylococcus aureus, Archives of Microbiology. 2011; 193(2): 125-135.
  • Chen Y, Jackson, KM, Chea FP, Schaffer DW. Quantification and variability analysis of bacterial cross contamination rates in common food service tasks. Journal of Food Protection. 2001; 64(1): 72-80.
  • Christison CA, Lindsay D, von Holy A. Mictobiological survey of ready-to-eat foods and associated preparation surfaces in retail delicatessens, Johannesburg, South Africa. Food Control 2008; 19: 727-733.
  • Colombari V, Mayer M, Laicini ZM, Mamizuka E, Franco B, Destro MT, Landgraf M. Foodborne Outbreak Caused by Staphylococcus aureus: Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of Strains of Food and Human Sources. Journal of Food Protection. 2007; 70(2): 489-493.
  • Department of Health South Africa. Guidelines for environmental health officers on the interpretation of microbiological analysis data of food, Directorate. Food Control. 2000; Pretoria, Government Printer.
  • Egan MB, Raats MM, Grubb SM, Eves A, Lumbers ML, Dean MS, Adams MR.. A review of food safety and food hygiene training studies in the commercial sector. Food Control. 2007; 18(10): 1180-1190.
  • Ehiri JE, Morris GP. Hygiene training and education of food handlers: does it work? Journal of Ecology of Food and Nutrition. 1996; 35: 243-251.Elson R, Burgess F, Little CL, Mitchell R.T. Microbiological examination of ready-to-eat cold sliced meats and pâté from catering and retail premises in the UK. Journal of Applied Microbiology. 2004; 96: 499-509.
  • European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The Community Summary Report on trends and sources of zoonoses, zoonotic agents and food-borne outbreaks in the European Union in 2008. The EFSA Journal. 2010; 1: 1410-1496.
  • FDA/USDA. Food and Drug Administration/United States Department of Agriculture. Quantitative assessment of relative risk to public health from foodborne Listeria monocytogenes among selected categories of ready to eat foods. 2003; available from http://www.foodsafety.gov/~dms/lmr2-toc.html.
  • Gelatti LC, Bonamigo RR, Becker AP, d’Azevedo PA. Staphylococcus aureus resistentes à meticilina: disseminação emergentena comunidade. Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia. 2009; 84: 501-516.
  • Gillespie I, Little CL, Mitchell R. Microbiological examination of cold ready-to-eat sliced meats from catering establishments in the United Kingdom. Journal of Applied Microbiology. 2000; 88: 467-474.
  • Green LR, Radke V, Mason R, Bushnell L, Reimann DW, Mack JC. Factors related to food worker hand hygiene practice. Journal of Food Protection. 2007; 70: 661-666.
  • Gomes-Neves E, Araújo AC, Ramos E, Cardoso CS. Food handling: comparative analysis of general knowledge and practice in three relevant groups in Portugal. Food Control. 2007; 18(6): 707-712.
  • Howes M, Mcewen S, Griffiths M, Harris L. Food handler certification by home study: measuring changes in knowledge and behavior. Dairy Food Environmental Sanitation. 1996; 16: 737-744.
  • International Organization for Standardization (ISO 6579). Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs-horizontal method for the detection of Salmonella spp. International Standard 2002; Geneva, Switzerland.
  • International Organization for Standardization (ISO 15213). International Organization for Standardization. 2003; Geneva, Switzerland.
  • International Organization for Standardization (ISO 11290-1/A1). International Organization for Standardization. 2004; Geneva, Switzerland.
  • Jackson V, Blair IS, McDowell DA, Kennedy J, Bolton DJ. The incidence of significant foodborne pathogens in domestic refrigerators. Food Control. 2007; 18: 346-351.
  • Jevsnik M, Hlebec V, Raspor P. Food safety knowledge and practices among food handlers in Slovenia. Food Control. 2008; 19(12): 1107-1118. Jianu C, Chiş C. Study on the hygiene knowledge of food handlers working in small and medium-sized companies in western Romania. Food Control. 2012; 26: 151-156.
  • Jianu C, Chiş C. Study on the hygiene knowledge of food handlers working in small and medium-sized companies in western Romania. Food Control. 2012; 26: 151-156.
  • Juuma PA. Hand hygiene: simple and complex. International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2005; 9: 3-14.
  • Kusumaningrum HD, Van Putten MM, Rombouts FM, Beumer RR. Efects of antibacterial dishwashing liquid on foodborne pathogens and competitive microorganisms in kitchen sponges. Journal of Food Protection. 2002; 65: 61-65.
  • Ko WH. The relationship among food safety knowledge, attitudes and self-reported HACCP practices in restaurant employees. Food Control. 2013; 29(1): 192-197.
  • Little CL, De Louvois J. The microbiological examination of butchery products and butchers premises in the United Kingdom. Journal of Applied Microbiology. 1998; 85(1): 177-186.
  • Little CL. The microbiological quality of readyto-eat dried and fermented meat and meat products. International Journal of Environmental Health Research. 1998; 8(4): 277-284.
  • Lues JFR, Van Tonder I. The occurrence of indicator bacteria on hands and aprons of food handlers in the delicatessen sections of a retail Group. Food Control. 2007; 8: 326-332.
  • Malm KL, Nyarko KM, Yawson AE, Gogo B, Lawson A, Afari E. Foodborne illness among school children in Ga East, Accra. Ghana Medical Journal. 2015; 49(2): 72-76.
  • Martins RB, Hogg T, Otero JG. Food handlers’ knowledge on food hygiene: the case of a catering company in Portugal. Food Control. 2012; 23: 84-190.
  • Marzono MA, Balzaretti CM. Protecting child health by preventing school-related foodborne illnesses: microbiological risk assessment of hygiene practices, drinking water and ready-to-eat foods in Italian kindergartens and schools. Food Control. 2013; 34(2013): 560-567.
  • McIntyre L, Vallaster L, Wilcott L, Henderson SB, Kosatsky T. Evaluation of food safety knowledge, attitudes and self-reported hand washing practices in foodsafe trained and untrained food handlers in British Columbia, Canada. Food Control. 2013; 30(1): 150-156.
  • Meldrum RJ, Mannion PT, Garside J. Microbiological quality of ready-to-eat food served in schools in Wales, United Kingdom. Journal of Food Protection. 2009; 72(1): 197-201.
  • Millard G, Rockliff S. Microbiological quality of sushi. 2003; available from: http://www.health.act.gov.au/c/health?a=da&did=10060511&pid=1094601516.
  • Montville R, Chen Y, Schaffner D. Gloves barriers to bacterial cross-contamination between hands to food. Journal of Food Protection. 2010; 64: 845-849.
  • Moore G, Griffith CA. Comparison of surface sampling methods for detecting coliforms on food contact surfaces. Food Microbiology. 2002; 19: 65-73.
  • Newell DG, Koopmans M, Verhoef L, Aidara A. Sprong KH, Opsteegh M, Merel L, Threfall J, Scheutz F, vander Giessen J, Kruse H. Food-borne diseases-The challenges of 20 years ago still persist while new ones continue to emerge, Author links open overlay panel International Journal of Food Microbiology. 2010; 139 (30): 3-15.
  • Oranusi S, Umoh VJ, Kwaja JKP. Energy intake and anthropometry: a case study of families in Zariai Nigeria. AJB. 2007; 6(4): 459-464.
  • Osaili TM, Abu Jamous DO, Obeidat BA, Bawadi HA, Tayyem RF, Subih Hadil S. Food safety knowledge among food workers in restaurants in Jordan. Food Control. 2013; 31: 145-150.
  • Pittet D, Hugonnet S, Harbarth S, Morouga P, Sauvan V, Touveneau S. (2000). Effectiveness of a hospital-wide programme to improve compliance with hand hygiene. Lancet. 356:1307-12.
  • Rennie DM. Evaluation of food hygiene education. British of Food Journal. 1994; 96(11): 20-25.
  • Redmond EC, Griffith CJ, Slader J, Humphrey TJ. Microbiological and observational analysis of cross contamination risks during domestic food preparation. British of Food Journal. 2004; 106(8): 581-597.
  • Rotter M. Hand washing and hand disinfection In: Mayhall CG (ed). Hospital epidemiology and infection control. Philadelphia, 1999; PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
  • Ryu J, Ko J, Park H, Yang S, Kim H. Microbiological examination of nonheated foods served in feeding programmes of elementary schools, Iksan City, Jeonbuk Province, Korea. Journal of Food Protection. 2011; 47(9): 1564-1568.
  • Santana NG, Almeida RCC, Ferreira S J, Almeida FB. Microbiological quality and safety of meals served to children and adopted good manufacturing practices in public school catering in Brazil. Food Control. 2009; 20: 255-261.
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Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Fen
Bölüm ARAŞTIRMA MAKALESİ
Yazarlar

Şebnem PAMUK> (Sorumlu Yazar)
AFYON KOCATEPE ÜNİVERSİTESİ, VETERİNER FAKÜLTESİ
Türkiye


Metin ERDOĞAN>
AFYON KOCATEPE ÜNİVERSİTESİ, VETERİNER FAKÜLTESİ
Türkiye


Yeliz YILDIRIM>
ERCİYES ÜNİVERSİTESİ, VETERİNER FAKÜLTESİ
Türkiye


Harun HIZLISOY Bu kişi benim
ERCİYES ÜNİVERSİTESİ, VETERİNER FAKÜLTESİ
Türkiye


Serhat AL>
ERCİYES ÜNİVERSİTESİ, VETERİNER FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0003-2721-9275
Türkiye


Özgür SEPİN Bu kişi benim
Özel sektör
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 15 Aralık 2018
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2018, Cilt 11, Sayı 4

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { kvj427007, journal = {Kocatepe Veterinary Journal}, issn = {1308-1594}, eissn = {2147-6853}, address = {}, publisher = {Afyon Kocatepe Üniversitesi}, year = {2018}, volume = {11}, number = {4}, pages = {363 - 373}, doi = {10.30607/kvj.427007}, title = {Üniversite Kampüs Kantinlerindeki Gıdaların Mikrobiyolojik Kalitesinin ve Gıda Çalışanlarının El Hijyen Durumlarının Değerlendirilmesi}, key = {cite}, author = {Pamuk, Şebnem and Erdoğan, Metin and Yıldırım, Yeliz and Hızlısoy, Harun and Al, Serhat and Sepin, Özgür} }
APA Pamuk, Ş. , Erdoğan, M. , Yıldırım, Y. , Hızlısoy, H. , Al, S. & Sepin, Ö. (2018). Üniversite Kampüs Kantinlerindeki Gıdaların Mikrobiyolojik Kalitesinin ve Gıda Çalışanlarının El Hijyen Durumlarının Değerlendirilmesi . Kocatepe Veterinary Journal , 11 (4) , 363-373 . DOI: 10.30607/kvj.427007
MLA Pamuk, Ş. , Erdoğan, M. , Yıldırım, Y. , Hızlısoy, H. , Al, S. , Sepin, Ö. "Üniversite Kampüs Kantinlerindeki Gıdaların Mikrobiyolojik Kalitesinin ve Gıda Çalışanlarının El Hijyen Durumlarının Değerlendirilmesi" . Kocatepe Veterinary Journal 11 (2018 ): 363-373 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/kvj/issue/38465/427007>
Chicago Pamuk, Ş. , Erdoğan, M. , Yıldırım, Y. , Hızlısoy, H. , Al, S. , Sepin, Ö. "Üniversite Kampüs Kantinlerindeki Gıdaların Mikrobiyolojik Kalitesinin ve Gıda Çalışanlarının El Hijyen Durumlarının Değerlendirilmesi". Kocatepe Veterinary Journal 11 (2018 ): 363-373
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Üniversite Kampüs Kantinlerindeki Gıdaların Mikrobiyolojik Kalitesinin ve Gıda Çalışanlarının El Hijyen Durumlarının Değerlendirilmesi AU - Şebnem Pamuk , Metin Erdoğan , Yeliz Yıldırım , Harun Hızlısoy , Serhat Al , Özgür Sepin Y1 - 2018 PY - 2018 N1 - doi: 10.30607/kvj.427007 DO - 10.30607/kvj.427007 T2 - Kocatepe Veterinary Journal JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 363 EP - 373 VL - 11 IS - 4 SN - 1308-1594-2147-6853 M3 - doi: 10.30607/kvj.427007 UR - https://doi.org/10.30607/kvj.427007 Y2 - 2018 ER -
EndNote %0 Kocatepe Veteriner Dergisi Üniversite Kampüs Kantinlerindeki Gıdaların Mikrobiyolojik Kalitesinin ve Gıda Çalışanlarının El Hijyen Durumlarının Değerlendirilmesi %A Şebnem Pamuk , Metin Erdoğan , Yeliz Yıldırım , Harun Hızlısoy , Serhat Al , Özgür Sepin %T Üniversite Kampüs Kantinlerindeki Gıdaların Mikrobiyolojik Kalitesinin ve Gıda Çalışanlarının El Hijyen Durumlarının Değerlendirilmesi %D 2018 %J Kocatepe Veterinary Journal %P 1308-1594-2147-6853 %V 11 %N 4 %R doi: 10.30607/kvj.427007 %U 10.30607/kvj.427007
ISNAD Pamuk, Şebnem , Erdoğan, Metin , Yıldırım, Yeliz , Hızlısoy, Harun , Al, Serhat , Sepin, Özgür . "Üniversite Kampüs Kantinlerindeki Gıdaların Mikrobiyolojik Kalitesinin ve Gıda Çalışanlarının El Hijyen Durumlarının Değerlendirilmesi". Kocatepe Veterinary Journal 11 / 4 (Aralık 2018): 363-373 . https://doi.org/10.30607/kvj.427007
AMA Pamuk Ş. , Erdoğan M. , Yıldırım Y. , Hızlısoy H. , Al S. , Sepin Ö. Üniversite Kampüs Kantinlerindeki Gıdaların Mikrobiyolojik Kalitesinin ve Gıda Çalışanlarının El Hijyen Durumlarının Değerlendirilmesi. Kocatepe Veterinary Journal. 2018; 11(4): 363-373.
Vancouver Pamuk Ş. , Erdoğan M. , Yıldırım Y. , Hızlısoy H. , Al S. , Sepin Ö. Üniversite Kampüs Kantinlerindeki Gıdaların Mikrobiyolojik Kalitesinin ve Gıda Çalışanlarının El Hijyen Durumlarının Değerlendirilmesi. Kocatepe Veterinary Journal. 2018; 11(4): 363-373.
IEEE Ş. Pamuk , M. Erdoğan , Y. Yıldırım , H. Hızlısoy , S. Al ve Ö. Sepin , "Üniversite Kampüs Kantinlerindeki Gıdaların Mikrobiyolojik Kalitesinin ve Gıda Çalışanlarının El Hijyen Durumlarının Değerlendirilmesi", Kocatepe Veterinary Journal, c. 11, sayı. 4, ss. 363-373, Ara. 2018, doi:10.30607/kvj.427007

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