Araştırma Makalesi
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Evaluation of the Role and Effectiveness of Alternative Biocidal Products in the Conservation of Paper Arts

Yıl 2024, Cilt: 5 Sayı: 1, 61 - 76, 28.01.2024
https://doi.org/10.59116/lamre.1394494

Öz

Paper is a basic material derived from organic carbon used for writing and storing information. Books, letters, maps, and official documents are written on paper and enable the transfer of information from generation to generation. Archives and libraries provide an excellent food source for many microorganisms with their organic carbon sources and as a result, they cause biodeterioration. The rate of biodeterioration, on the other hand, depends not only on the composite properties of archival materials, but also on the environment in which they are found.
In this study, which was carried out to contribute to active conservation practices, microbial samples were taken from the Department of Culture and Registration. These microbial samples belong to two works with archive numbers 756 and 759, located in the archive room of the Safranbolu collection in the central library within the Foundation Records Directorate. As a biocidal product, the active ingredients were 20% chlorhexidine digluconate, 15% polyhexanide, 3.9% lactic acid, 4.5% acetic acid and 70% ethyl alcohol, respectively. The effects of biocidal products on microorganisms were investigated by the disc diffusion method. Evaluation of the effectiveness on paper, which is important for conservation, was carried out with short and long-term aging tests, colour spectroscopy and SEM fibre degradation analyses.

Kaynakça

  • Adcock, E. P. (2011). Kütüphane Malzemesinin Bakım ve Kullanımında Ifla İlkeleri. (Çev. N. Somer), İstanbul. (Eserin orijinali 1998’de yayımlandı).
  • Keş, Y. ve Akın, K. (2017). 15. yy. Avrupa ve Osmanlı El Yazma Kitaplarında Yazı, Süsleme ve Tasarım Anlayışı. Yıldız Journal of Art and Design, 4 (2), 104-127. https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/yjad/issue/33125/354216
  • Arai, H. (2000). Foxing Caused by Fungi: Twenty-Five Years of Study. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, 46(3), 181-188. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0964-8305(00)00063-9
  • Bacílková, B. (2006). Study on the Effect of Butanol Vapours and other Alcohols on Fungi. Restaurator, 27(3), 186-199. https://doi.org/10.1515/rest.2006.186
  • Bansa, H. (2002). Accelerated Ageing of Paper: Some Ideas on its Practical Benefit. Restaurator, 23,106-117. https://doi.org/10.1515/rest.2002.106
  • Barański, A., Łagan, J. M., and Łojewski, T. (2005). Acid-catalysed degradation. In M. Strlič & J. Kolar (Eds.), Ageing and stabilisation of paper (pp. 85–100). National and University Library. http://www.science4heritage.org/papylum/Papylum%20Book%20WEB.pdf
  • Bauer, A. W., Kirby, W. M., Sherris, J. C. and Turck, M. (1966). Antibiotic susceptibility testing by a standardized single disk method. American journal of clinical pathology, 45(4), 493–496. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcp/45.4_ts.493
  • Baydar, N. (2001). Kütüphanelerdeki El Yazmalarının Pasif Konservasyonu. Türk Kütüphaneciliği, 15, 365-377.
  • Begin, P.L. and Kaminska, E. (2002). Thermal accelerated ageing test method development. Restaurator, 23(2), 89-105.
  • Bendix, C. and More, T.E. (2023). The Ten Agents Of Deterioration. A. Bainbridge (Eds.) Conservation of Books. (pp. 365-385). New York:Taylor & Francis Group.
  • Cappitelli, F., Cattò, C. and Villa, F. (2020). The Control of Cultural Heritage Microbial Deterioration. Microorganisms, 8(10), 1542. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8101542
  • Dunca, I. S., Tanase, C., Padurariu, C., Balaes, T., Ardelean, E. and Puica, M. N. (2014). Study of the Contaminating Microbiota of Old Paper Supports. European Scientific Journal, 3, 237-251.
  • Guerrero Correa, M., Martínez, F. B., Vidal, C. P., Streitt, C., Escrig, J. and De Dicastillo, C. L. (2020). Antimicrobial metal-based nanoparticles: a review on their synthesis, types and antimicrobial action. Beilstein Journal Nanotechnology, 11, 1450–1469. https://doi.org/10.3762/bjnano.11.129
  • Ligterink, F. and Di Pietro, G. (2018). The limited impact of acetic acid in archives and libraries. Heritage Science, 6(59), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40494-018-0225-y
  • Kalaskar, P.G. and Zodpe ,S.N. (2016). Biodeterioration of Library Resources and Possible Approaches for their Control. International Journal of Applied Research, 2(7), 25-33.
  • Karakasidou, K., Nikolouli, K., Amoutzias, G. D., Pournou, A., Manassis, C., Tsiamis, G. and Mossialos, D. (2018). Microbial diversity in biodeteriorated Greek historical documents dating back to the 19th and 20th century: A case study. MicrobiologyOpen, 7(5), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1002/mbo3.596
  • Kartopu, E. (2001). Bir Yazı Yüzeyi Olan Kağıdın Öyküsü. Marmara İletişim Dergisi, 11(11), 283-290. https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/maruid/issue/444/3480
  • Kathpalia, Y. P. (1990). Arşiv Malzemesinin Korunması ve Restorasyonu. (Çev. N. Somer), T.C. Başbakanlık Devlet Arşivleri Genel Müdürlüğü, Cumhuriyet Arşivi Dairesi Başkanlığı, Yayın No:6, Ankara: Başbakanlık Basımevi (Eserin orijinali 1973’te yayımlandı).
  • Kiraz, M. N. (2018, Nisan). El Yazmalarının Koruma Sorunları ve Çözüm Önerileri. III. Uluslararası Akdeniz Sanat Sempozyumu Kültürel Mirasın Korunması ve Yaşatılması Sempozyumu’nda sunulan bildiri, Antalya.
  • Koca Yılmaz, A. S., Akyol A.A. ve Katırcıoğlu H. (2019). Koruma Bakış Açısıyla El Yazmalarında Görülen Biyodeterasyon. Akademik Sanat, 5: 1-15. https://doi.org/10.34189/asd.5.11.001
  • Kuzucuoğlu, A. H. (2014). Arşiv ve Kütüphanelerdeki Risklere Yönelik Pasif Korumanın Önemi. Türk Kütüphaneciliği, 28 (3), 338-351.
  • Lattuati-Derieux, A., Bonnassies-Termes, S. and Lavédrine B. (2004). Identification of volatile organic compounds emitted by a naturally aged book using solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A, 1026 (1-2), 9-18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2003.11.069
  • Mahmood, Z.U. and Mari, H. M. (2013). Deterioration of Library Resources and its Causes: Theoretical Review. International Journal of Basic and Applied Science, 01(04), 773-778.
  • Mokrzycki, W. and Tatol M. (2012). Colour difference ΔE - A survey. Poland.
  • Nittérus, M. (2000). Ethanol as Fungal Sanitizer in Paper Conservation. Restaurator 21, 101-115. https://doi.org/10.1515/rest.2000.101
  • Piñar, G., Sterflinger, K. and Pinzari, F. (2013, Nisan). The Microflora Inhabiting Leonardo da Vinci’s Self Portrait: a Fungal Role in Foxing Spots. Paper Presented at the Paper Conservation: Decisions & Compromises, ICOM-CC Graphic Documents Working Group Interim Meeting, Vienna.
  • Pinzari, F., Pasquariello, G. and De Mico, A. (2006). Biodeterioration of Paper: A SEM Study of Fungal Spoilage Reproduced Under Controlled Conditions. Macromolecular Symposia 238, 57-66. https://doi.org/10.1002/masy.200650609
  • Pinzari, F. (2011). Microbial Ecology of Indoor Environments: The Ecological and Applied Aspects of Microbial Contamination in Archives, Libraries and Conservation Environments. Sabah A. Abdul-Wahab (Ed.), Sick Building Syndrome (s. 153- 178) içinde. Switzerland: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-17919-8_9
  • Shahani, C. and Harrison, G. (2002). Spontaneous formation of acids in the natural aging of paper. In: Daniels V, Donithorne A, Smith P, editors. Works of art on paper, books, documents and photographs. Techniques and conservation. Congress of the international institute for conservation, London: International Institute for Conservation of Historic; Artistic Works. 189–92. https://doi.org/10.1179/sic.2002.47.s3.039
  • Sequeira, S. O., Cabrita, E. J. and Macedo, M. F. (2012). Antifungals on paper conservation: An overview. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation 74, 67-86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2012.07.011
  • Sequeira, S. O., Phillips, A. J. L., Cabrita, E. J. and Macedo, M. F. (2017). Ethanol as an antifungal treatment for paper: short-term and long-term effects. Studies in Conservation 62, 33-42. https://doi.org/10.1080/00393630.2015.1137428
  • Sterflinger, K. and Pinzari, F. (2012). The Revenge of Time: Fungal Deterioration of Cultural Heritage with Particular Reference to Books. Paper and Parchment. Environmental Microbiology, 14, 559-566. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1462-2920.2011.02584.x
  • Wu, Y., Yang, Y., Liu, H., Yao, X., Leng, F., Chen, Y. and Tian, W. (2017). Long-term antibacterial protected cotton fabric coating by controlled release of chlorhexidine gluconate from halloysite nanotubes. RSC Advances, 31 (7), 18917-18925.
  • Zang, X., Yan, Y., Yao, J., Jin, S. and Tang, Y. (2023). Chemistry directs the conservation of paper cultural relics. Polymer Degradation and Stability, 207, (110228), 1,15.
  • Zervos, S. and Moropoulou, A. (2006). Methodology and Criteria for the Evaluation of Paper Conservation Interventions: A Literature Review. Restaurator, 27, 219-274. https://doi.org/10.1515/rest.2006.219
  • Zervos, S. (2010). Natural and accelerated ageing of cellulose and paper: A literature review. In A. Lejeune & T. Deprez (Eds.), Cellulose: Structure and Properties, Derivatives and Industrial Uses (pp. 155-203). New York: Nova Publishing.
  • Zervos, S. and Alexopoulou, I. (2015). Paper conservation methods: a literature review. Cellulose 22, 2859-2897. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-015-0699-7
  • Zervos, S., Choulis, K. and Panagiaris, G. (2019). Pure cellulose paper ageing in sealed vessels. Autocatalytic depolymerization model revisited. Journal of Integrated Information Management, 04(02), 24-28.

Kağıt Eserlerin Konservasyonunda Alternatif Biyosidallerin Rolü ve Etkinliklerinin Değerlendirilmesi

Yıl 2024, Cilt: 5 Sayı: 1, 61 - 76, 28.01.2024
https://doi.org/10.59116/lamre.1394494

Öz

Kağıt, yazı yazmak ve bilgiyi saklamak için kullanılan organik karbon kaynaklı temel bir malzemedir. Kitaplar, mektuplar, haritalar ve resmi belgeler kağıt üzerine yazılarak bilginin kuşaktan kuşağa aktarılmasını sağlamaktadırlar. Arşivler ve kütüphaneler sahip oldukları bu organik karbon kaynakları ile birçok mikroorganizma için mükemmel bir besin kaynağı sağlamakta ve sonuç olarak biyodeterasyona (biyolojik bozulmaya) neden olmaktadırlar. Biyodeterasyon hızı ise arşiv malzemelerinin kompozit özelliklerine bağlı olduğu kadar bulundukları ortama da bağlılık göstermektedirler.
Aktif konservasyon uygulamalarına katkı sağlamak amacıyla gerçekleştirilen bu çalışmada mikrobiyal örnekler Kültür ve Tescil Dairesi Başkanlığı (Vakıf Kayıtlar Müdürlüğü) bünyesindeki merkez kütüphanede yer alan Safranbolu koleksiyonuna ait arşiv odasında yer alan 756 ve 759 arşiv numarasına sahip iki eserden elde edilmiştir. Biyosidal ürün olarak aktif maddeleri sırasıyla %20’lik klorheksidin diglukonat, %15’lik poliheksanid, %3,9’lik laktik asit, %4,5’lik asetik asit ve %70’lik etil alkol kullanılmıştır. Biyosidal ürünlerin mikroorganizmalar üzerindeki etkileri disk difüzyon yöntemi ile araştırılmıştır. Konservasyon açısından önemli olan kağıt üzerindeki etkinlik değerlendirilmesi ise kısa ve uzun vadeli yaşlandırma testi, renk spektroskopisi ve SEM lif deterasyon analizleri ile gerçekleştirilmiştir.

Destekleyen Kurum

Gazi Üniversitesi Bilimsel Araştirma Projeleri Koordinasyon Birimi

Kaynakça

  • Adcock, E. P. (2011). Kütüphane Malzemesinin Bakım ve Kullanımında Ifla İlkeleri. (Çev. N. Somer), İstanbul. (Eserin orijinali 1998’de yayımlandı).
  • Keş, Y. ve Akın, K. (2017). 15. yy. Avrupa ve Osmanlı El Yazma Kitaplarında Yazı, Süsleme ve Tasarım Anlayışı. Yıldız Journal of Art and Design, 4 (2), 104-127. https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/yjad/issue/33125/354216
  • Arai, H. (2000). Foxing Caused by Fungi: Twenty-Five Years of Study. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, 46(3), 181-188. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0964-8305(00)00063-9
  • Bacílková, B. (2006). Study on the Effect of Butanol Vapours and other Alcohols on Fungi. Restaurator, 27(3), 186-199. https://doi.org/10.1515/rest.2006.186
  • Bansa, H. (2002). Accelerated Ageing of Paper: Some Ideas on its Practical Benefit. Restaurator, 23,106-117. https://doi.org/10.1515/rest.2002.106
  • Barański, A., Łagan, J. M., and Łojewski, T. (2005). Acid-catalysed degradation. In M. Strlič & J. Kolar (Eds.), Ageing and stabilisation of paper (pp. 85–100). National and University Library. http://www.science4heritage.org/papylum/Papylum%20Book%20WEB.pdf
  • Bauer, A. W., Kirby, W. M., Sherris, J. C. and Turck, M. (1966). Antibiotic susceptibility testing by a standardized single disk method. American journal of clinical pathology, 45(4), 493–496. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcp/45.4_ts.493
  • Baydar, N. (2001). Kütüphanelerdeki El Yazmalarının Pasif Konservasyonu. Türk Kütüphaneciliği, 15, 365-377.
  • Begin, P.L. and Kaminska, E. (2002). Thermal accelerated ageing test method development. Restaurator, 23(2), 89-105.
  • Bendix, C. and More, T.E. (2023). The Ten Agents Of Deterioration. A. Bainbridge (Eds.) Conservation of Books. (pp. 365-385). New York:Taylor & Francis Group.
  • Cappitelli, F., Cattò, C. and Villa, F. (2020). The Control of Cultural Heritage Microbial Deterioration. Microorganisms, 8(10), 1542. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8101542
  • Dunca, I. S., Tanase, C., Padurariu, C., Balaes, T., Ardelean, E. and Puica, M. N. (2014). Study of the Contaminating Microbiota of Old Paper Supports. European Scientific Journal, 3, 237-251.
  • Guerrero Correa, M., Martínez, F. B., Vidal, C. P., Streitt, C., Escrig, J. and De Dicastillo, C. L. (2020). Antimicrobial metal-based nanoparticles: a review on their synthesis, types and antimicrobial action. Beilstein Journal Nanotechnology, 11, 1450–1469. https://doi.org/10.3762/bjnano.11.129
  • Ligterink, F. and Di Pietro, G. (2018). The limited impact of acetic acid in archives and libraries. Heritage Science, 6(59), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40494-018-0225-y
  • Kalaskar, P.G. and Zodpe ,S.N. (2016). Biodeterioration of Library Resources and Possible Approaches for their Control. International Journal of Applied Research, 2(7), 25-33.
  • Karakasidou, K., Nikolouli, K., Amoutzias, G. D., Pournou, A., Manassis, C., Tsiamis, G. and Mossialos, D. (2018). Microbial diversity in biodeteriorated Greek historical documents dating back to the 19th and 20th century: A case study. MicrobiologyOpen, 7(5), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1002/mbo3.596
  • Kartopu, E. (2001). Bir Yazı Yüzeyi Olan Kağıdın Öyküsü. Marmara İletişim Dergisi, 11(11), 283-290. https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/maruid/issue/444/3480
  • Kathpalia, Y. P. (1990). Arşiv Malzemesinin Korunması ve Restorasyonu. (Çev. N. Somer), T.C. Başbakanlık Devlet Arşivleri Genel Müdürlüğü, Cumhuriyet Arşivi Dairesi Başkanlığı, Yayın No:6, Ankara: Başbakanlık Basımevi (Eserin orijinali 1973’te yayımlandı).
  • Kiraz, M. N. (2018, Nisan). El Yazmalarının Koruma Sorunları ve Çözüm Önerileri. III. Uluslararası Akdeniz Sanat Sempozyumu Kültürel Mirasın Korunması ve Yaşatılması Sempozyumu’nda sunulan bildiri, Antalya.
  • Koca Yılmaz, A. S., Akyol A.A. ve Katırcıoğlu H. (2019). Koruma Bakış Açısıyla El Yazmalarında Görülen Biyodeterasyon. Akademik Sanat, 5: 1-15. https://doi.org/10.34189/asd.5.11.001
  • Kuzucuoğlu, A. H. (2014). Arşiv ve Kütüphanelerdeki Risklere Yönelik Pasif Korumanın Önemi. Türk Kütüphaneciliği, 28 (3), 338-351.
  • Lattuati-Derieux, A., Bonnassies-Termes, S. and Lavédrine B. (2004). Identification of volatile organic compounds emitted by a naturally aged book using solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A, 1026 (1-2), 9-18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2003.11.069
  • Mahmood, Z.U. and Mari, H. M. (2013). Deterioration of Library Resources and its Causes: Theoretical Review. International Journal of Basic and Applied Science, 01(04), 773-778.
  • Mokrzycki, W. and Tatol M. (2012). Colour difference ΔE - A survey. Poland.
  • Nittérus, M. (2000). Ethanol as Fungal Sanitizer in Paper Conservation. Restaurator 21, 101-115. https://doi.org/10.1515/rest.2000.101
  • Piñar, G., Sterflinger, K. and Pinzari, F. (2013, Nisan). The Microflora Inhabiting Leonardo da Vinci’s Self Portrait: a Fungal Role in Foxing Spots. Paper Presented at the Paper Conservation: Decisions & Compromises, ICOM-CC Graphic Documents Working Group Interim Meeting, Vienna.
  • Pinzari, F., Pasquariello, G. and De Mico, A. (2006). Biodeterioration of Paper: A SEM Study of Fungal Spoilage Reproduced Under Controlled Conditions. Macromolecular Symposia 238, 57-66. https://doi.org/10.1002/masy.200650609
  • Pinzari, F. (2011). Microbial Ecology of Indoor Environments: The Ecological and Applied Aspects of Microbial Contamination in Archives, Libraries and Conservation Environments. Sabah A. Abdul-Wahab (Ed.), Sick Building Syndrome (s. 153- 178) içinde. Switzerland: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-17919-8_9
  • Shahani, C. and Harrison, G. (2002). Spontaneous formation of acids in the natural aging of paper. In: Daniels V, Donithorne A, Smith P, editors. Works of art on paper, books, documents and photographs. Techniques and conservation. Congress of the international institute for conservation, London: International Institute for Conservation of Historic; Artistic Works. 189–92. https://doi.org/10.1179/sic.2002.47.s3.039
  • Sequeira, S. O., Cabrita, E. J. and Macedo, M. F. (2012). Antifungals on paper conservation: An overview. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation 74, 67-86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2012.07.011
  • Sequeira, S. O., Phillips, A. J. L., Cabrita, E. J. and Macedo, M. F. (2017). Ethanol as an antifungal treatment for paper: short-term and long-term effects. Studies in Conservation 62, 33-42. https://doi.org/10.1080/00393630.2015.1137428
  • Sterflinger, K. and Pinzari, F. (2012). The Revenge of Time: Fungal Deterioration of Cultural Heritage with Particular Reference to Books. Paper and Parchment. Environmental Microbiology, 14, 559-566. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1462-2920.2011.02584.x
  • Wu, Y., Yang, Y., Liu, H., Yao, X., Leng, F., Chen, Y. and Tian, W. (2017). Long-term antibacterial protected cotton fabric coating by controlled release of chlorhexidine gluconate from halloysite nanotubes. RSC Advances, 31 (7), 18917-18925.
  • Zang, X., Yan, Y., Yao, J., Jin, S. and Tang, Y. (2023). Chemistry directs the conservation of paper cultural relics. Polymer Degradation and Stability, 207, (110228), 1,15.
  • Zervos, S. and Moropoulou, A. (2006). Methodology and Criteria for the Evaluation of Paper Conservation Interventions: A Literature Review. Restaurator, 27, 219-274. https://doi.org/10.1515/rest.2006.219
  • Zervos, S. (2010). Natural and accelerated ageing of cellulose and paper: A literature review. In A. Lejeune & T. Deprez (Eds.), Cellulose: Structure and Properties, Derivatives and Industrial Uses (pp. 155-203). New York: Nova Publishing.
  • Zervos, S. and Alexopoulou, I. (2015). Paper conservation methods: a literature review. Cellulose 22, 2859-2897. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-015-0699-7
  • Zervos, S., Choulis, K. and Panagiaris, G. (2019). Pure cellulose paper ageing in sealed vessels. Autocatalytic depolymerization model revisited. Journal of Integrated Information Management, 04(02), 24-28.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Kütüphane ve Bilgi Çalışmaları (Diğer)
Bölüm Araştırma Makaleleri
Yazarlar

Aybuke Sultan KOCA 0000-0002-7442-3220

Burak GÜRKAN 0000-0001-9252-9515

Hikmet KATIRCIOĞLU 0000-0002-4866-6106

Ali Akın AKYOL 0000-0002-4174-575X

Proje Numarası 04/2020-05
Yayımlanma Tarihi 28 Ocak 2024
Gönderilme Tarihi 28 Kasım 2023
Kabul Tarihi 23 Aralık 2023
Yayımlandığı Sayı Yıl 2024 Cilt: 5 Sayı: 1

Kaynak Göster

APA KOCA, A. S., GÜRKAN, B., KATIRCIOĞLU, H., AKYOL, A. A. (2024). Kağıt Eserlerin Konservasyonunda Alternatif Biyosidallerin Rolü ve Etkinliklerinin Değerlendirilmesi. Library Archive and Museum Research Journal, 5(1), 61-76. https://doi.org/10.59116/lamre.1394494