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Effect of Ozone Gas Treatment of Wheat Flours on Flour and Bread Quality

Year 2019, Volume 17, Issue 3, 329 - 341, 18.11.2019
https://doi.org/10.24323/akademik-gida.647710

Abstract

In this study, ozone gas was applied on the flours of different wheat varieties, and the effects of ozone on flour, dough and bread properties were investigated. For this purpose, ozone gas was applied just after milling at the flow rate of 0,4 g/h on flours of two different wheat varieties (Bezostaya-1 and Gerek-79). In flour samples, physical, chemical, technological, rheological and microbiological analysis with breadmaking experiments were conducted on the day of ozonation and after 21 days of resting time. Ozone application reduced the yellowness value of flour samples from 9.17 to 8.37. The 21-day resting time with ozone application showed synergistic effect on lightness and yellowness values of the flour samples. Ozone application did not cause significant (p>0.05) difference on ash, protein, gluten, gluten index, falling number, phenolic content and antioxidant activity values of wheat flour.  During 21-day resting time, falling number values of the flour increased from 305.25 to 330.25 second, and amylolytic activity decreased. The amount of phytic acid in flour decreased from 365.35 mg / 100 g to 302.48 mg / 100 g by ozone application. 21-day resting time was also significantly (p<0.05) reduced the phytic acid content of the flour. In general, 21 days resting time and ozone application had a positive effect on the rheological properties of dough at farinograph and extensograph. As expected, Bezostaya-1 wheat flours gave superior bread properties than Gerek-79 flours. Ozonation improved bread symmetry and pore structure, and decreased crumb firmness significantly. Flours ozonated just after milling procedure gave similar flour, dough and bread quality properties to flours rested 21 days.

References

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Buğday Ununa Ozon Gazı Uygulamasının Un ve Ekmek Kalitesine Etkisi

Year 2019, Volume 17, Issue 3, 329 - 341, 18.11.2019
https://doi.org/10.24323/akademik-gida.647710

Abstract

Bu araştırmada, farklı buğday çeşitlerine ait unlara uygulanan ozon gazının, un,  hamur ve ekmek özellikleri üzerine etkisi araştırılmıştır. Bu amaçla, öğütmeyi takiben iki farklı buğday çeşidine (Bezostaya-1 ve Gerek-79) ait unlara şahide karşılık ozon jeneratörü yardımıyla 0,4 g/h debi ile ozon gazı uygulanmıştır. Un örneklerinde ozonlamanın yapıldığı gün ve 21 günlük dinlendirme sonrasında fiziksel, kimyasal, teknolojik, reolojik ve mikrobiyolojik analizler ile ekmek denemeleri gerçekleştirilmiştir. Ozon uygulaması un örneklerinin sarılık değerini 9.17’den 8.37’e düşürmüştür. 21 gün dinlendirme ve ozon uygulaması sinerjistik etki göstererek unların parlaklık değerini daha fazla artıp, sarılık değerinin daha fazla düşmesine neden olmuştur. Ozon uygulaması buğday unlarının kül, protein, glüten, glüten indeks, düşme sayısı, fenolik madde miktarı ve antioksidan aktivite değerlerinde önemli (p<0.05) bir farklılığa neden olmamıştır. Unlarda düşme sayısı 21 günlük dinlendirme ile 305.25 saniyeden 330.25 saniyeye yükselerek amilolitik aktivitede azalma gerçekleşmiştir. Ozonlama ile unlarda fitik asit miktarı 365.35 mg/100 g’dan 302.48’e düşerken, 21 gün dinlendirme süresi sonunda da unların fitik asit miktarında önemli (p>0.05) azalma gerçekleşmiştir. Genel olarak, 21 günlük dinlendirme ve ozon uygulaması farinograf ve ekstensografta hamur reolojik özellikleri üzerinde olumlu etkide bulunmuştur. Tahmin edildiği gibi Bezostaya-1 buğday unları, Gerek-79 buğday unlarından daha üstün ekmek özellikleri vermiştir. Ozonlama ekmek simetrisi ve gözenek yapısını düzeltmiş, ekmek içi sertliğini önemli düzeyde düşürmüştür. Öğütme sonrası ozon gazı uygulanan unların, 21 gün dinlendirilmiş unlara yakın kalitede un, hamur ve ekmek özellikleri verdiği tespit edilmiştir.

References

  • [1] Elgün, A., Ertugay, Z. (1995). Tahıl İşleme Teknolojisi. Atatürk Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Yayınları, No:718, Erzurum.
  • [2] Kim, J.G., Yousef, A.E., Dave, S. (1999). Application of fer enhancing the microbiological safety and quality of foods: A review. Journal of Food Protection, 62(9), 1071-1087.
  • [3] Moore, G., Griffith, C., Peters, A. (2000). Bactericidal properties of ozone and its potential application as a terminal disinfectant. Journal of Food Protect, 63(8), 1100-1106.
  • [4] Anonim. (2018). http://www.ozonuygulamaları.com/ (Erişim: 09.09.2018).
  • [5] Kuşçu, A., Pazır, F. (2004). Gıda endüstrisinde ozon uygulamaları. Gıda Teknolojisi, 29(2), 123-129.
  • [6] Anık, A. (2007). İklimlendirme sistemlerinde ozon kullanımının incelenmesi. Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Gazi Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Ankara.
  • [7] Sandhu, H.P., Manthey, F.A., Simsek, S., Ohm, J.B. (2011). Comparison between potassium bromate and ozone as flour oxidants in breadmaking. Cereal Chemistry, 88(1), 103-108.
  • [8] Xu, L. (1999). Use of ozone to improve the safety of fresh fruits and vegetables. Food Technology, 53(10), 58-63.
  • [9] Khadre, M.A., Yousef, A.E. (2001). Sporicidal action of ozone and hydrogen peroxide: a comparative study. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 71, 131-138.
  • [10] İbanoğlu, Ş. (2002). Wheat washing with ozonated water: Effects on selected flour properties. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 37(5), 579-584.
  • [11] Polat, H. (2009). Dezenfeksiyon amaçlı ozon kullanımı. Su Ürünleri Merkez Araştırma Enstitüsü Yunus Araştırma Bülteni, 9(2), 14-17.
  • [12] Çatal, H., İbanoğlu, Ş. (2010). Gıdaların ozonlanması. Gıda Teknolojileri Elektronik Dergisi, 5(3), 47-55.
  • [13] Tiwari, B.K., Brennan, C.S., Curran, T., Gallagher, E., Cullen, P.J., O’Donnell, C.P. (2010). Application of ozone in grain processing. Journal of Cereal Science, 51, 248-255.
  • [14] Kim, J.G., Yousef, A.E., Khadre, M. A. (2003). Ozone and its current and future application in the food industry. Advances in Food and Nutrition Research, 45, 167-218.
  • [15] Varga, L., Szigeti, J. (2016). Use of ozone in the dairy industry: A review. International Journal of Dairy Technology, 69, 157-168.
  • [16] Tzortzakis, N., Chrysargyris, A. (2017). Postharvest ozone application for the preservation of fruits and vegetables. Food Reviews International, 33, 270-315.
  • [17] Hampson, B.C., Montevalco, J., Williams, D.W. (1996). Regulation of ozone as a food sanitising agent: Application of ozonation in sanitising vegetable process wash-waters. IFT Annual Meeting, Book of Abstracts, p. 140, Institute of Food Tecnologist, USA.
  • [18] Nagayoshi, M., Fukuizumi, T., Kitamura, C., Yano, J., Terashita, M., Nishihara, T. (2004). Efficacy of ozone on survival and permeability of oral microorganisms. Oral Microbiology Immunology, 19, 240-246.
  • [19] Güzel-Seydim, Z., Grene, A.K., Seydim, A.C. (2004). Use of ozone in the food industry. Lebensmittel Wissenschaft und Technologie, 37, 453-460.
  • [20] Cemeroğlu, B., Yemencioğlu, A., Özkan, M. (2001). Meyve ve Sebzelerin Bileşimi Soğukta Depolanmaları. Gıda Teknolojisi Derneği Yayınları, No:494, Ankara.
  • [21] László, Z., Hovorka-Horváth, Z., Beszédes, S., Kertész, S., Gyimes, E., Hodúr, C. (2008). Comparison of the effects of ozone, UV and combined ozone/UV treatment on the color and microbial counts of wheat flour. Ozone: Science & Engineering, 30(6), 413-417.
  • [22] Desvignes, C., Chaurand, M., Dubois, M., Sadoudi, A., Abecassisve, J., Lullien-Pellerin, V. (2008). Changes in common wheat grain milling behavior and tissue mechanical properties following ozone treatment. Journal of Cereal Science, 47, 245-251.
  • [23] VonGunten, U. (2003). Ozonation of drinking water: Part I. Oxidation kinetics and product formation. Water Research, 37, 1443-1467.
  • [24] Obadi, M., Zhu, K.X., Peng, W., Zhou, H.M., Sulieman, A.A., Mohammed, K., Zhou, H.M. (2018). Shelf life characteristics of bread produced from ozonated wheat flour. Journal of Texture Studies, 49(5), 492-502.
  • [25] Mendez, F., Maier, D.E., Mason, L.J., Woloshuk, C.P. (2003). Penetration of ozone into columns of stored grains and effects on chemical composition and processing performance. Journal of Stored Products Research, 39, 33-44.
  • [26] İbanoğlu, Ş. (2001). Influence of tempering with ozonated water on the selected properties of wheat flour. Journal of Food Engineering, 48, 354-350.
  • [27] Sandhu, H.P., Manthey, F.A., Simsek, S. (2011). Quality of bread made from ozonated wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) flour. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 91(9), 1576-1584.
  • [28] Sui, Z., Yao, T., Zhong, J., Li, Y., Kong, X., Ai, L. (2016). Ozonation treatment improves properties of wheat flour and the baking quality of cake. Philippine Agricultural Scientist, 99, 50-57.
  • [29] Dubois, M., Coste, C., Despres, A.G., Efstathiou, T., Nio, C., Dumont, E., Parent-Massin, D. (2006). Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A- Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment. Taylor & Francis Limited, 23, 1.
  • [30] Gwirtz, J. (2009). Ozone use in flour milling: Researchers aggressively testing the chemical compound as a replacement for chlorine gas in controlling microbial contamination. World Grain, 75-79.
  • [31] Demir, M.K., Elgün, A., Elgün, M.S. (2011). Farklı tip unlara ozon uygulamasının un, hamur ve ekmek kalitesi üzerine etkisi. Gıda, 36(4), 209-216.
  • [32] Pyler, E.J. (1988). Baking Science and Technology. 3th Eddition, Two volume sets, Sosland Pub. Co.
  • [33] Piemontese, L., Messia, M. C., Marconi, E., Falasca, L., Zivoli, R., Gambacorta, L., Perrone, G., Solfrizzo, M. (2018). Effect of gaseous ozone treatments on DON, microbial contaminants and technological parameters of wheat and semolina. Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A, 35(4), 760-771.
  • [34] Obadi, M., Zhu, K.X., Peng, W., Ammar, A.F., Zhou, H.M. (2016). Effect of ozone gas processing on physical and chemical properties of wheat proteins. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 15(10), 2147-2154.
  • [35] Düzgüneş, O., Kesici, T., Kavuncu, O., Gürbüz, F. (1987). Araştırma ve Deneme Metodları (İstatistiksel Metodlar-II), Ankara Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Yayınları, No: 1021, Ankara.
  • [36] Elgün, A., Türker, S., Bilgiçli, N. (2001). Tahıl ve Ürünlerinde Analitik Kalite Kontrolü. Konya Ticaret Borsası Yayınları, No: 2, Konya.
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  • [41] Haug, W., Lantzsch, H.J. (1983). Sensitive method for the rapid determination of phytate in cereals and cereal product. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 34, 1423-1426.
  • [42] Slinkard, K., Singelton, V.L. (1977). Total phenolic analysis, automation and comparison with manual methods. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 28(1), 49-55.
  • [43] Gamez-Meza, N., Noriega-Rodriguez, J.A., Medina-Juarez, L.A., Ortega Garcia, J., Cazarez-Casanova, R., Angulo-Guerrero, O. (1999). Antioxidant activity in soybean oil of extracts from Thompson grape bagasse. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society (JAOCS), 76, 1445-1447.
  • [44] Gyamfi, M.A., Yonamine, M., Aniya, Y. (1999). Free-radical scavenging action of medicinal herbs from Ghana: Thonningia sanguinea on experimentally-induced liver injuries. General Pharmacology, 32(6), 661-667.
  • [45] Beta, T., Nam, S., Dexter, J.E., Sapirstein, H.D. (2005). Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of pearled wheat and roller-milled fractions. Cereal Chemistry, 82, 390-393.
  • [46] Bayrakçı, H., Türker, S., Elgün, A., Ertas, N., Bilgiçli, N. (2010). Buğdayın tavlanmasında mikrodalga uygulamasının öğütme ve ekmekçilik kalitesine etkisi. Akademik Gıda, 8(6), 6-12.
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Details

Primary Language Turkish
Journal Section Research Papers
Authors

Muhammed Sami ELGÜN
0000-0001-9384-1527


Nermin BİLGİÇLİ (Primary Author)
0000-0001-5490-9824

Publication Date November 18, 2019
Published in Issue Year 2019, Volume 17, Issue 3

Cite

Bibtex @research article { akademik-gida647710, journal = {Akademik Gıda}, issn = {1304-7582}, eissn = {2148-015X}, address = {Fevzipaşa Bulv. Çelik İş Merkezi, No: 162, Kat: 3, D:302, Çankaya, İzmir}, publisher = {Sidas Medya A.Ş.}, year = {2019}, volume = {17}, pages = {329 - 341}, doi = {10.24323/akademik-gida.647710}, title = {Buğday Ununa Ozon Gazı Uygulamasının Un ve Ekmek Kalitesine Etkisi}, key = {cite}, author = {Elgün, Muhammed Sami and Bilgiçli, Nermin} }
APA Elgün, M. S. & Bilgiçli, N. (2019). Buğday Ununa Ozon Gazı Uygulamasının Un ve Ekmek Kalitesine Etkisi . Akademik Gıda , 17 (3) , 329-341 . DOI: 10.24323/akademik-gida.647710
MLA Elgün, M. S. , Bilgiçli, N. "Buğday Ununa Ozon Gazı Uygulamasının Un ve Ekmek Kalitesine Etkisi" . Akademik Gıda 17 (2019 ): 329-341 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/akademik-gida/issue/50232/647710>
Chicago Elgün, M. S. , Bilgiçli, N. "Buğday Ununa Ozon Gazı Uygulamasının Un ve Ekmek Kalitesine Etkisi". Akademik Gıda 17 (2019 ): 329-341
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Buğday Ununa Ozon Gazı Uygulamasının Un ve Ekmek Kalitesine Etkisi AU - Muhammed Sami Elgün , Nermin Bilgiçli Y1 - 2019 PY - 2019 N1 - doi: 10.24323/akademik-gida.647710 DO - 10.24323/akademik-gida.647710 T2 - Akademik Gıda JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 329 EP - 341 VL - 17 IS - 3 SN - 1304-7582-2148-015X M3 - doi: 10.24323/akademik-gida.647710 UR - https://doi.org/10.24323/akademik-gida.647710 Y2 - 2019 ER -
EndNote %0 Akademik Gıda Buğday Ununa Ozon Gazı Uygulamasının Un ve Ekmek Kalitesine Etkisi %A Muhammed Sami Elgün , Nermin Bilgiçli %T Buğday Ununa Ozon Gazı Uygulamasının Un ve Ekmek Kalitesine Etkisi %D 2019 %J Akademik Gıda %P 1304-7582-2148-015X %V 17 %N 3 %R doi: 10.24323/akademik-gida.647710 %U 10.24323/akademik-gida.647710
ISNAD Elgün, Muhammed Sami , Bilgiçli, Nermin . "Buğday Ununa Ozon Gazı Uygulamasının Un ve Ekmek Kalitesine Etkisi". Akademik Gıda 17 / 3 (November 2019): 329-341 . https://doi.org/10.24323/akademik-gida.647710
AMA Elgün M. S. , Bilgiçli N. Buğday Ununa Ozon Gazı Uygulamasının Un ve Ekmek Kalitesine Etkisi. Akademik Gıda. 2019; 17(3): 329-341.
Vancouver Elgün M. S. , Bilgiçli N. Buğday Ununa Ozon Gazı Uygulamasının Un ve Ekmek Kalitesine Etkisi. Akademik Gıda. 2019; 17(3): 329-341.
IEEE M. S. Elgün and N. Bilgiçli , "Buğday Ununa Ozon Gazı Uygulamasının Un ve Ekmek Kalitesine Etkisi", Akademik Gıda, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 329-341, Nov. 2019, doi:10.24323/akademik-gida.647710

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