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SÜTLÜ ÇİKOLATA İÇİN KATI FAZ MİKROEKSTRAKSIYON YÖNTEMİNİN OPTİMİZASYONU

Year 2021, Volume 46, Issue 1, 82 - 96, 11.12.2020
https://doi.org/10.15237/gida.GD20055

Abstract

Bu çalışmada, isomalt içeren sütlü çikolatalarda 2,3,5,6 tetra metal pirazin tayini için HS-SPME ekstraksiyonunun optimizasyonunda merkezi kompozit tasarım uygulanmıştır. SPME verimliliği etkileyen dengeleme süresi, ekstraksiyon süresi ve ekstraksiyon sıcaklığı için optimum koşullar olarak sırasıyla 10 dk, 40 dk ve 57 °C olarak belirlenmiştir. Çalışmada StableFlex fibere uygulanmış 100 µm polidimetilsiloksan, 65 µm polidimetilsiloksan/divinilbenzen, 75 µm karboksen/polidimetilsiloksan ve 50/30 µm divinilbenzen/karboksen/polidimetilsiloksan kaplamalar SPME fiberler olarak incelenmiştir. Çikolata örneklerinin hazırlama koşulları ayrıca tepe boşluğunun kaplama bileşimi üzerindeki etkileri ölçülerek de değerlendirilmiştir. Özellikle örneklerin kuru koşullarda 60 °C’de 30 dk örnek ekstraksiyonunda 50/30 µm divinilbenzen/karboksen/polidimetilsiloksan kaplı SPME fiber en yüksek ekstraksiyon verimliliğini sağlamıştır.

References

  • Afoakwa, E.O. (2010). Chocolate Science and Technology. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
  • Afoakwa, E.O., Paterson, A., Fowler, M., Vieira, J. (2008). Particle size distribution and compositional effects on textural properties and appearance of dark chocolates. J Food Eng, 87(2): 181–190.
  • Beckett, S.T. (2008). The Science of Chocolate. Royal Society of Chemistry, London.
  • Braga, S.C.G.N., Oliveira, L.F., Hashimoto, J.C., Gama, M.R., Efraim, P., Joppi, R.J., Augusto, F. (2018). Study of volatile profile in cocoa nibs, cocoa liqour and chocolate on production process using GC X GX-QMS. Microchem J, 141: 353–361.
  • Brito, E.S., Narain, N. (2003). Effect of pH and distillate volume on monitoring aroma quality of bittersweet chocolate. Food Qual Prefer, 14: 219–226.
  • Brunetto, M.R., Cayama, Y.D., Gutierrez, L., Roa, S.C., Mendez, Y.C., Gallignani, M., Zambrano, A., Gomez, A., Ramos, G. (2009). Headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determination of alkylpyrazines in cocoa liquor samples. Food Chem, 112: 253–257.
  • Burbank, H.M., Qian, M.C. (2005). Volatile sulfur compounds in cheddar cheese determined by headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatograph-pulsed flame photometric detection. J Chromatogr A, 1066(1-2): 149–57.
  • Da Veiga Moreira, I.M., Vilela, L.D.F., Santos, C., Lima, N., Schwan, R.F. (2018). Volatile compounds and protein profiles analyses of fermented cocoa beans and chocolates from different hybrids cultivated in Brazil. Food Res Int, 109: 196–203.
  • De Brito, E.S., Garcia, N.H.P., Amancio, A.C., Valente, A.L.P., Pini, G.F., Augusto, F. (2001). Effect of autoclaving cocoa nibs before roasting on the precursors of the Maillard reaction and pyrazines. Int J Food Sci Technol, 36: 625–630.
  • Di Carro., M., Ardini, F., Magi, E. (2015). Multivariate optimization of headspace solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry fort he determination of methylpyrazines in cocoa liquors. Microchem J, 121: 172–177.
  • Ducki, S., Miralles-Garcia, J., Zumbe, A., Tornero, A., Storey, D.M. (2008). Evaluation of solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the headspace analysis of volatile compounds in cocoa products. Talanta, 74: 1166–1174.
  • Engeseth, N.J., Pangan, M.F.A. (2018). Current context on chocolate flavor development – a review. Curr Opin Food Sci, 21: 84–91.
  • Hue, C., Gunata, Z., Bergounhou, A., Assemat, S., Boulanger, R., Sauvage, F.X., Davrieux, F. (2014). Near infrared spectroscopy as a new tool to determine cocoa fermentation levels through ammonia nitrogen quantification. Food Chem, 148: 240–245.
  • Kataoka, H., Lord, H.L., Pawliszyn, J. (2000). Applications of solid-phase microextraction in food analysis. J Chromatogr A, 880: 35–62.
  • Khairy, H.L., Saadon, A.F., Zzaman, W., Yang, T.A., Easa, A.M. (2018). Identification of flavor compounds in rambutan seed fat and its mixture with cocoa butter determined by SPME-GCMS. J King Saud Univ Sci, 30: 316–323.
  • Kone, K.M., Guchi, S.T., Durand, N., Ban-Koffi, L., Berthiot, L., Tachan, A.F., Brou, K., Boulanger, R., Montet, D. (2016). Contribution of predominant yeasts to the occuruence of aroma compounds during cocoa bean fermentation. Food Res Int, 89(2): 910–917.
  • Kumari, N., Grimbs, A., D’Souza, R.N., Verma, S.K., Corno, M., Kuhnert, N., Ullrich, M.S. (2018). Origin and varietal based proteomic and peptidomic fingrprinting of Theobroma cacao in non-fermented and fermented cocoa beans. Food Res Int, 111: 137–147.
  • Little, T.M., Hills, F.J. (1978). Agricultural Experimentation Design and Analysis. John Wiley, New York.
  • Mani, V. (1999). Properties of commercial SPME coatings. In: Aplication of solid phase microextraction, Pawliszyn, J. (chief ed.), RSC Chromatography Monographs, The UK, pp. 5–96.
  • Matich, A.J. (1999). Anaylsis of food and plant volatiles. In: Applications of solid phase microextraction, Pawliszyn, J. (chief eds.), Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, pp. 343–363.
  • Mexis, S.F., Badeka, A.V., Riganakos, K.A., Kontominas, M.G. (2010). Effect of active and modified atmosphere packaging on quality retention of dark chocolate with hazelnuts. Innov Food Sci Emerg Technol, 11: 177–186.
  • Nagelkerke, N.J.D. (1991). A note on a general definition of the coefficient of determination. Biometrika, 78(3): 691–692.
  • Nicolotti, L., Cordero, C., Cagliero, C., Liberto, E., Sgorbini, B., Rubiolo, P., Bicchi, C. (2013). Quantitative fingerprinting by headspace-two-dimensional comprehensive gas chromatography–mass spectrometry of solid matrices: some challenging aspects of the exhaustive assessment of food volatiles. Anal Chim Acta, 798: 115–125.
  • Owusu, M. (2010). Influence of raw material and processing on aroma in chocolate. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, 98 p.
  • Perego, P., Fabiano, B., Cavicchioli, M., Del Borghi, M. (2004). Cocoa quality and processing: A study by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography analysis of methylpyrazines. Food Bioprod Process, 82(4): 291–297.
  • Pini, G.F., De Brito, E.S., García, N.H.P., Valente, A.L.P., Augusto, F. (2004). A headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) method for the chromatographic determination of alkylpyrazines in cocoa samples. J Braz Chem Soc, 15: 267–271.
  • Rodriguez-Campos, J., Escolana-Buendia, H.B., Conteras-Ramos, S.M., Orozco-Avila, I., Jaramillo-Flores, E., Lugo-Cervantes, E. (2012). Effects of fermentation time and drying temperature on volatile compounds in cocoa. Food Chem, 132(1): 277–288.
  • Rodriguez-Campos, J., Escolana-Buendia, H.B., Conteras-Ramos, S.M., Orozco-Avila, I., Lugo-Cervantes, E., Jaramillo-Flores, M.E. (2011). Dynamics of volatile and non-volatile compounds in cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) during fermentation and drying processes using principal component analysis. Food Res Technol, 44: 250–258.
  • Toker, O.S., Sagdic, O., Şener, D., Konar, N., Zorlucan, T., Dağlıoğlu, O. (2016). The influence of particle size on some physicochemical, rheological and melting properties and volatile compound profile of compound chocolate and cocolin samples. European Food Res Technol, 242(8): 1253–1266.
  • Tran, P.D., De Walle, D.V., De Clerq, N., De Winne, A., Kadow, D., Lieberei, R., Messens, K., Tran, D.N., Dewettinck, K., Van Durme, J. (2015). Assesing cocoa aroma quality by multiple analytical approaches. Food Res Int, 77: 657–669.
  • Van Durme, J., Ingels, I., De Winne, A. (2016). Inline roasting hyphenated with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as an innovative approach for assessment of cocoa fermentation quality and aroma formation potential. Food Chem, 205: 66–72.
  • Yang, X., Perpard, T. (1994). Solid phase microextraction for flavor analysis. J Agr Food Chem, 42: 1925–1930.

OPTIMIZATION OF SOLID-PHASE MICROEXTRACTION CONDITIONS OF MILK CHOCOLATE

Year 2021, Volume 46, Issue 1, 82 - 96, 11.12.2020
https://doi.org/10.15237/gida.GD20055

Abstract

In the current study, the Central Composite Design was applied to optimize HS-SPME extraction in order to detect 2,3,5,6 tetramethyl pyrazine in isomalt contaning milk chocolate. The optimal conditions for the three experimental responses influencing SPME efficiency were 10 min, 40 min and 57 °C for equilibration time, extraction time and extraction temperature, respectively. SPME fibers coated with 100 m polydimethylsiloxane coating, 65 µm polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene coating, 75 µm carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane coating and 50/30 µm divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane on a StableFlex fiber were investigated. The preparation conditions of the chocolate samples were also evaluated by measuring their effects on the coating composition of the head space. The SPME fiber coated with 50/30 µm divinylbenzene/carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane provided the highest extraction efficiency, especially when the samples were extracted at 60 °C for 30 min under dry conditions. Eighty-one blends were extracted and experimentally detected most of which have been formerly stated as odor-active components.

References

  • Afoakwa, E.O. (2010). Chocolate Science and Technology. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
  • Afoakwa, E.O., Paterson, A., Fowler, M., Vieira, J. (2008). Particle size distribution and compositional effects on textural properties and appearance of dark chocolates. J Food Eng, 87(2): 181–190.
  • Beckett, S.T. (2008). The Science of Chocolate. Royal Society of Chemistry, London.
  • Braga, S.C.G.N., Oliveira, L.F., Hashimoto, J.C., Gama, M.R., Efraim, P., Joppi, R.J., Augusto, F. (2018). Study of volatile profile in cocoa nibs, cocoa liqour and chocolate on production process using GC X GX-QMS. Microchem J, 141: 353–361.
  • Brito, E.S., Narain, N. (2003). Effect of pH and distillate volume on monitoring aroma quality of bittersweet chocolate. Food Qual Prefer, 14: 219–226.
  • Brunetto, M.R., Cayama, Y.D., Gutierrez, L., Roa, S.C., Mendez, Y.C., Gallignani, M., Zambrano, A., Gomez, A., Ramos, G. (2009). Headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determination of alkylpyrazines in cocoa liquor samples. Food Chem, 112: 253–257.
  • Burbank, H.M., Qian, M.C. (2005). Volatile sulfur compounds in cheddar cheese determined by headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatograph-pulsed flame photometric detection. J Chromatogr A, 1066(1-2): 149–57.
  • Da Veiga Moreira, I.M., Vilela, L.D.F., Santos, C., Lima, N., Schwan, R.F. (2018). Volatile compounds and protein profiles analyses of fermented cocoa beans and chocolates from different hybrids cultivated in Brazil. Food Res Int, 109: 196–203.
  • De Brito, E.S., Garcia, N.H.P., Amancio, A.C., Valente, A.L.P., Pini, G.F., Augusto, F. (2001). Effect of autoclaving cocoa nibs before roasting on the precursors of the Maillard reaction and pyrazines. Int J Food Sci Technol, 36: 625–630.
  • Di Carro., M., Ardini, F., Magi, E. (2015). Multivariate optimization of headspace solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry fort he determination of methylpyrazines in cocoa liquors. Microchem J, 121: 172–177.
  • Ducki, S., Miralles-Garcia, J., Zumbe, A., Tornero, A., Storey, D.M. (2008). Evaluation of solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the headspace analysis of volatile compounds in cocoa products. Talanta, 74: 1166–1174.
  • Engeseth, N.J., Pangan, M.F.A. (2018). Current context on chocolate flavor development – a review. Curr Opin Food Sci, 21: 84–91.
  • Hue, C., Gunata, Z., Bergounhou, A., Assemat, S., Boulanger, R., Sauvage, F.X., Davrieux, F. (2014). Near infrared spectroscopy as a new tool to determine cocoa fermentation levels through ammonia nitrogen quantification. Food Chem, 148: 240–245.
  • Kataoka, H., Lord, H.L., Pawliszyn, J. (2000). Applications of solid-phase microextraction in food analysis. J Chromatogr A, 880: 35–62.
  • Khairy, H.L., Saadon, A.F., Zzaman, W., Yang, T.A., Easa, A.M. (2018). Identification of flavor compounds in rambutan seed fat and its mixture with cocoa butter determined by SPME-GCMS. J King Saud Univ Sci, 30: 316–323.
  • Kone, K.M., Guchi, S.T., Durand, N., Ban-Koffi, L., Berthiot, L., Tachan, A.F., Brou, K., Boulanger, R., Montet, D. (2016). Contribution of predominant yeasts to the occuruence of aroma compounds during cocoa bean fermentation. Food Res Int, 89(2): 910–917.
  • Kumari, N., Grimbs, A., D’Souza, R.N., Verma, S.K., Corno, M., Kuhnert, N., Ullrich, M.S. (2018). Origin and varietal based proteomic and peptidomic fingrprinting of Theobroma cacao in non-fermented and fermented cocoa beans. Food Res Int, 111: 137–147.
  • Little, T.M., Hills, F.J. (1978). Agricultural Experimentation Design and Analysis. John Wiley, New York.
  • Mani, V. (1999). Properties of commercial SPME coatings. In: Aplication of solid phase microextraction, Pawliszyn, J. (chief ed.), RSC Chromatography Monographs, The UK, pp. 5–96.
  • Matich, A.J. (1999). Anaylsis of food and plant volatiles. In: Applications of solid phase microextraction, Pawliszyn, J. (chief eds.), Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, pp. 343–363.
  • Mexis, S.F., Badeka, A.V., Riganakos, K.A., Kontominas, M.G. (2010). Effect of active and modified atmosphere packaging on quality retention of dark chocolate with hazelnuts. Innov Food Sci Emerg Technol, 11: 177–186.
  • Nagelkerke, N.J.D. (1991). A note on a general definition of the coefficient of determination. Biometrika, 78(3): 691–692.
  • Nicolotti, L., Cordero, C., Cagliero, C., Liberto, E., Sgorbini, B., Rubiolo, P., Bicchi, C. (2013). Quantitative fingerprinting by headspace-two-dimensional comprehensive gas chromatography–mass spectrometry of solid matrices: some challenging aspects of the exhaustive assessment of food volatiles. Anal Chim Acta, 798: 115–125.
  • Owusu, M. (2010). Influence of raw material and processing on aroma in chocolate. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, 98 p.
  • Perego, P., Fabiano, B., Cavicchioli, M., Del Borghi, M. (2004). Cocoa quality and processing: A study by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography analysis of methylpyrazines. Food Bioprod Process, 82(4): 291–297.
  • Pini, G.F., De Brito, E.S., García, N.H.P., Valente, A.L.P., Augusto, F. (2004). A headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) method for the chromatographic determination of alkylpyrazines in cocoa samples. J Braz Chem Soc, 15: 267–271.
  • Rodriguez-Campos, J., Escolana-Buendia, H.B., Conteras-Ramos, S.M., Orozco-Avila, I., Jaramillo-Flores, E., Lugo-Cervantes, E. (2012). Effects of fermentation time and drying temperature on volatile compounds in cocoa. Food Chem, 132(1): 277–288.
  • Rodriguez-Campos, J., Escolana-Buendia, H.B., Conteras-Ramos, S.M., Orozco-Avila, I., Lugo-Cervantes, E., Jaramillo-Flores, M.E. (2011). Dynamics of volatile and non-volatile compounds in cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) during fermentation and drying processes using principal component analysis. Food Res Technol, 44: 250–258.
  • Toker, O.S., Sagdic, O., Şener, D., Konar, N., Zorlucan, T., Dağlıoğlu, O. (2016). The influence of particle size on some physicochemical, rheological and melting properties and volatile compound profile of compound chocolate and cocolin samples. European Food Res Technol, 242(8): 1253–1266.
  • Tran, P.D., De Walle, D.V., De Clerq, N., De Winne, A., Kadow, D., Lieberei, R., Messens, K., Tran, D.N., Dewettinck, K., Van Durme, J. (2015). Assesing cocoa aroma quality by multiple analytical approaches. Food Res Int, 77: 657–669.
  • Van Durme, J., Ingels, I., De Winne, A. (2016). Inline roasting hyphenated with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as an innovative approach for assessment of cocoa fermentation quality and aroma formation potential. Food Chem, 205: 66–72.
  • Yang, X., Perpard, T. (1994). Solid phase microextraction for flavor analysis. J Agr Food Chem, 42: 1925–1930.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Food Science and Technology
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Şirin OBA>
Amasya University, Suluova Vocational School, Department of Food Processing, Amasya, Turkey
0000-0002-4620-7483
Türkiye


Ömer Said TOKER>
Yildiz Technical University, Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering Faculty, Food Engineering Department, İstanbul, Turkey
0000-0002-7304-2071
Türkiye


Haniyeh RASOULİ PİROUZİAN> (Primary Author)
Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
0000-0001-7046-4255
Iran


İbrahim PALABIYIK>
Namik Kemal University, Agricultural Faculty, Food Engineering Department, Tekirdağ, Turkey
0000-0001-8850-1819
Türkiye


Nevzat KONAR>
Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Food Engineering 26040, Eskisehir, Turkey
0000-0002-7383-3949
Türkiye


Nevzat ARTIK>
Ankara University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Food Engineering, Ankara, Turkey
0000-0001-5583-6719
Türkiye


Osman SAĞDIÇ>
Yildiz Technical University, Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering Faculty, Food Engineering Department, İstanbul, Turkey
0000-0002-2063-1462
Türkiye

Supporting Institution The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey
Project Number TOVAG-115O028.
Publication Date December 11, 2020
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 46, Issue 1

Cite

Bibtex @research article { gida706248, journal = {Gıda}, issn = {1300-3070}, eissn = {1309-6273}, address = {}, publisher = {The Association of Food Technology}, year = {2020}, volume = {46}, number = {1}, pages = {82 - 96}, doi = {10.15237/gida.GD20055}, title = {OPTIMIZATION OF SOLID-PHASE MICROEXTRACTION CONDITIONS OF MILK CHOCOLATE}, key = {cite}, author = {Oba, Şirin and Toker, Ömer Said and Rasouli Pirouzian, Haniyeh and Palabıyık, İbrahim and Konar, Nevzat and Artık, Nevzat and Sağdıç, Osman} }
APA Oba, Ş. , Toker, Ö. S. , Rasouli Pirouzian, H. , Palabıyık, İ. , Konar, N. , Artık, N. & Sağdıç, O. (2020). OPTIMIZATION OF SOLID-PHASE MICROEXTRACTION CONDITIONS OF MILK CHOCOLATE . Gıda , 46 (1) , 82-96 . DOI: 10.15237/gida.GD20055
MLA Oba, Ş. , Toker, Ö. S. , Rasouli Pirouzian, H. , Palabıyık, İ. , Konar, N. , Artık, N. , Sağdıç, O. "OPTIMIZATION OF SOLID-PHASE MICROEXTRACTION CONDITIONS OF MILK CHOCOLATE" . Gıda 46 (2020 ): 82-96 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/gida/issue/58172/706248>
Chicago Oba, Ş. , Toker, Ö. S. , Rasouli Pirouzian, H. , Palabıyık, İ. , Konar, N. , Artık, N. , Sağdıç, O. "OPTIMIZATION OF SOLID-PHASE MICROEXTRACTION CONDITIONS OF MILK CHOCOLATE". Gıda 46 (2020 ): 82-96
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - OPTIMIZATION OF SOLID-PHASE MICROEXTRACTION CONDITIONS OF MILK CHOCOLATE AU - ŞirinOba, Ömer SaidToker, HaniyehRasouli Pirouzian, İbrahimPalabıyık, NevzatKonar, NevzatArtık, OsmanSağdıç Y1 - 2020 PY - 2020 N1 - doi: 10.15237/gida.GD20055 DO - 10.15237/gida.GD20055 T2 - Gıda JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 82 EP - 96 VL - 46 IS - 1 SN - 1300-3070-1309-6273 M3 - doi: 10.15237/gida.GD20055 UR - https://doi.org/10.15237/gida.GD20055 Y2 - 2020 ER -
EndNote %0 The Journal of Food OPTIMIZATION OF SOLID-PHASE MICROEXTRACTION CONDITIONS OF MILK CHOCOLATE %A Şirin Oba , Ömer Said Toker , Haniyeh Rasouli Pirouzian , İbrahim Palabıyık , Nevzat Konar , Nevzat Artık , Osman Sağdıç %T OPTIMIZATION OF SOLID-PHASE MICROEXTRACTION CONDITIONS OF MILK CHOCOLATE %D 2020 %J Gıda %P 1300-3070-1309-6273 %V 46 %N 1 %R doi: 10.15237/gida.GD20055 %U 10.15237/gida.GD20055
ISNAD Oba, Şirin , Toker, Ömer Said , Rasouli Pirouzian, Haniyeh , Palabıyık, İbrahim , Konar, Nevzat , Artık, Nevzat , Sağdıç, Osman . "OPTIMIZATION OF SOLID-PHASE MICROEXTRACTION CONDITIONS OF MILK CHOCOLATE". Gıda 46 / 1 (December 2020): 82-96 . https://doi.org/10.15237/gida.GD20055
AMA Oba Ş. , Toker Ö. S. , Rasouli Pirouzian H. , Palabıyık İ. , Konar N. , Artık N. , Sağdıç O. OPTIMIZATION OF SOLID-PHASE MICROEXTRACTION CONDITIONS OF MILK CHOCOLATE. The Journal of Food. 2020; 46(1): 82-96.
Vancouver Oba Ş. , Toker Ö. S. , Rasouli Pirouzian H. , Palabıyık İ. , Konar N. , Artık N. , Sağdıç O. OPTIMIZATION OF SOLID-PHASE MICROEXTRACTION CONDITIONS OF MILK CHOCOLATE. Gıda. 2020; 46(1): 82-96.
IEEE Ş. Oba , Ö. S. Toker , H. Rasouli Pirouzian , İ. Palabıyık , N. Konar , N. Artık and O. Sağdıç , "OPTIMIZATION OF SOLID-PHASE MICROEXTRACTION CONDITIONS OF MILK CHOCOLATE", Gıda, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 82-96, Dec. 2020, doi:10.15237/gida.GD20055

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