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PEKTİN KAYNAĞI OLARAK TAZE BÜTÜN ENGİNAR VE ENGİNAR KONSERVE ATIĞI

Year 2017, Volume 42, Issue 5, 568 - 576, 25.07.2017

Abstract

Bu çalışmada taze enginar (gövde, tabla ve yenilebilir yaprak) ile konserve enginar endüstrisinde çıkan atığın pektin içerikleri incelenmiştir. En yüksek pektin içeriği % 6.42 olarak taze enginarin gövde kısmında bulunmuştur. Pektin içeriğine ek olarak en yüksek anhidrogalakturonik asit ve anhidrouronik asit miktarları da gövde kısmında bulunmuştur. Tabla ve yenilebilir yaprak kısımlarında ise pektin verimi sırasıyla % 5.31 ve % 4.55 olarak bulunmuştur. En düşük pektin verimi % 4.43 ile endüstriyel atıktan elde edilmiştir. En yüksek kül içeriğine (% 5.65) ek olarak en düşük anhidrouronik asit miktarı (% 73.28) en yüksek safsızlığın endüstriyel atık suyunda olduğunu göstermektedir. Gövde, tabla ve yenilebilir yaprak kısımlarındaki esterleşme derecesi sırasıyla % 55.26, % 52.26 ve % 56.71 olarak elde edilmiştir. Bu yüzdeler yüksek metil esterleşmiş pektin olduğunu göstermektedir. % 46.02 ile en düşük esterleşme derecesi endüstriyel atıktan elde edilmiştir. FTIR sonuçlarına göre asit prosesiyle pektinin yapısal özelliklerinin değiştiği ve endüstriyel atıklarda daha yüksek metoksil içeriği ve daha yüksek esterleşme derecesi elde edildiği gözlenmiştir.

References

  • May, C.D. (1990). Industrial Pectins: Sources, Production and Applications. Carbohydr Polym, 12: 79-99.
  • Thakur, B.R, Singh, R.K, Handa, A.K, Rao, M.A. (1997). Chemistry and uses of pectin - a review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr, 37(1): 47-73.
  • Lattanzio, V., Kroon, P.A., Linsalata, V., Cardinali, A. (2009). Globe artichoke: a functional food and source of nutraceutical ingredients. J Funct Foods, 1: 131-144.
  • Baker, R.A. (1997). Reassessment of some fruit and vegetable pectin levels. J Food Sci, 62: 225-229.
  • Elwell, W.E, Dehn, W.M. (1939). Pectic content of plant materials. Plant Physiol, 14 (4): 809-816.
  • Liu, S., Shi, X., Xu, L., Yi, Y. (2016). Optimization of pectin extraction and antioxidant activities from Jerusalem artichoke. Chin J Oceanol Limnol, 34(2): 372-381.
  • Khan, I.A., Abourashed, E.A. (2010). Leung's encyclopedia of common natural ingredients - used in food, drugs, and cosmetics. 3rd Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, 45-48 p.
  • Fratianni, F., Tucci, M., De Palma, M., Pepe, R., Nazzaro, F. (2007). Polyphenolic composition in different parts of some cultivars of globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus (L.) Fiori). Food Chem, 104: 1282-1286.
  • Orlovskaya, T.V, Luneva, I.L, Chelombit´ko, V.A. (2007). Carbohydrates from Cynara scolymus. Chem Nat Compd, 43 (1): 107-108.
  • Ranganna, S. (1986). Handbook of Analysis and Quality Control of Fruit and Vegetable Products. 2nd Edition, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Co Ltd., New Delhi, 31-65 p.
  • Attri, B.L., Maini, S.B. (1996). Pectin from galgal (Citrus pseudolimon Tan.) peel. Bioresour Technol, 55 (1): 89-91.
  • Kulkarni, S.G., Vijayanand, P. (2010). Effect of extraction conditions on the quality characteristics of pectin from passion fruit peel (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa L.). LWT- Food Sci Technol, 43(7): 1026-1031.
  • Pagán, J., Ibarz, A., Llorca, M., Pagán, A., Barbosa-Cánovas, G.V. (2001). Extraction and characterization of pectin from stored peach pomace. Food Res Int, 34(7): 605-612.
  • Phatak, L., Chang, K.C., Brown, G. (1988). Isolation and characterization of pectin in sugar-beet pulp. J Food Sci, 53(3): 830-833.
  • Seggiani, M., Puccini, M., Pierini, M., Giovando, S., Forneris, C. (2009). Effect of different extraction and precipitation methods on yield and quality of pectin. Int J Food Sci Technol, 44 (3): 574-580.
  • Kumar, A., Chauhan, G.S. (2010). Extraction and characterization of pectin from apple pomace and its evaluation as lipase (steapsin) inhibitor. Carbohydr Polym, 82(2): 454-459.
  • Virk, B.S., Sogi, D.S. (2004). Extraction and characterization of pectin from apple (Malus pumila. cv amri) peel waste. Int J Food Prop, 7 (3): 693-703.
  • Madhav, A., Pushpalatha, P.B. (2002). Characterization of pectin extracted from different fruit wastes. Int J Trop Agric, 40: 53-55.
  • Ceylan, C., Severcan, F., Ozkul, A., Severcan, M., Bozoglu, F., Taheri, N. (2012). Biophysical and microbiological study of high hydrostatic pressure inactivation of Bovine Viral Diarrhea virus type 1 on serum. Vet Microbiol, 154: 266-271.
  • Movasaghi, Z., Rehman, S., Rehman, I. (2008). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of biological tissues. Appl Spectrosc Rev, 43: 134-179.
  • Maréchal, Y., Chanzy, H. (2000). The hydrogen bond network in Iβ cellulose as observed by infrared spectrometry. J Mol Struct, 523: 183-196.
  • Mohammed-Ziegler, I., Billes, F. (2002). Vibrational spectroscopic calculations on pyrogallol and gallic acid. J Mol Struct : THEOCHEM, 618: 259-265.
  • Schultz, H., Baranska, M. (2007). Identification and qualification of valuable plant substances by IR and Raman spectroscopy. Vib Spectrosc, 43: 13-25.
  • Shetty, G., Kedall, C., Shepherd, N., Stone, N., Barr, H. (2006). Raman spectroscopy: evaluation of biochemical changes in carcinogenesis of oesophagus. Br J Cancer, 94: 1460-1464.
  • Gnanasambandam, R., Proctor, A. (2000). Determination of pectin degree of esterification by diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Food Chem, 68: 327-332.

EXTRACTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PECTIN FROM FRESH GLOBE ARTICHOKE AND CANNED ARTICHOKE WASTE

Year 2017, Volume 42, Issue 5, 568 - 576, 25.07.2017

Abstract

The pectin contents of fresh globe artichoke (stem, receptacle, and bract) and waste of artichoke canning industry were investigated. The highest pectin amount was found in the stem part of fresh globe artichoke (6.42%) with the highest amount of anhydrogalacturonic acid (AGA) and anhydrouronic acid (AUA) content. The pectin yields of receptacle and bract parts were found to be 5.31 and 4.55%, respectively. The pectin yield from the industrial waste was the lowest, 4.43%. The highest ash content (5.65 %) along with the lowest anhydrouronic acid amount (73.28%) indicated the lowest purity for the industrial waste. The degrees of esterification for the pectin obtained from the stem, receptacle and bract parts were 55.26%, 52.26%, and 56.17%, respectively indicating the presence of high methyl-esterified (HM) pectin. The pectin from the industrial waste had the lowest degree of esterification (46.02%). The FTIR results indicated that acid processing affected the structural properties of pectin from the industrial waste with higher methoxyl content and esterification degree. 

References

  • May, C.D. (1990). Industrial Pectins: Sources, Production and Applications. Carbohydr Polym, 12: 79-99.
  • Thakur, B.R, Singh, R.K, Handa, A.K, Rao, M.A. (1997). Chemistry and uses of pectin - a review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr, 37(1): 47-73.
  • Lattanzio, V., Kroon, P.A., Linsalata, V., Cardinali, A. (2009). Globe artichoke: a functional food and source of nutraceutical ingredients. J Funct Foods, 1: 131-144.
  • Baker, R.A. (1997). Reassessment of some fruit and vegetable pectin levels. J Food Sci, 62: 225-229.
  • Elwell, W.E, Dehn, W.M. (1939). Pectic content of plant materials. Plant Physiol, 14 (4): 809-816.
  • Liu, S., Shi, X., Xu, L., Yi, Y. (2016). Optimization of pectin extraction and antioxidant activities from Jerusalem artichoke. Chin J Oceanol Limnol, 34(2): 372-381.
  • Khan, I.A., Abourashed, E.A. (2010). Leung's encyclopedia of common natural ingredients - used in food, drugs, and cosmetics. 3rd Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, 45-48 p.
  • Fratianni, F., Tucci, M., De Palma, M., Pepe, R., Nazzaro, F. (2007). Polyphenolic composition in different parts of some cultivars of globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus (L.) Fiori). Food Chem, 104: 1282-1286.
  • Orlovskaya, T.V, Luneva, I.L, Chelombit´ko, V.A. (2007). Carbohydrates from Cynara scolymus. Chem Nat Compd, 43 (1): 107-108.
  • Ranganna, S. (1986). Handbook of Analysis and Quality Control of Fruit and Vegetable Products. 2nd Edition, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Co Ltd., New Delhi, 31-65 p.
  • Attri, B.L., Maini, S.B. (1996). Pectin from galgal (Citrus pseudolimon Tan.) peel. Bioresour Technol, 55 (1): 89-91.
  • Kulkarni, S.G., Vijayanand, P. (2010). Effect of extraction conditions on the quality characteristics of pectin from passion fruit peel (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa L.). LWT- Food Sci Technol, 43(7): 1026-1031.
  • Pagán, J., Ibarz, A., Llorca, M., Pagán, A., Barbosa-Cánovas, G.V. (2001). Extraction and characterization of pectin from stored peach pomace. Food Res Int, 34(7): 605-612.
  • Phatak, L., Chang, K.C., Brown, G. (1988). Isolation and characterization of pectin in sugar-beet pulp. J Food Sci, 53(3): 830-833.
  • Seggiani, M., Puccini, M., Pierini, M., Giovando, S., Forneris, C. (2009). Effect of different extraction and precipitation methods on yield and quality of pectin. Int J Food Sci Technol, 44 (3): 574-580.
  • Kumar, A., Chauhan, G.S. (2010). Extraction and characterization of pectin from apple pomace and its evaluation as lipase (steapsin) inhibitor. Carbohydr Polym, 82(2): 454-459.
  • Virk, B.S., Sogi, D.S. (2004). Extraction and characterization of pectin from apple (Malus pumila. cv amri) peel waste. Int J Food Prop, 7 (3): 693-703.
  • Madhav, A., Pushpalatha, P.B. (2002). Characterization of pectin extracted from different fruit wastes. Int J Trop Agric, 40: 53-55.
  • Ceylan, C., Severcan, F., Ozkul, A., Severcan, M., Bozoglu, F., Taheri, N. (2012). Biophysical and microbiological study of high hydrostatic pressure inactivation of Bovine Viral Diarrhea virus type 1 on serum. Vet Microbiol, 154: 266-271.
  • Movasaghi, Z., Rehman, S., Rehman, I. (2008). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of biological tissues. Appl Spectrosc Rev, 43: 134-179.
  • Maréchal, Y., Chanzy, H. (2000). The hydrogen bond network in Iβ cellulose as observed by infrared spectrometry. J Mol Struct, 523: 183-196.
  • Mohammed-Ziegler, I., Billes, F. (2002). Vibrational spectroscopic calculations on pyrogallol and gallic acid. J Mol Struct : THEOCHEM, 618: 259-265.
  • Schultz, H., Baranska, M. (2007). Identification and qualification of valuable plant substances by IR and Raman spectroscopy. Vib Spectrosc, 43: 13-25.
  • Shetty, G., Kedall, C., Shepherd, N., Stone, N., Barr, H. (2006). Raman spectroscopy: evaluation of biochemical changes in carcinogenesis of oesophagus. Br J Cancer, 94: 1460-1464.
  • Gnanasambandam, R., Proctor, A. (2000). Determination of pectin degree of esterification by diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Food Chem, 68: 327-332.

Details

Journal Section Articles
Authors

Cagatay CEYLAN


Oguz BAYRAKTAR This is me


Erhan ATCİ This is me


Şahin SARRAFİ This is me

Publication Date July 25, 2017
Published in Issue Year 2017, Volume 42, Issue 5

Cite

Bibtex @research article { gida330665, journal = {Gıda}, issn = {1300-3070}, eissn = {1309-6273}, address = {}, publisher = {The Association of Food Technology}, year = {2017}, volume = {42}, number = {5}, pages = {568 - 576}, title = {PEKTİN KAYNAĞI OLARAK TAZE BÜTÜN ENGİNAR VE ENGİNAR KONSERVE ATIĞI}, key = {cite}, author = {Ceylan, Cagatay and Bayraktar, Oguz and Atci, Erhan and Sarrafi, Şahin} }
APA Ceylan, C. , Bayraktar, O. , Atci, E. & Sarrafi, Ş. (2017). PEKTİN KAYNAĞI OLARAK TAZE BÜTÜN ENGİNAR VE ENGİNAR KONSERVE ATIĞI . Gıda , 42 (5) , 568-576 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/gida/issue/29788/330665
MLA Ceylan, C. , Bayraktar, O. , Atci, E. , Sarrafi, Ş. "PEKTİN KAYNAĞI OLARAK TAZE BÜTÜN ENGİNAR VE ENGİNAR KONSERVE ATIĞI" . Gıda 42 (2017 ): 568-576 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/gida/issue/29788/330665>
Chicago Ceylan, C. , Bayraktar, O. , Atci, E. , Sarrafi, Ş. "PEKTİN KAYNAĞI OLARAK TAZE BÜTÜN ENGİNAR VE ENGİNAR KONSERVE ATIĞI". Gıda 42 (2017 ): 568-576
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - PEKTİN KAYNAĞI OLARAK TAZE BÜTÜN ENGİNAR VE ENGİNAR KONSERVE ATIĞI AU - Cagatay Ceylan , Oguz Bayraktar , Erhan Atci , Şahin Sarrafi Y1 - 2017 PY - 2017 N1 - DO - T2 - Gıda JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 568 EP - 576 VL - 42 IS - 5 SN - 1300-3070-1309-6273 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2017 ER -
EndNote %0 The Journal of Food PEKTİN KAYNAĞI OLARAK TAZE BÜTÜN ENGİNAR VE ENGİNAR KONSERVE ATIĞI %A Cagatay Ceylan , Oguz Bayraktar , Erhan Atci , Şahin Sarrafi %T PEKTİN KAYNAĞI OLARAK TAZE BÜTÜN ENGİNAR VE ENGİNAR KONSERVE ATIĞI %D 2017 %J Gıda %P 1300-3070-1309-6273 %V 42 %N 5 %R %U
ISNAD Ceylan, Cagatay , Bayraktar, Oguz , Atci, Erhan , Sarrafi, Şahin . "PEKTİN KAYNAĞI OLARAK TAZE BÜTÜN ENGİNAR VE ENGİNAR KONSERVE ATIĞI". Gıda 42 / 5 (July 2017): 568-576 .
AMA Ceylan C. , Bayraktar O. , Atci E. , Sarrafi Ş. PEKTİN KAYNAĞI OLARAK TAZE BÜTÜN ENGİNAR VE ENGİNAR KONSERVE ATIĞI. The Journal of Food. 2017; 42(5): 568-576.
Vancouver Ceylan C. , Bayraktar O. , Atci E. , Sarrafi Ş. PEKTİN KAYNAĞI OLARAK TAZE BÜTÜN ENGİNAR VE ENGİNAR KONSERVE ATIĞI. Gıda. 2017; 42(5): 568-576.
IEEE C. Ceylan , O. Bayraktar , E. Atci and Ş. Sarrafi , "PEKTİN KAYNAĞI OLARAK TAZE BÜTÜN ENGİNAR VE ENGİNAR KONSERVE ATIĞI", Gıda, vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 568-576, Jul. 2017