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SİYAH ÇAY ÜRETİM ATIKLARINDAN KONSANTRE ÇAY EKSTRAKTI ÜRETİMİNDE KREMA OLUŞUM KOŞULLARININ VE BİLEŞİMİNİN BELİRLENMESİ

Year 2021, Volume 46, Issue 2, 339 - 350, 23.03.2021
https://doi.org/10.15237/gida.GD20145

Abstract

Bu çalışmada, Türk siyah çayı işletme atıklardan konsantre çay ekstraktı üretimi gerçekleştirilmiş, üretim sırasında oluşan krema miktarı ve bileşimi ile son ürünün bazı özellikleri belirlenmiştir. Bu doğrultuda en uygun ekstraksiyon koşullarının belirlenmesi amacıyla üç farklı sıcaklık (75, 85 ve 95 ºC), 5 farklı süre (15, 30, 45, 69 ve 90 dakika) ve 2 farklı atık çay/su besleme oranında (1/15 ve 1/20) ekstraksiyonlar gerçekleştirilmiştir. Ekstraksiyon çalışmaları en uygun şartların 95 °C, 30 dakika ve 1/15 besleme oranı olduğunu göstermiş ve elde edilen ekstraktın suda çözünür kuru madde miktarı 1.8 °Bx, kafein miktarı 0.45 g/100 g ve bulanıklık 27.6 NTU olarak ölçülmüştür. Ön konsantre (15 °Bx) edilen ekstraktlarda 4 ˚C’de 12 saat sonunda en fazla miktarda (1.98 g/100 mL) çay kreması oluşumu gözlenmiş ve kremanın %15.88 kafein, %17.08 protein, %8.72 epigallokateşin, %5.89 epigallokateşin gallat, %5.38 kateşin gallat, %4.04 epikateşin gallat, %2.83 gallokateşin, %2.15 epikateşin ve %1.37 kateşinden oluştuğu görülmüştür.

References

  • Argyle, I.S., Bird, M.R., 2015. Microfiltration of high concentration black tea streams for haze removal using polymeric membranes. Desalination and Water Treatment 53, 1516-1531.
  • Balci, F., Özdemir, F., 2016. Influence of shooting period and extraction conditions on bioactive compounds in Turkish green tea. Food Science and Technology 36, 737-743.
  • Chandini, S.K., Rao, L.J., Subramanian, R., 2013. Membrane Clarification of Black Tea Extracts. Food and Bioprocess Technology 6, 1926-1943.
  • de Mejia, E.G., Ramirez-Mares, M.V., Puangpraphant, S., 2009. Bioactive components of tea: cancer, inflammation and behavior. Brain, behavior, and immunity 23, 721-731.
  • Dubey, K.K., Janve, M., Ray, A., Singhal, R.S., 2020. Ready-to-Drink Tea, Trends in Non-“ alcoholic Beverages. Elsevier, pp. 101-140.
  • Evans, P.J., Bird, M.R., 2010. The role of black tea feed conditions upon ultrafiltration performance during membrane fouling and cleaning. J Food Process Eng 33, 309-332.
  • Fatima, M., Rizvi, S.I., 2011. Health beneficial effects of black tea. Biomedicine 31, 3-8.
  • Gürü, M., Icen, H., 2004. Obtaining of caffeine from Turkish tea fiber and stalk wastes. Bioresource technology 94, 17-19.
  • Gürses, Ö.L. ve Artık, N. 1987. Çay Analiz Yöntemleri, Çaykur Yayını, No: 7, Çay İşletmeleri Genel Müdürlüğü, Ankara.
  • Jöbstl, E., Fairclough, J.P.A., Davies, A.P., Williamson, M.P., 2005. Creaming in Black Tea. J Agr Food Chem 53, 7997-8002.
  • Lin, X., Chen, Z., Zhang, Y., Luo, W., Tang, H., Deng, B., Deng, J., Li, B., 2015. Comparative characterisation of green tea and black tea cream: Physicochemical and phytochemical nature. Food Chem 173, 432-440.
  • Lun Su, Y., Leung, L.K., Huang, Y., Chen, Z.-Y., 2003. Stability of tea theaflavins and catechins. Food Chem 83, 189-195.
  • Pou, K.J., Paul, S.K., Malakar, S., 2019. Industrial Processing of CTC Black Tea, Caffeinated and Cocoa Based Beverages. Elsevier, pp. 131-162.
  • Sen, G., Sarkar, N., Nath, M., Maity, S., 2020. Bioactive components of tea. Arch Food Nutr Sci 4, 001-009.
  • Shalmashi, A., Abedi, M., Golmohammad, F., Eikani, M.H., 2010. Isolation of Caffeine From Tea Waste Using Subcritical Water Extraction. J Food Process Eng 33, 701-711.
  • Tajchakavit, S., Boye, J.I., Couture, R., 2001. Effect of processing on post-bottling haze formation in apple juice. Food Research International 34, 415-424.
  • Torun, M., Dincer, C., Topuz, A., Sahin–Nadeem, H., Ozdemir, F., 2015. Aqueous extraction kinetics of soluble solids, phenolics and flavonoids from sage (Salvia fruticosa Miller) leaves. J Food Sci Technol 52, 2797-2805.
  • Wang, H., Helliwell, K., 2000. Epimerisation of catechins in green tea infusions. Food Chem 70, 337-344.
  • Xu, Y.-Q., Chen, S.-Q., Yuan, H.-B., Tang, P., Yin, J.-F., 2012. Analysis of cream formation in green tea concentrates with different solid concentrations. J Food Sci Technol 49, 362-367.
  • Yılmaz, C., Özdemir, F., Gökmen, V., 2020. Investigation of free amino acids, bioactive and neuroactive compounds in different types of tea and effect of black tea processing. LWT 117, 108655.
  • Yin, J.-F., Xu, Y.-Q., Yuan, H.-B., Luo, L.-X., Qian, X.-J., 2009. Cream formation and main chemical components of green tea infusions processed from different parts of new shoots. Food Chem 114, 665-670.
  • Zhu, B., Chen, L.-B., Lu, M., Zhang, J., Han, J., Deng, W.-W., Zhang, Z.-Z., 2019. Caffeine Content and Related Gene Expression: Novel Insight into Caffeine Metabolism in Camellia Plants Containing Low, Normal, and High Caffeine Concentrations. J Agr Food Chem 67, 3400-3411.

DETERMINATION OF CREAM FORMATION CONDITIONS AND ITS COMPOSITION DURING PRODUCTION OF CONCENTRATED TEA EXTRACT FROM BLACK TEA MANUFACTURING WASTES

Year 2021, Volume 46, Issue 2, 339 - 350, 23.03.2021
https://doi.org/10.15237/gida.GD20145

Abstract

In this study, concentrated tea extract was obtained from Turkish black tea manufacturing wastes, the amount and composition of cream formed during production and also some properties of the concentrated product were determined. Accordingly, in order to determine the best extraction conditions, the treatments were carried out at three different temperatures (75, 85 and 95 ºC), five different time (15, 30, 45, 69 and 90 minutes) and two different waste tea/water feeding ratios (1/15 and 1/20). Extraction experiments showed that the best conditions were 95 ° C for 30 minutes in 1/15 ratio and the water soluble dry matter content of the obtained extract was measured as 1.8 ° Bx, caffeine amount and turbidity value were 0.45 g/100 g and 27.6 NTU, respectively. The highest amount (1.98 g/100 mL) of tea cream formation was observed after 12 hours at 4 °C in the pre-concentrated (15°-Bx) extracts, the cream consisted of 15.88% caffeine, 17.08% protein, 8.72% epigallocatechin, 5.89% epigallocatechin gallate, 5.38% catechin gallate, 4.04% epicatechin gallate, 2.83% gallocatechin, 2.15% epicatechin and 1.37% catechin.

References

  • Argyle, I.S., Bird, M.R., 2015. Microfiltration of high concentration black tea streams for haze removal using polymeric membranes. Desalination and Water Treatment 53, 1516-1531.
  • Balci, F., Özdemir, F., 2016. Influence of shooting period and extraction conditions on bioactive compounds in Turkish green tea. Food Science and Technology 36, 737-743.
  • Chandini, S.K., Rao, L.J., Subramanian, R., 2013. Membrane Clarification of Black Tea Extracts. Food and Bioprocess Technology 6, 1926-1943.
  • de Mejia, E.G., Ramirez-Mares, M.V., Puangpraphant, S., 2009. Bioactive components of tea: cancer, inflammation and behavior. Brain, behavior, and immunity 23, 721-731.
  • Dubey, K.K., Janve, M., Ray, A., Singhal, R.S., 2020. Ready-to-Drink Tea, Trends in Non-“ alcoholic Beverages. Elsevier, pp. 101-140.
  • Evans, P.J., Bird, M.R., 2010. The role of black tea feed conditions upon ultrafiltration performance during membrane fouling and cleaning. J Food Process Eng 33, 309-332.
  • Fatima, M., Rizvi, S.I., 2011. Health beneficial effects of black tea. Biomedicine 31, 3-8.
  • Gürü, M., Icen, H., 2004. Obtaining of caffeine from Turkish tea fiber and stalk wastes. Bioresource technology 94, 17-19.
  • Gürses, Ö.L. ve Artık, N. 1987. Çay Analiz Yöntemleri, Çaykur Yayını, No: 7, Çay İşletmeleri Genel Müdürlüğü, Ankara.
  • Jöbstl, E., Fairclough, J.P.A., Davies, A.P., Williamson, M.P., 2005. Creaming in Black Tea. J Agr Food Chem 53, 7997-8002.
  • Lin, X., Chen, Z., Zhang, Y., Luo, W., Tang, H., Deng, B., Deng, J., Li, B., 2015. Comparative characterisation of green tea and black tea cream: Physicochemical and phytochemical nature. Food Chem 173, 432-440.
  • Lun Su, Y., Leung, L.K., Huang, Y., Chen, Z.-Y., 2003. Stability of tea theaflavins and catechins. Food Chem 83, 189-195.
  • Pou, K.J., Paul, S.K., Malakar, S., 2019. Industrial Processing of CTC Black Tea, Caffeinated and Cocoa Based Beverages. Elsevier, pp. 131-162.
  • Sen, G., Sarkar, N., Nath, M., Maity, S., 2020. Bioactive components of tea. Arch Food Nutr Sci 4, 001-009.
  • Shalmashi, A., Abedi, M., Golmohammad, F., Eikani, M.H., 2010. Isolation of Caffeine From Tea Waste Using Subcritical Water Extraction. J Food Process Eng 33, 701-711.
  • Tajchakavit, S., Boye, J.I., Couture, R., 2001. Effect of processing on post-bottling haze formation in apple juice. Food Research International 34, 415-424.
  • Torun, M., Dincer, C., Topuz, A., Sahin–Nadeem, H., Ozdemir, F., 2015. Aqueous extraction kinetics of soluble solids, phenolics and flavonoids from sage (Salvia fruticosa Miller) leaves. J Food Sci Technol 52, 2797-2805.
  • Wang, H., Helliwell, K., 2000. Epimerisation of catechins in green tea infusions. Food Chem 70, 337-344.
  • Xu, Y.-Q., Chen, S.-Q., Yuan, H.-B., Tang, P., Yin, J.-F., 2012. Analysis of cream formation in green tea concentrates with different solid concentrations. J Food Sci Technol 49, 362-367.
  • Yılmaz, C., Özdemir, F., Gökmen, V., 2020. Investigation of free amino acids, bioactive and neuroactive compounds in different types of tea and effect of black tea processing. LWT 117, 108655.
  • Yin, J.-F., Xu, Y.-Q., Yuan, H.-B., Luo, L.-X., Qian, X.-J., 2009. Cream formation and main chemical components of green tea infusions processed from different parts of new shoots. Food Chem 114, 665-670.
  • Zhu, B., Chen, L.-B., Lu, M., Zhang, J., Han, J., Deng, W.-W., Zhang, Z.-Z., 2019. Caffeine Content and Related Gene Expression: Novel Insight into Caffeine Metabolism in Camellia Plants Containing Low, Normal, and High Caffeine Concentrations. J Agr Food Chem 67, 3400-3411.

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Food Science and Technology
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Ferhan BALCI TORUN>
Akdeniz Üniversitesi
0000-0002-8972-1087
Türkiye


Kübra Sultan ÖZDEMİR>
Konya, Gıda ve Tarım Üniversitesi
0000-0002-7428-1840
Türkiye


Rukiye MAVUŞ>
GEMAK Gıda Endüstri Makinaları ve Tic. A.Ş.
0000-0002-6423-8561
Türkiye


Mehmet TORUN> (Primary Author)
AKDENİZ ÜNİVERSİTESİ, MÜHENDİSLİK FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0002-6287-2993
Türkiye

Publication Date March 23, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 46, Issue 2

Cite

Bibtex @research article { gida849955, journal = {Gıda}, issn = {1300-3070}, eissn = {1309-6273}, address = {}, publisher = {The Association of Food Technology}, year = {2021}, volume = {46}, number = {2}, pages = {339 - 350}, doi = {10.15237/gida.GD20145}, title = {SİYAH ÇAY ÜRETİM ATIKLARINDAN KONSANTRE ÇAY EKSTRAKTI ÜRETİMİNDE KREMA OLUŞUM KOŞULLARININ VE BİLEŞİMİNİN BELİRLENMESİ}, key = {cite}, author = {Balcı Torun, Ferhan and Özdemir, Kübra Sultan and Mavuş, Rukiye and Torun, Mehmet} }
APA Balcı Torun, F. , Özdemir, K. S. , Mavuş, R. & Torun, M. (2021). SİYAH ÇAY ÜRETİM ATIKLARINDAN KONSANTRE ÇAY EKSTRAKTI ÜRETİMİNDE KREMA OLUŞUM KOŞULLARININ VE BİLEŞİMİNİN BELİRLENMESİ . Gıda , 46 (2) , 339-350 . DOI: 10.15237/gida.GD20145
MLA Balcı Torun, F. , Özdemir, K. S. , Mavuş, R. , Torun, M. "SİYAH ÇAY ÜRETİM ATIKLARINDAN KONSANTRE ÇAY EKSTRAKTI ÜRETİMİNDE KREMA OLUŞUM KOŞULLARININ VE BİLEŞİMİNİN BELİRLENMESİ" . Gıda 46 (2021 ): 339-350 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/gida/issue/59865/849955>
Chicago Balcı Torun, F. , Özdemir, K. S. , Mavuş, R. , Torun, M. "SİYAH ÇAY ÜRETİM ATIKLARINDAN KONSANTRE ÇAY EKSTRAKTI ÜRETİMİNDE KREMA OLUŞUM KOŞULLARININ VE BİLEŞİMİNİN BELİRLENMESİ". Gıda 46 (2021 ): 339-350
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - DETERMINATION OF CREAM FORMATION CONDITIONS AND ITS COMPOSITION DURING PRODUCTION OF CONCENTRATED TEA EXTRACT FROM BLACK TEA MANUFACTURING WASTES AU - FerhanBalcı Torun, Kübra SultanÖzdemir, RukiyeMavuş, MehmetTorun Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - doi: 10.15237/gida.GD20145 DO - 10.15237/gida.GD20145 T2 - Gıda JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 339 EP - 350 VL - 46 IS - 2 SN - 1300-3070-1309-6273 M3 - doi: 10.15237/gida.GD20145 UR - https://doi.org/10.15237/gida.GD20145 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 The Journal of Food SİYAH ÇAY ÜRETİM ATIKLARINDAN KONSANTRE ÇAY EKSTRAKTI ÜRETİMİNDE KREMA OLUŞUM KOŞULLARININ VE BİLEŞİMİNİN BELİRLENMESİ %A Ferhan Balcı Torun , Kübra Sultan Özdemir , Rukiye Mavuş , Mehmet Torun %T SİYAH ÇAY ÜRETİM ATIKLARINDAN KONSANTRE ÇAY EKSTRAKTI ÜRETİMİNDE KREMA OLUŞUM KOŞULLARININ VE BİLEŞİMİNİN BELİRLENMESİ %D 2021 %J Gıda %P 1300-3070-1309-6273 %V 46 %N 2 %R doi: 10.15237/gida.GD20145 %U 10.15237/gida.GD20145
ISNAD Balcı Torun, Ferhan , Özdemir, Kübra Sultan , Mavuş, Rukiye , Torun, Mehmet . "SİYAH ÇAY ÜRETİM ATIKLARINDAN KONSANTRE ÇAY EKSTRAKTI ÜRETİMİNDE KREMA OLUŞUM KOŞULLARININ VE BİLEŞİMİNİN BELİRLENMESİ". Gıda 46 / 2 (March 2021): 339-350 . https://doi.org/10.15237/gida.GD20145
AMA Balcı Torun F. , Özdemir K. S. , Mavuş R. , Torun M. SİYAH ÇAY ÜRETİM ATIKLARINDAN KONSANTRE ÇAY EKSTRAKTI ÜRETİMİNDE KREMA OLUŞUM KOŞULLARININ VE BİLEŞİMİNİN BELİRLENMESİ. The Journal of Food. 2021; 46(2): 339-350.
Vancouver Balcı Torun F. , Özdemir K. S. , Mavuş R. , Torun M. SİYAH ÇAY ÜRETİM ATIKLARINDAN KONSANTRE ÇAY EKSTRAKTI ÜRETİMİNDE KREMA OLUŞUM KOŞULLARININ VE BİLEŞİMİNİN BELİRLENMESİ. Gıda. 2021; 46(2): 339-350.
IEEE F. Balcı Torun , K. S. Özdemir , R. Mavuş and M. Torun , "SİYAH ÇAY ÜRETİM ATIKLARINDAN KONSANTRE ÇAY EKSTRAKTI ÜRETİMİNDE KREMA OLUŞUM KOŞULLARININ VE BİLEŞİMİNİN BELİRLENMESİ", Gıda, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 339-350, Mar. 2021, doi:10.15237/gida.GD20145

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