Araştırma Makalesi
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Yıl 2019, Cilt 3, Sayı 4, 579 - 596, 31.12.2019
https://doi.org/10.32958/gastoria.575092

Öz

Kaynakça

  • Alvarez, M. D., & Campo, S. (2014). The influence of political conflicts on country image and intention to visit: A study of Israel's image. Tourism Management, 40, 70-78.Anholt, S. (2003). Brand new justice (1st ed.). Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.Anholt, S. (2005). Anholt nation brands index: how does the world see America?. Journal of Advertising Research, 45(3), 296-304.Anholt, S. (2016). Places: Identity, image and reputation. Springer.Olins, W. (2004). “On brand”. London: Thames & Hudson.Balakrishnan, M. (2008). Dubai–A star in the east: A case study in strategic destination branding. Journal of Place management and Development, 1(1), 62-91.Chen, C. A., Lee, H. L., Lee, M. H., & Yang, Y. H. (2011). How to develop Taiwan's tourism nation brand. African Journal of Business Management, 5(16), 6764.D'Astous, A., & Boujbel, L. (2007). Positioning countries on personality dimensions: Scale development and implications for country marketing. Journal Of Business Research, 60(3), 231-239.Davidson, H. (2006). How has place branding developed during the year that place branding has been in publication?. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 2(1), 6-17.De Chernatony, L. (2010). From brand vision to brand evaluation (1st ed.). Amsterdam: Butterworth-Heinemann.Demirbag Kaplan, M., Yurt, O., Guneri, B., & Kurtulus, K. (2010). Branding places: applying brand personality concept to cities. European Journal of Marketing, 44(9/10), 1286-1304.Dinnie, K. (2008). “Nation branding: Concepts, issues, practice”. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.Fan, Y. (2006). Branding the nation: What is being branded?. Journal Of Vacation Marketing, 12(1), 5-14.Fetscherin, M. (2010). The determinants and measurement of a country brand: the country brand strength index. International Marketing Review, 27(4), 466- 479.Future Brand (2015). Country Brand Index. Disponible en: http://www.futurebrand.com/cbi/2014.Giannopoulos, A. A., Piha, L. P., & Avlonitis, G. J. (2011, March). Destination branding": what for? From the notions of tourism and nation branding to an integrated framework. In Berlin International Economics Congress, Berlin, Germany (March 15).Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., & Babin, B. J. (2010). Anderson. RE, 2010. Multivariate Data Analysis. New Jersey, Pearson Prentice Hall.Hankinson, G. (2004). Relational network brands: Towards a conceptual model of place brands. Journal Of Vacation Marketing, 10(2), 109-121.Harris, F., & de Chernatony, L. (2001). Corporate branding and corporate brand performance. European Journal Of Marketing, 35(3/4), 441-456.Hatch, M., & Schultz, M. (2003). Bringing the corporation into corporate branding. European Journal Of Marketing, 37(7/8), 1041-1064.Hudson, S., & Ritchie, J. (2009). Branding a memorable destination experience. The case of ‘Brand Canada’. International Journal Of Tourism Research, 11(2), 217-228.Iversen, N., & Hem, L. (2008). Provenance associations as core values of place umbrella brands. European Journal Of Marketing, 42(5/6), 603-626.Juarez, L. (2017). Marca-turismo-país: escala de medida de la marca-país como destino turístico en el segmento de turista jóvenes. Universidad Europea de Madrid.Kavaratzis, M. (2005). Place Branding: A Review of Trends and Conceptual Models. The Marketing Review, 5(4), 329-342.Kerr, G. (2006). From destination brand to location brand. Journal of Brand Management, 13 (4-5), 276-283.Kladou, S., A. Giannopoulos, A., & Assiouras, I. (2014). Matching tourism type and destination image perceptions in a country context. Journal Of Place Management And Development, 7(2), 141-152.Loo, T., & Davies, G. (2006). Branding China: The Ultimate Challenge in Reputation Management?. Corporate Reputation Review, 9(3), 198-210.Maheswaran, D., & Chen, C. (2006). Nation Equity: Incidental Emotions in Country-of-Origin Effects. Journal of Consumer Research, 33(3), 370-376.Mahika, C., Bran, F., & ȚIGU, G. (2014). Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index--Regional Empirical Analysis For Romania. Quality-Access to Success, 15.Ng, E. S., & McGinnis Johnson, J. (2015). Millennials: Who are they, how are they different, and why should we care. The multigenerational workforce: Challenges and opportunities for organisations, 121-137.O’Shaughnessy, J., & O’Shaughnessy, N. (2000). Treating the Nation as a Brand: Some Neglected Issues. Journal Of Macromarketing, 20(1), 56-64.Olins, W. (2002). Branding the nation—The historical context. Journal of brand management, 9(4), 241-248.Ozretic-Dosen, D., Previsic, J., Krupka, Z., Skare, V., & Komarac, T. (2018). The role of familiarity in the assessment of Turkey’s country/destination image: going beyond soap operas. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, 12(3), 277-291.Papadopoulos, N., & Heslop, L. (2002). Country equity and country branding: Problems and prospects. Journal Of Brand Management, 9(4), 294-314.Pavel, C., & Baltaretu, A. M. (2015). Romania's Tourism Brand-A Controversial Story. Calitatea, 16 (S3), 116.Polishko, G. G. (2015). Nation branding and its stakeholders: analysis of European and Ukrainian approaches. Вісник Дніпропетровського університету. Серія: Світове господарство і міжнародні економічні відносини, (23, Вип. 7), 73.Rojas-Méndez, J. (2013a). The nation brand molecule. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 22(7), 462-472. Rojas-Méndez, J., Murphy, S., & Papadopoulos, N. (2013b). The U.S. brand personality: A Sino perspective. Journal Of Business Research, 66(8), 1028- 1034.Rouse, S. M., & Ross, A. D. (2018). The Politics of Millennials: Political Beliefs and Policy Preferences of America's Most Diverse Generation. University of Michigan Press.Shimp, T., Samiee, S., & Madden, T. (1993). Countries and their products: A cognitive structure perspective. Journal Of The Academy Of Marketing Science, 21(4), 323-330.Stokburger-Sauer, N. (2011). The relevance of visitors’ nation brand embeddedness and personality congruence for nation brand identification, visit intentions and advocacy. Tourism Management, 32(6), 1282-1289.Şentürk, T., & Kartal, B. (2018). Tutum Teorisi Açısından Ülke İmajı, Ürün İmajı ve Tüketici Satın Alma Niyeti. Journal of Management & Economics, 25(3).Trueman, M., Klemm, M., & Giroud, A. (2004). Can a city communicate? Bradford as a corporate brand. Corporate Communications: An International Journal, 9(4), 317-330.UNTWO (2016). Global Report on The Power of Youth Travel. WTO & WISE Travel Confederation.UNTWO (2018): Panorama OMT del Turismo Internacional. WTO.

Drivers to Build A Powerful Country Tourism Brand: An Empirical Study On Millenials Segment

Yıl 2019, Cilt 3, Sayı 4, 579 - 596, 31.12.2019
https://doi.org/10.32958/gastoria.575092

Öz

There is a wide academic literature that deals with the term Country Brand, but nevertheless, it has not been sufficiently studied the country as a powerful tourism brand. The importance of the tourism industry for many countries is indisputable, which leads to generating a brand identity of a specific tourist destination: the country. The present study is conducted among 465 millenials placed at Spain which are a very interesting segment due to their principal motivations are travelling and also are the near future decisions makers (Ng & McGinnis, 2015). The empirical research has been conducted in Spain and it will be replicated in Turkish soon. The goal of this work is to find out the main drivers that allow build a powerful tourism country brand in the millennial segment.
The stadistical analysis is conducted with Principal Components Factor Analysis Method (SPSS vs22), that permit to discover the main underlying drivers. 11 main underlying factors, than explain more than 65% of the total explained variance, are found with a good adjustment. This factors represents the main drivers to build a strong tourism brand country. Although the univariate analysis carried out concludes that a key factor when evaluating a country like a tourism destination is security and safety, the factorial analysis reveals that the underlying driver that explains the greater percentage of the variance (16.65%) is the economic strength of the country, among others factors. The main limitation of this study is that it is based on a sample of millenials placed in Spain, we can apply this study to other segments of population in other countries.

Discover the main factors in the evaluation of millennials about a country as a tourist destination allow to detect the most important drivers that determine the decision to travel to a country on the millennial segment and, therefore, can help to build a powerful tourism brand country. The main originality of this work is to develop the concept of country-brand as a tourist destination and apply it to the millennial segment.

Kaynakça

  • Alvarez, M. D., & Campo, S. (2014). The influence of political conflicts on country image and intention to visit: A study of Israel's image. Tourism Management, 40, 70-78.Anholt, S. (2003). Brand new justice (1st ed.). Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.Anholt, S. (2005). Anholt nation brands index: how does the world see America?. Journal of Advertising Research, 45(3), 296-304.Anholt, S. (2016). Places: Identity, image and reputation. Springer.Olins, W. (2004). “On brand”. London: Thames & Hudson.Balakrishnan, M. (2008). Dubai–A star in the east: A case study in strategic destination branding. Journal of Place management and Development, 1(1), 62-91.Chen, C. A., Lee, H. L., Lee, M. H., & Yang, Y. H. (2011). How to develop Taiwan's tourism nation brand. African Journal of Business Management, 5(16), 6764.D'Astous, A., & Boujbel, L. (2007). Positioning countries on personality dimensions: Scale development and implications for country marketing. Journal Of Business Research, 60(3), 231-239.Davidson, H. (2006). How has place branding developed during the year that place branding has been in publication?. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 2(1), 6-17.De Chernatony, L. (2010). From brand vision to brand evaluation (1st ed.). Amsterdam: Butterworth-Heinemann.Demirbag Kaplan, M., Yurt, O., Guneri, B., & Kurtulus, K. (2010). Branding places: applying brand personality concept to cities. European Journal of Marketing, 44(9/10), 1286-1304.Dinnie, K. (2008). “Nation branding: Concepts, issues, practice”. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.Fan, Y. (2006). Branding the nation: What is being branded?. Journal Of Vacation Marketing, 12(1), 5-14.Fetscherin, M. (2010). The determinants and measurement of a country brand: the country brand strength index. International Marketing Review, 27(4), 466- 479.Future Brand (2015). Country Brand Index. Disponible en: http://www.futurebrand.com/cbi/2014.Giannopoulos, A. A., Piha, L. P., & Avlonitis, G. J. (2011, March). Destination branding": what for? From the notions of tourism and nation branding to an integrated framework. In Berlin International Economics Congress, Berlin, Germany (March 15).Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., & Babin, B. J. (2010). Anderson. RE, 2010. Multivariate Data Analysis. New Jersey, Pearson Prentice Hall.Hankinson, G. (2004). Relational network brands: Towards a conceptual model of place brands. Journal Of Vacation Marketing, 10(2), 109-121.Harris, F., & de Chernatony, L. (2001). Corporate branding and corporate brand performance. European Journal Of Marketing, 35(3/4), 441-456.Hatch, M., & Schultz, M. (2003). Bringing the corporation into corporate branding. European Journal Of Marketing, 37(7/8), 1041-1064.Hudson, S., & Ritchie, J. (2009). Branding a memorable destination experience. The case of ‘Brand Canada’. International Journal Of Tourism Research, 11(2), 217-228.Iversen, N., & Hem, L. (2008). Provenance associations as core values of place umbrella brands. European Journal Of Marketing, 42(5/6), 603-626.Juarez, L. (2017). Marca-turismo-país: escala de medida de la marca-país como destino turístico en el segmento de turista jóvenes. Universidad Europea de Madrid.Kavaratzis, M. (2005). Place Branding: A Review of Trends and Conceptual Models. The Marketing Review, 5(4), 329-342.Kerr, G. (2006). From destination brand to location brand. Journal of Brand Management, 13 (4-5), 276-283.Kladou, S., A. Giannopoulos, A., & Assiouras, I. (2014). Matching tourism type and destination image perceptions in a country context. Journal Of Place Management And Development, 7(2), 141-152.Loo, T., & Davies, G. (2006). Branding China: The Ultimate Challenge in Reputation Management?. Corporate Reputation Review, 9(3), 198-210.Maheswaran, D., & Chen, C. (2006). Nation Equity: Incidental Emotions in Country-of-Origin Effects. Journal of Consumer Research, 33(3), 370-376.Mahika, C., Bran, F., & ȚIGU, G. (2014). Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index--Regional Empirical Analysis For Romania. Quality-Access to Success, 15.Ng, E. S., & McGinnis Johnson, J. (2015). Millennials: Who are they, how are they different, and why should we care. The multigenerational workforce: Challenges and opportunities for organisations, 121-137.O’Shaughnessy, J., & O’Shaughnessy, N. (2000). Treating the Nation as a Brand: Some Neglected Issues. Journal Of Macromarketing, 20(1), 56-64.Olins, W. (2002). Branding the nation—The historical context. Journal of brand management, 9(4), 241-248.Ozretic-Dosen, D., Previsic, J., Krupka, Z., Skare, V., & Komarac, T. (2018). The role of familiarity in the assessment of Turkey’s country/destination image: going beyond soap operas. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, 12(3), 277-291.Papadopoulos, N., & Heslop, L. (2002). Country equity and country branding: Problems and prospects. Journal Of Brand Management, 9(4), 294-314.Pavel, C., & Baltaretu, A. M. (2015). Romania's Tourism Brand-A Controversial Story. Calitatea, 16 (S3), 116.Polishko, G. G. (2015). Nation branding and its stakeholders: analysis of European and Ukrainian approaches. Вісник Дніпропетровського університету. Серія: Світове господарство і міжнародні економічні відносини, (23, Вип. 7), 73.Rojas-Méndez, J. (2013a). The nation brand molecule. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 22(7), 462-472. Rojas-Méndez, J., Murphy, S., & Papadopoulos, N. (2013b). The U.S. brand personality: A Sino perspective. Journal Of Business Research, 66(8), 1028- 1034.Rouse, S. M., & Ross, A. D. (2018). The Politics of Millennials: Political Beliefs and Policy Preferences of America's Most Diverse Generation. University of Michigan Press.Shimp, T., Samiee, S., & Madden, T. (1993). Countries and their products: A cognitive structure perspective. Journal Of The Academy Of Marketing Science, 21(4), 323-330.Stokburger-Sauer, N. (2011). The relevance of visitors’ nation brand embeddedness and personality congruence for nation brand identification, visit intentions and advocacy. Tourism Management, 32(6), 1282-1289.Şentürk, T., & Kartal, B. (2018). Tutum Teorisi Açısından Ülke İmajı, Ürün İmajı ve Tüketici Satın Alma Niyeti. Journal of Management & Economics, 25(3).Trueman, M., Klemm, M., & Giroud, A. (2004). Can a city communicate? Bradford as a corporate brand. Corporate Communications: An International Journal, 9(4), 317-330.UNTWO (2016). Global Report on The Power of Youth Travel. WTO & WISE Travel Confederation.UNTWO (2018): Panorama OMT del Turismo Internacional. WTO.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Laura JUÁREZ Bu kişi benim (Sorumlu Yazar)
European University of Madrid
0000-0001-8358-7983
Spain


Abdullah USLU>
Akdeniz University
0000-0002-3660-7096
Türkiye


Maria-francisca BLASCO Bu kişi benim
Complutense University
0000-0002-6660-3571
Spain

Yayımlanma Tarihi 31 Aralık 2019
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2019, Cilt 3, Sayı 4

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { gastoria575092, journal = {Gastroia: Journal of Gastronomy And Travel Research}, issn = {2602-4144}, address = {}, publisher = {Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart Üniversitesi}, year = {2019}, volume = {3}, number = {4}, pages = {579 - 596}, doi = {10.32958/gastoria.575092}, title = {Drivers to Build A Powerful Country Tourism Brand: An Empirical Study On Millenials Segment}, key = {cite}, author = {Juárez, Laura and Uslu, Abdullah and Blasco, Maria-francisca} }
APA Juárez, L. , Uslu, A. & Blasco, M. (2019). Drivers to Build A Powerful Country Tourism Brand: An Empirical Study On Millenials Segment . Gastroia: Journal of Gastronomy And Travel Research , IV. ULUSLARARASI DOĞU AKDENİZ TURİZM SEMPOZYUMU ÖZEL SAYISI , 579-596 . DOI: 10.32958/gastoria.575092
MLA Juárez, L. , Uslu, A. , Blasco, M. "Drivers to Build A Powerful Country Tourism Brand: An Empirical Study On Millenials Segment" . Gastroia: Journal of Gastronomy And Travel Research 3 (2019 ): 579-596 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/gastoria/issue/51504/575092>
Chicago Juárez, L. , Uslu, A. , Blasco, M. "Drivers to Build A Powerful Country Tourism Brand: An Empirical Study On Millenials Segment". Gastroia: Journal of Gastronomy And Travel Research 3 (2019 ): 579-596
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Drivers to Build A Powerful Country Tourism Brand: An Empirical Study On Millenials Segment AU - LauraJuárez, AbdullahUslu, Maria-franciscaBlasco Y1 - 2019 PY - 2019 N1 - doi: 10.32958/gastoria.575092 DO - 10.32958/gastoria.575092 T2 - Gastroia: Journal of Gastronomy And Travel Research JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 579 EP - 596 VL - 3 IS - 4 SN - 2602-4144- M3 - doi: 10.32958/gastoria.575092 UR - https://doi.org/10.32958/gastoria.575092 Y2 - 2019 ER -
EndNote %0 Gastroia: Journal of Gastronomy And Travel Research Drivers to Build A Powerful Country Tourism Brand: An Empirical Study On Millenials Segment %A Laura Juárez , Abdullah Uslu , Maria-francisca Blasco %T Drivers to Build A Powerful Country Tourism Brand: An Empirical Study On Millenials Segment %D 2019 %J Gastroia: Journal of Gastronomy And Travel Research %P 2602-4144- %V 3 %N 4 %R doi: 10.32958/gastoria.575092 %U 10.32958/gastoria.575092
ISNAD Juárez, Laura , Uslu, Abdullah , Blasco, Maria-francisca . "Drivers to Build A Powerful Country Tourism Brand: An Empirical Study On Millenials Segment". Gastroia: Journal of Gastronomy And Travel Research 3 / 4 (Aralık 2019): 579-596 . https://doi.org/10.32958/gastoria.575092
AMA Juárez L. , Uslu A. , Blasco M. Drivers to Build A Powerful Country Tourism Brand: An Empirical Study On Millenials Segment. Gastroia: Journal of Gastronomy And Travel Research. 2019; 3(4): 579-596.
Vancouver Juárez L. , Uslu A. , Blasco M. Drivers to Build A Powerful Country Tourism Brand: An Empirical Study On Millenials Segment. Gastroia: Journal of Gastronomy And Travel Research. 2019; 3(4): 579-596.
IEEE L. Juárez , A. Uslu ve M. Blasco , "Drivers to Build A Powerful Country Tourism Brand: An Empirical Study On Millenials Segment", Gastroia: Journal of Gastronomy And Travel Research, c. 3, sayı. 4, ss. 579-596, Ara. 2019, doi:10.32958/gastoria.575092