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THE IMPORTANCE OF SOMATIC CELLS AND THEIR ENDOGENOUS ENZYMES IN DAIRY TECHNOLOGY

Yıl 2017, Cilt 42, Sayı 6, 763 - 772, 15.12.2017

Öz

Somatic cells, which are predominant cell type in raw milk, consist of four main types as macrophages, polymorphonuclear neutrophils cells, leucocytes, and epithelial cells. Somatic cell count in milk is used as an indicator for mammary health and milk quality. High somatic cell count in milk is considered as a negative factor for some dairy products like yoghurt and cheese, so can reduce the quality of the end-product. But in recent years, it has been shown that they have positive effects on the technological properties of dairy products especially cheese and improve the final product quality by their endogenous enzymes. Cathepsin B, D, and G, and elastase are important somatic cell derived proteases that exhibit activity against casein.  The activities of these enzymes increase due to the increase in the number of somatic cells. Some isolation and concentration methods have been developed in order to investigate the effects of somatic cells and their endogenous enzymes on dairy products independent from mastitis factors. It has been determined that somatic cells added to the milk obtained from healthy animals did not affect technological parameters negatively in cheese and increase proteolysis via their endogenous enzymes.

Kaynakça

  • Albenzio, M., Caroprese, M., Santillo, A., Marino, R., Taibi, L., Sevi, A. (2004). Effects of somatic cell count and stage of lactation on the plasmin activity and cheese making properties of ewe milk. J Dairy Sci, 87(3): 533-542, doi: 103168/jds.S0022-0302(04)73194-X
  • Albenzio, M., Santillo, A., Caroprese, M., D’Angelo F., Marino, R., Sevi, A. (2009). Role of endogenous enzymes in proteolysis of sheep milk. J Dairy Sci, 92(1): 79–86, doi: 10.3168/jds.2008-1439.
  • Albenzio, M., Santillo, A., Caroprese, M., Ruggieri, D., Ciliberti, M., Sevi, A. (2012). Immune competence of the mammary gland as affected by somatic cell and pathogenic bacteria in ewes with subclinical mastitis. J Dairy Sci, 95(7): 3877-3887. doi: 10.3168/jds.2012-5357.
  • Albenzio, M., Santillo, A., Kelly, A.L., Caroprese, M., Marino, R., Sevi, A. (2015). Activities of indigenous proteolytic enzymes in caprine milk of different somatic cell counts. J Dairy Sci, 98: 7587-7594, doi: 10.3168/jds.2015-9762.
  • Bobbo, T., Cipolat-Gotet, C., Bitante, G., Ceccihinato, A. (2015). The nonlinear effect of somatic cell count on milk composition, coagulation properties, curd firmness modeling, cheese yield and curd nutrient recovery. J Dairy Sci, 99(7): 5104-5119, doi: 10.3168/jds.2015-10512.
  • Boland, F., O’Grady, L., More, S.J. (2013). Investigating a dilution effect between somatic cell count and milk yield and estimating milk production losses in Irish Dairy Cattle. J Dairy Sci, 96(3): 1477-1484. doi: 10.3168/jds.2012-6025.
  • Bonfatti, V., Tuzzato, M., Chiarot, G., Carnier, P. (2014). Variation in milk coagulation properties does not effect cheese yield and composition of model cheese. Int Dairy J, 39(1): 139-145. doi: 10.1016/j.idairyj.2014.06.004.
  • Caroprese, M., Marzano, A., Schena, L., Marino, R., Santillo, A., Albenzio, M. (2007). Contribution of macrophages to proteolysis and plasmin activity in ewe bulk milk. J Dairy Sci, 90(6): 2767–2772. doi: 10.3168/jds.2006-691.
  • Damm, M., Holm, C., Blaabjerg, M., Bro, N.M., Schhwarz, D. (2017). Differential somatic cell count- A novel method for routine mastitis screening in the frame of Dairy Herd improvement testing programs. J Dairy Sci, 100(6): 4926-4940. doi: 10.3168/jds.2016-12409.
  • Deb, R., Kumar, A., Chakraborty, S., Verma, A.K., Tiwari, R., Dhama, K. (2013). Trends in diagnosis and control of bovine mastitis: A review, Pak J Biol Sci, 16(23): 1653-1661.
  • Geary, U.N., Lopez-Villalobos, B., O’Brien, D., Garrick, J., Shalloo, L. (2013). Meta-analyses to investigate relationships between somatic cell count and raw milk composition, cheddar cheese processing characteristics and cheese composition. Ir J Agric Food Res, 52(2): 119-133. stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/23631025
  • Geary, U.N., Lopez-Villalobos, B., O’Brien, D., Garrick, J., Shalloo, L. (2014). Estimating the impact of somatic cell count on the value of milk utilising parameters obtained from the publishing literature. J Dairy Res, 81(2): 223-232. doi: 10.1017/S0022029914000053.
  • Hachana, Y., Paape, M.J. (2012). Physical and chemical characteristics of yoghurt produced from whole milk with different level of somatic cell count. Int J Food Sci Nutr, 63(3): 303-309. doi: 10.3109/09637486.2011.627839.
  • Hunt, K.M., Williams, J.E., Shafii, B., Hunt, M.K., Mehre, R., Ting, R., McGuire, M.K., McGuire, M.A. (2013). Mastitis is associated with increased free fatty acids, somatic cell count, and interleukin-8 concentrationsin human milk. Breastfeed Med, 8(1):105-110. doi: 10.1089/bfm.2011.0141.
  • Jimenez-Granado, R., Sanchez-Rodriguez, M., Arce, C., Rodriguez-Estevez, V. (2014). Factors affecting somatic cell count in dairy goats: a review. Span J Agric Res, 12(1):133-150. doi: 10.5424/sjar/2014121-3803.
  • Kelly, A.L., Fox, P.F. (2006). Indigenous enzymes in milk: a synopsis of future research requirements. Int Dairy J, 16(6): 707–715. doi: 10.1016/j.idairyj.2005.10.018.
  • Kumar, P., Sharma, N., Ranjan, R., Kumar, S., Bhat, Z.F., Jeong, D.K. (2013). Perspective of membrane technology in dairy industry: a review. Asian-Autralas J Anim Sci, 26(9): 1347-1358. doi: 10.5713/ajas.2013.13082.
  • Larsen, L.B., Wium, H., Benfeldt, C., Heegaard, C.W., Ardo, Y., Qvist, K.B., Petersen, T.E., (2000). Bovine milk procathepsin D: presence and activity in heated milk and in extracts of rennet-free UF-Feta cheese. Int Dairy J, 10(1-2): 67–73. doi: 10.1016/S0958-6946(00)00020-0.
  • Leitner, G., Lavon, Y., Matzrafi, Z., Benun, O., Bezman, D., Merin ,U. (2016). Somatic cell counts, chemical composition and coagulation properties of goat and sheep bulk tank milk. Int Dairy J, 58:9-13. doi: 10.1016/j.idairyj.2015.11.004
  • Le Marechal, C., Thierry, R., Vautor, E., Le Loir, Y. (2011). Mastitis impact on technological properties of milk and quality of milk products. A review. Dairy Sci Technol, 91(3): 247-282. doi: 10.1007/s13594-011-0009-6.
  • Le Roux, Y., Francois, L., Fatima, M., (2003). Polymorphonuclear proteolytic activity and milk composition change. Vet Res, 34(5): 629–645. doi: 10.1051/vetres:2003021
  • Li, N., Richoux, R., Boutinaud, M., Martin, P., Gagnaire, V. (2014). Role of somatic cells on dairy processes and products: a review. Dairy Sci. Technol, 94(6): 517-538. doi: 10.1007/s13594-014-0176-3.
  • Li, N., Richoux, R., Perruchot, M.H., Boutinoud, M., Mayol, J.F., Gagnaire, V. (2015). Flow cytometry approach to quantify the viability of milk somatic cell counts after various physico-chemical treatments. pLOs One, 10(12): e0146071. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0146071.
  • Li, N., Richoux, R., Leconte, N., Bevialcqua, C., Maillard, M.B., Parayre, S., Frogearis, L.A., Warlouzel, J., Leclair, E.M., Denis, C., Martin, P., Gagnaire, V. (2017). Somatic cell recovery by microfiltration technologies: A novel strategy to studt the actual impact of somatic cells on cheese matrix. Int Dairy Sci, 65: 5-13. doi: 10.1016/jidairyj.2016.09.003.
  • Lippolis, J.D., Reinhardt, T.A. (2005). Proteomic survey of bovine neutrophils. Vet Immunol Immunopathol, 103(1-2):53-65. doi: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2004.08.019.
  • Liu, H., Wei, F., Wei, Y., Dong, J., Cao, C. (2012). Effects of somatic cell count on low-fat Mozerella cheese structure. Adv Mater Res, 393-395: 692-695. doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.393-395.692.
  • Marino, R., Considine, T., Sevi, A., McSweeney, P.L.H., Kelly, A.L. (2005). Contribution of proteolytic activity associated with somatic cells in milk to cheese ripening. Int Dairy J, 15(10): 1026–1033. doi: 10.1016/j.idairyj.2004.10.006.
  • Murphy, S.C., Martin, N.H., Barbano, D.M., Wiedmann, M. (2016). Influence of raw milk quality on processed dairy products: How do raw milk quality test results relate to product quality and yield? J Dairy Sci, 99(12): 10128-10149. doi: 10.3168/jds.2016-11172.
  • Nyman, A.K., Persson Waller, K., Bennedsgaard, T.W., Larsen, T., Emanuelson, U. (2014). Associations of udder-health indicators with cow factors and with intramammary infection in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci, 97(9): 5459-5473. doi: 10.3168/jds.2013-7885.
  • More, S.J., Clegg, T.A., Lynch, P.J., O’Grady, L. (2013). The effect of somatic cell count data adjustment and interpretation, as outlined in European Union legislation, on herd eligibility to supply raw milk for processing of dairy products. J Dairy Sci, 96(6):3671-3681. doi: 10.3168/jds.2012-6182.
  • Oikonomou, G., Bicalho, M.L., Meria, E., Rossi, R.E., Foditsch, C., Machado, V.S. (2014). Microbiota of cow’s milk; distinguishing healthy, sub-clinically and clinically diseased quarters. PLOs One, 9(1): e85904. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0085904.
  • Olechnowicz, J., Jaskowski, J.M. (2012). Somatic cell count in cow’s bulk tank milk. J Vet Med Sci, 74(6): 681-686. doi: 10.1292/jvms.11-0506.
  • Oliveira, C.A.F., Fernandes, A.M., Neto, O.C.C., Fonseca, L.F.L., Silva, E.O.T., Balian, S.C. (2002). Composition and sensory evaluation of whole yogurt produced from milk of different somatic cell counts. Aust J Dairy Technol, 57(3): 192-196.
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  • Pilla, R., Malvisi, M., Snel, G., Schwarz, G., König, S., Czerny, C.P., Piccinini, R. (2013). Differential cell count as an alternative method to diagnose dairy cow mastitis. J Dairy Sci, 96(3):1653-1660. doi:10.3168jds.2012-6298.
  • Pilla, R., Schwarz, D., König, S., Piccinini, R. (2012). Microscopic differential cell counting to identify inflammatory reactions in dairy cow quarter milk samples. J Dairy Sci, 95(8):4410-4420. doi: 10.3168/jds.2012-5331.
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SOMATİK HÜCRELER VE ENDOJEN ENZİMLERİNİN SÜT TEKNOLOJİSİNDEKİ ÖNEMİ

Yıl 2017, Cilt 42, Sayı 6, 763 - 772, 15.12.2017

Öz

Çiğ sütte baskın hücre tipi olarak yer alan somatik hücreler makrofajlar, polimorfonükleer nötrofil hücreleri, lenfositler ve epitel hücreler olmak üzere dört temel hücre çeşidinden oluşurlar. Sütte bulunan somatik hücre sayısı meme sağlığı ve süt kalitesinin belirlenmesinde önemli bir gösterge olarak kullanılmaktadır. Yüksek somatik hücre sayısının peynir, yoğurt gibi süt ürünlerinde etkisi olumsuz olarak tanımlanmakta ve ürünlerin kalitesini düşürdüğü belirtilmektedir. Ancak son yıllarda somatik hücrelerin süt ürünlerinin özellikle peynirin teknolojik özelliklerine olumlu etkileri de olabileceği gösterilmiş, son ürün kalitesini endojen enzimleri aracılığıyla iyileştirdikleri belirlenmiştir. Katepsin B, D, G ve elastaz kazeine karşı aktivite gösteren somatik hücre kaynaklı önemli proteazlardır. Bu enzimlerin aktiviteleri somatik hücre sayısının artışına bağlı olarak artmaktadır. Bu hücrelerin ve endojen enzimlerinin süt ürünleri üzerindeki etkisini mastitis etmenlerinden bağımsız olarak araştırmak amacıyla somatik hücrelerin sütten izolasyonunu ve konsantrasyonunu sağlayan çeşitli yöntemler geliştirilmiştir. Sağlıklı hayvandan elde edilen süte katılan somatik hücrelerin peynirde teknolojik parametreleri olumsuz etkilemediği ve endojen enzimleri vasıtasıyla proteolizi artırdığı görülmüştür.

Kaynakça

  • Albenzio, M., Caroprese, M., Santillo, A., Marino, R., Taibi, L., Sevi, A. (2004). Effects of somatic cell count and stage of lactation on the plasmin activity and cheese making properties of ewe milk. J Dairy Sci, 87(3): 533-542, doi: 103168/jds.S0022-0302(04)73194-X
  • Albenzio, M., Santillo, A., Caroprese, M., D’Angelo F., Marino, R., Sevi, A. (2009). Role of endogenous enzymes in proteolysis of sheep milk. J Dairy Sci, 92(1): 79–86, doi: 10.3168/jds.2008-1439.
  • Albenzio, M., Santillo, A., Caroprese, M., Ruggieri, D., Ciliberti, M., Sevi, A. (2012). Immune competence of the mammary gland as affected by somatic cell and pathogenic bacteria in ewes with subclinical mastitis. J Dairy Sci, 95(7): 3877-3887. doi: 10.3168/jds.2012-5357.
  • Albenzio, M., Santillo, A., Kelly, A.L., Caroprese, M., Marino, R., Sevi, A. (2015). Activities of indigenous proteolytic enzymes in caprine milk of different somatic cell counts. J Dairy Sci, 98: 7587-7594, doi: 10.3168/jds.2015-9762.
  • Bobbo, T., Cipolat-Gotet, C., Bitante, G., Ceccihinato, A. (2015). The nonlinear effect of somatic cell count on milk composition, coagulation properties, curd firmness modeling, cheese yield and curd nutrient recovery. J Dairy Sci, 99(7): 5104-5119, doi: 10.3168/jds.2015-10512.
  • Boland, F., O’Grady, L., More, S.J. (2013). Investigating a dilution effect between somatic cell count and milk yield and estimating milk production losses in Irish Dairy Cattle. J Dairy Sci, 96(3): 1477-1484. doi: 10.3168/jds.2012-6025.
  • Bonfatti, V., Tuzzato, M., Chiarot, G., Carnier, P. (2014). Variation in milk coagulation properties does not effect cheese yield and composition of model cheese. Int Dairy J, 39(1): 139-145. doi: 10.1016/j.idairyj.2014.06.004.
  • Caroprese, M., Marzano, A., Schena, L., Marino, R., Santillo, A., Albenzio, M. (2007). Contribution of macrophages to proteolysis and plasmin activity in ewe bulk milk. J Dairy Sci, 90(6): 2767–2772. doi: 10.3168/jds.2006-691.
  • Damm, M., Holm, C., Blaabjerg, M., Bro, N.M., Schhwarz, D. (2017). Differential somatic cell count- A novel method for routine mastitis screening in the frame of Dairy Herd improvement testing programs. J Dairy Sci, 100(6): 4926-4940. doi: 10.3168/jds.2016-12409.
  • Deb, R., Kumar, A., Chakraborty, S., Verma, A.K., Tiwari, R., Dhama, K. (2013). Trends in diagnosis and control of bovine mastitis: A review, Pak J Biol Sci, 16(23): 1653-1661.
  • Geary, U.N., Lopez-Villalobos, B., O’Brien, D., Garrick, J., Shalloo, L. (2013). Meta-analyses to investigate relationships between somatic cell count and raw milk composition, cheddar cheese processing characteristics and cheese composition. Ir J Agric Food Res, 52(2): 119-133. stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/23631025
  • Geary, U.N., Lopez-Villalobos, B., O’Brien, D., Garrick, J., Shalloo, L. (2014). Estimating the impact of somatic cell count on the value of milk utilising parameters obtained from the publishing literature. J Dairy Res, 81(2): 223-232. doi: 10.1017/S0022029914000053.
  • Hachana, Y., Paape, M.J. (2012). Physical and chemical characteristics of yoghurt produced from whole milk with different level of somatic cell count. Int J Food Sci Nutr, 63(3): 303-309. doi: 10.3109/09637486.2011.627839.
  • Hunt, K.M., Williams, J.E., Shafii, B., Hunt, M.K., Mehre, R., Ting, R., McGuire, M.K., McGuire, M.A. (2013). Mastitis is associated with increased free fatty acids, somatic cell count, and interleukin-8 concentrationsin human milk. Breastfeed Med, 8(1):105-110. doi: 10.1089/bfm.2011.0141.
  • Jimenez-Granado, R., Sanchez-Rodriguez, M., Arce, C., Rodriguez-Estevez, V. (2014). Factors affecting somatic cell count in dairy goats: a review. Span J Agric Res, 12(1):133-150. doi: 10.5424/sjar/2014121-3803.
  • Kelly, A.L., Fox, P.F. (2006). Indigenous enzymes in milk: a synopsis of future research requirements. Int Dairy J, 16(6): 707–715. doi: 10.1016/j.idairyj.2005.10.018.
  • Kumar, P., Sharma, N., Ranjan, R., Kumar, S., Bhat, Z.F., Jeong, D.K. (2013). Perspective of membrane technology in dairy industry: a review. Asian-Autralas J Anim Sci, 26(9): 1347-1358. doi: 10.5713/ajas.2013.13082.
  • Larsen, L.B., Wium, H., Benfeldt, C., Heegaard, C.W., Ardo, Y., Qvist, K.B., Petersen, T.E., (2000). Bovine milk procathepsin D: presence and activity in heated milk and in extracts of rennet-free UF-Feta cheese. Int Dairy J, 10(1-2): 67–73. doi: 10.1016/S0958-6946(00)00020-0.
  • Leitner, G., Lavon, Y., Matzrafi, Z., Benun, O., Bezman, D., Merin ,U. (2016). Somatic cell counts, chemical composition and coagulation properties of goat and sheep bulk tank milk. Int Dairy J, 58:9-13. doi: 10.1016/j.idairyj.2015.11.004
  • Le Marechal, C., Thierry, R., Vautor, E., Le Loir, Y. (2011). Mastitis impact on technological properties of milk and quality of milk products. A review. Dairy Sci Technol, 91(3): 247-282. doi: 10.1007/s13594-011-0009-6.
  • Le Roux, Y., Francois, L., Fatima, M., (2003). Polymorphonuclear proteolytic activity and milk composition change. Vet Res, 34(5): 629–645. doi: 10.1051/vetres:2003021
  • Li, N., Richoux, R., Boutinaud, M., Martin, P., Gagnaire, V. (2014). Role of somatic cells on dairy processes and products: a review. Dairy Sci. Technol, 94(6): 517-538. doi: 10.1007/s13594-014-0176-3.
  • Li, N., Richoux, R., Perruchot, M.H., Boutinoud, M., Mayol, J.F., Gagnaire, V. (2015). Flow cytometry approach to quantify the viability of milk somatic cell counts after various physico-chemical treatments. pLOs One, 10(12): e0146071. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0146071.
  • Li, N., Richoux, R., Leconte, N., Bevialcqua, C., Maillard, M.B., Parayre, S., Frogearis, L.A., Warlouzel, J., Leclair, E.M., Denis, C., Martin, P., Gagnaire, V. (2017). Somatic cell recovery by microfiltration technologies: A novel strategy to studt the actual impact of somatic cells on cheese matrix. Int Dairy Sci, 65: 5-13. doi: 10.1016/jidairyj.2016.09.003.
  • Lippolis, J.D., Reinhardt, T.A. (2005). Proteomic survey of bovine neutrophils. Vet Immunol Immunopathol, 103(1-2):53-65. doi: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2004.08.019.
  • Liu, H., Wei, F., Wei, Y., Dong, J., Cao, C. (2012). Effects of somatic cell count on low-fat Mozerella cheese structure. Adv Mater Res, 393-395: 692-695. doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.393-395.692.
  • Marino, R., Considine, T., Sevi, A., McSweeney, P.L.H., Kelly, A.L. (2005). Contribution of proteolytic activity associated with somatic cells in milk to cheese ripening. Int Dairy J, 15(10): 1026–1033. doi: 10.1016/j.idairyj.2004.10.006.
  • Murphy, S.C., Martin, N.H., Barbano, D.M., Wiedmann, M. (2016). Influence of raw milk quality on processed dairy products: How do raw milk quality test results relate to product quality and yield? J Dairy Sci, 99(12): 10128-10149. doi: 10.3168/jds.2016-11172.
  • Nyman, A.K., Persson Waller, K., Bennedsgaard, T.W., Larsen, T., Emanuelson, U. (2014). Associations of udder-health indicators with cow factors and with intramammary infection in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci, 97(9): 5459-5473. doi: 10.3168/jds.2013-7885.
  • More, S.J., Clegg, T.A., Lynch, P.J., O’Grady, L. (2013). The effect of somatic cell count data adjustment and interpretation, as outlined in European Union legislation, on herd eligibility to supply raw milk for processing of dairy products. J Dairy Sci, 96(6):3671-3681. doi: 10.3168/jds.2012-6182.
  • Oikonomou, G., Bicalho, M.L., Meria, E., Rossi, R.E., Foditsch, C., Machado, V.S. (2014). Microbiota of cow’s milk; distinguishing healthy, sub-clinically and clinically diseased quarters. PLOs One, 9(1): e85904. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0085904.
  • Olechnowicz, J., Jaskowski, J.M. (2012). Somatic cell count in cow’s bulk tank milk. J Vet Med Sci, 74(6): 681-686. doi: 10.1292/jvms.11-0506.
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Ayrıntılar

Konular Fen
Diğer ID GD17072
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Elif ÖZER>
EGE ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Türkiye


Ayşe Sibel AKALIN>
EGE ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Türkiye


Harun KESENKAŞ>
EGE ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0003-0837-1183
Türkiye


Gülfem ÜNAL>
EGE ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-1999-1292
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 15 Aralık 2017
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2017, Cilt 42, Sayı 6

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @derleme { gida332725, journal = {Gıda}, issn = {1300-3070}, eissn = {1309-6273}, address = {}, publisher = {Gıda Teknolojisi Derneği}, year = {2017}, volume = {42}, number = {6}, pages = {763 - 772}, title = {SOMATİK HÜCRELER VE ENDOJEN ENZİMLERİNİN SÜT TEKNOLOJİSİNDEKİ ÖNEMİ}, key = {cite}, author = {Özer, Elif and Akalın, Ayşe Sibel and Kesenkaş, Harun and Ünal, Gülfem} }
APA Özer, E. , Akalın, A. S. , Kesenkaş, H. & Ünal, G. (2017). SOMATİK HÜCRELER VE ENDOJEN ENZİMLERİNİN SÜT TEKNOLOJİSİNDEKİ ÖNEMİ . Gıda , 42 (6) , 763-772 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/gida/issue/31926/332725
MLA Özer, E. , Akalın, A. S. , Kesenkaş, H. , Ünal, G. "SOMATİK HÜCRELER VE ENDOJEN ENZİMLERİNİN SÜT TEKNOLOJİSİNDEKİ ÖNEMİ" . Gıda 42 (2017 ): 763-772 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/gida/issue/31926/332725>
Chicago Özer, E. , Akalın, A. S. , Kesenkaş, H. , Ünal, G. "SOMATİK HÜCRELER VE ENDOJEN ENZİMLERİNİN SÜT TEKNOLOJİSİNDEKİ ÖNEMİ". Gıda 42 (2017 ): 763-772
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - SOMATİK HÜCRELER VE ENDOJEN ENZİMLERİNİN SÜT TEKNOLOJİSİNDEKİ ÖNEMİ AU - ElifÖzer, Ayşe SibelAkalın, HarunKesenkaş, GülfemÜnal Y1 - 2017 PY - 2017 N1 - DO - T2 - Gıda JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 763 EP - 772 VL - 42 IS - 6 SN - 1300-3070-1309-6273 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2017 ER -
EndNote %0 Gıda SOMATİK HÜCRELER VE ENDOJEN ENZİMLERİNİN SÜT TEKNOLOJİSİNDEKİ ÖNEMİ %A Elif Özer , Ayşe Sibel Akalın , Harun Kesenkaş , Gülfem Ünal %T SOMATİK HÜCRELER VE ENDOJEN ENZİMLERİNİN SÜT TEKNOLOJİSİNDEKİ ÖNEMİ %D 2017 %J Gıda %P 1300-3070-1309-6273 %V 42 %N 6 %R %U
ISNAD Özer, Elif , Akalın, Ayşe Sibel , Kesenkaş, Harun , Ünal, Gülfem . "SOMATİK HÜCRELER VE ENDOJEN ENZİMLERİNİN SÜT TEKNOLOJİSİNDEKİ ÖNEMİ". Gıda 42 / 6 (Aralık 2017): 763-772 .
AMA Özer E. , Akalın A. S. , Kesenkaş H. , Ünal G. SOMATİK HÜCRELER VE ENDOJEN ENZİMLERİNİN SÜT TEKNOLOJİSİNDEKİ ÖNEMİ. GIDA. 2017; 42(6): 763-772.
Vancouver Özer E. , Akalın A. S. , Kesenkaş H. , Ünal G. SOMATİK HÜCRELER VE ENDOJEN ENZİMLERİNİN SÜT TEKNOLOJİSİNDEKİ ÖNEMİ. Gıda. 2017; 42(6): 763-772.
IEEE E. Özer , A. S. Akalın , H. Kesenkaş ve G. Ünal , "SOMATİK HÜCRELER VE ENDOJEN ENZİMLERİNİN SÜT TEKNOLOJİSİNDEKİ ÖNEMİ", Gıda, c. 42, sayı. 6, ss. 763-772, Ara. 2017

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