International Review of Economics and Management (IREM) is an international, refereed academic journal, serving as a platform for debate in all fields of economics, management, finance and business. A principal objective is to promote pluralism in the covered fields and to provide fast access to high-quality papers. With this purpose, it follows “Open-Access” policy: all journal content is freely available. The research submitted for publication could be theoretical or empirical in nature. Survey papers are also welcome, provided that they have required quality. The journal is published quarterly. Any paper submitted to International Review of Economics and Management should NOT be under consideration for publication at another journal. All submitted papers must also represent original work, and should fully reference and describe all prior work. Manuscripts could be submitted in English or Turkish. In line with our “Open Access” policy, we do not require any submission fee for publication.